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Aviation Technician - AIRC 113

Theory of Flight

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Properties of the Atmosphere

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08/21/2016 The surrounding air of the Earth
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Layers of the atmosphere

• There are 4 layers


in the atmosphere
• They are the:
Troposphere
Stratosphere
Mesosphere
Thermosphere

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Troposphere

• This is the layer that is


closest to the surface of
the earth, where people can
live un-assisted

• It’s elevation ranges from 0


to 10 km

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Stratosphere

• This layer sits on top of the troposphere


• It’s elevation ranges from 10 km to around
25 km
• This layer contains
the ozone layer,
which protects us
from harmful
sunlight

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Mesosphere

• This layer is above the stratosphere


• It’s elevation ranges from 25 to 100 km

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Thermosphere

• This is the highest layer


of the atmosphere
• It’s height ranges from
100 to 400 km
• This is where most
small meteorites burn
up and is also the part
of the atmosphere that
the northern lights
occur (aurora borealis)
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Composition of Air

• There are many different


types of gasses in the
atmosphere
• They include nitrogen,
oxygen, argon, carbon
dioxide and other noble
gasses
• The gas that is most
abundant is nitrogen

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Pressure and Atmosphere

• Pressure is the force differential between two


points.

• The constant force that surrounds the earth due


to the weight of the air around it is called
atmospheric pressure.

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Pressure and Atmosphere

• Thus, a column of air


one square inch in
section, extending from
the earth's surface to
the extremities of the
atmosphere, weighs
14.7 LB and so exerts
this pressure on one
square inch of the
earth's surface.
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Pressure and Atmosphere

• Types of Pressures

– Differential pressure is pressure measured


between two different points.

– Absolute pressure is pressure measured or


referenced against a perfect vacuum.

– Gauge pressure is pressure measured or


referenced against the atmospheric pressure
around the gauge.
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Pressure and Atmosphere

• Types of Pressures
– Static pressure is the air pressure around the
aircraft at the altitude it is operating at,
referenced to a perfect vacuum.
• Pressure is measured in many units, depending on
country and application
– PSI, BAR, Pa, In Hg, mm Hg, Torr, In H2O etc
– Static pressure is measured in In Hg in the
imperial system or kPa in the metric system.
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Torricelli’s Law

• Torricelli's law describes the parting speed of a jet


of water, based on the distance below the surface
at which the jet starts, assuming no air resistance,
viscosity, or other hindrance to the fluid flow.

• This diagram shows


several such jets,
vertically aligned, leaving
the reservoir horizontally.

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Torricelli’s Law

• In this case, the jets have an envelope (a concept


also due to Torricelli) which is a line descending at
45 degrees from the water's surface over the jets.
• Each jet reaches farther than any other jet at the
point where it touches
the envelope, which is
at a distance of twice
the depth of the jet's
source.

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Torricelli’s Law

• The depth at which two jets cross is the sum of


their source depths.
• Every jet (even if not leaving horizontally) takes
a parabolic path .

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Temperature

• Heat is a form of energy that causes molecules to


“shake” within a material.

• The amount of shake is measured in terms of


temperature.

• So, temperature is a measurement of the kinetic


energy of molecules.

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Temperature

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Temperature

• Air temperature decreases by 1.98o C for every


1,000 ft increase in altitude
(this is a lapse rate) from
15o C at mean sea-level to
-56.5o C at 36,089 ft.
• Above this altitude to approx.
60,000’ the temperature
is assumed to remain
constant at -56.5o C.
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Temperature

• Adiabatic Lapse rate


– When air heats up it rises.
– As it rises it expands due to the air pressure going down
• So the air is doing work, but gains or loses no heat
– Internal energy is lost doing this, so the air temperature
drops
• The process of expanding or contracting without
exchanging heat is called Adiabatic
• Air is a poor conductor of heat, so heat transfer
from surrounding air is negligible.
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Temperature

Inversion
• An inversion occurs when there is a deviation from
the normal lapse rate
• This occurs most nights
– the ground cools off at night and so the air in contact
with the ground cools
– The air aloft stays at the same temperature
– So as you climb the temperature goes up for a distance
before the normal lapse rate “takes over”

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Air Density

• Density of air is affected by:

– What is in the air


– Temperature
– Pressure

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Boyle’s Law

• Boyle’s Law is one of the laws of physics that


concerns the behavior of gasses

• When a gas is under pressure it takes up less


space
– The higher the pressure
the smaller the volume
– The lower the pressure the
larger the volume
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Boyle’s Law

• Boyle’s Law tells us about the relationship between


the volume of a gas and its pressure at constant
temperature

• The Law states that pressure is inversely


proportional to volume.

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Boyle’s Law

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Charles’ Law

• Charles’ Law tells us about the relationship


between the volume of a gas and its temperature
at constant pressure

• Charles’ Law states that volume is proportional to


temperature.

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Charles’ Law

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Dalton’s Law

• Dalton’s Law tells us about the relationship


between the non-reacting components of a gas

• Also known as Dalton’s law of partial pressures

• The Law states that total pressure of the gas is


equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the
individual gases

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Dalton’s Law

• Air is made up of many gases


– 78.1% nitrogen, 20.9% oxygen, .9% argon, the rest
being small amounts of other gases (water vapour,
carbon dioxide etc)
– So, at standard atmospheric conditions (14.7PSI, 15C)
• Nitrogen will have a pressure of 78%*14.7 = 11.5 PSI
• Oxygen will have a pressure of 20.9%*14.7 = 3.1 PSI

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Dalton’s Law

• So if you know the total air pressure and the


proportions of its components you can calculate
the partial pressures of each component
• Or if you know the partial pressures you can
calculate the total pressure

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Density effects on performance

• As altitude increases air density decreases (the air


molecules are further apart)

• Temperature also effects density

• We combine the effects of height and temperature


to arrive at “Density Altitude”. This makes it easier
to figure out how our aircraft will perform

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Density effects on performance

• So what are the effects on aircraft performance?

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Density effects on performance

• Engine

– Decreased density means less air goes into the


engine

– Every engine intake stroke has a fixed volume

– Less air → less power

– So take-off distances go up

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Density effects on performance

• Airframe
– Decreased density means propeller thrust &
wing efficiency go down as there are fewer air
molecules to interact with.
– True airspeed/ground speed go up with lower
air densities, so more runway is required to
takeoff/land
– Sometimes aircraft weight is limited at higher
density altitudes to prevent pilots from getting
into trouble
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Humidity

• Air is seldom completely dry


• Water in the air is referred to
as humidity
• That water can be in the form of vapour or small
droplets in suspension (fog)
• Clouds are made of fog
• Water (H2O) weighs much less than oxygen (O2)
so higher humidity effects the performance the
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Humidity

• Two types of Humidity:


– Absolute; the actual amount of moisture in the
air. Higher temperature air can hold more
moisture
– Relative; the amount of
moisture actually in the
air relative to the
maximum amount it
could carry

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Humidity

• Relative humidity (R.H.) has dramatic effects on


performance
– At 75% R.H. the air is holding 75% of the
maximum amount of water it can carry
– But water vapour
weighs 62% of what air
does
– So air density goes
down considerably
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Humidity

• Dewpoint is the temperature of the air when it


reaches the state where it cannot carry any more
moisture

• So it is the point when 100% R.H. is reached as


temperature drops

• At this time moisture will begin to condense out of


the air as rain/snow

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Humidity

• Water/water vapour do not burn!

– Effective air/fuel ratio goes down

– The mixture effectively gets richer

Piston engines can lose up to 12% of their


power

Turbine engines can lose up to 3%


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Standard Day

• The establishment of “A STANDARD DAY” was


necessary to set a reference for comparisons

• An aircraft will perform


differently at different density
altitudes (the location can be
the same, barometric pressure,
temperature & humidity are
constantly changing)

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Standard Day

• A Standard Day was defined by ICAO as 14.7


lbf/in2 and is equal to 29.921 in Hg or 1013.25
mbar at 590 F or 150 C at the equator.

• When all aerodynamic


computations are related to
this standard meaningful
comparison of aircraft
performance data are possible.

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Bernoulli and his Principal of Airflow

• Within any confined system, total energy remains


constant. If one component of energy increases,
there must be a corresponding decrease in other
components.

• Total pressure within the


confined system is the
summation of static and
dynamic pressure.

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Bernoulli and his Principal of Airflow

Venturi tube
• The volume of air passing any given point per unit
of time is equal throughout the tube.
• This is known as MASS FLOW RATE
Slow velocity of air with As air velocity increases, static
equal static and dynamic pressure decreases, dynamic
pressures pressure increases

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Bernoulli and his Principal of Airflow

Airfoil

• Lets take half of that venturi tube and see what


happens when we move air across the shape

• Lets assume there is no upper physical limit of the


tube

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Bernoulli and his Principal of Airflow

Airfoil
• The flow closest to the airfoil conforms to the
shape of the airfoil while the air farthest from the
airfoil remains horizontal and acts like the upper
surface of the venturi

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Bernoulli and his Principal of Airflow

How is most of the lift produced?


• Air over the bottom travels slightly further
• So there is a small velocity increase and pressure
decrease Low Pressure Area
Static = 1 = 10
Static = 5= 10
Dynamic = 9
Dynamic = 5
Static = 4 = 10
Dynamic = 6

High Pressure Area Static = 3 = 10


Dynamic = 7

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Newton’s Laws of Motion

• Law of Inertia

• Law of Acceleration

• Law of Action and Reaction

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Newton’s Laws of Motion

#1 Law of Inertia

This law states that a body at rest will remain at


rest, and a body in motion will remain in motion
until acted upon by an outside force.

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Newton’s Laws of Motion

#1 Law of Inertia – practical examples

• Rotor system prior to start (remains at rest)

• Engine overcomes resistance to movement


(outside force)

• Rotor continues to spin after shutdown (remains in


motion)

• Rotor slows due to air resistance (Drag or outside


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Newton’s Laws of Motion

#2 Law of Acceleration
The force required to produce a change in the
motion of a body is directly proportional to its
mass and the rate of change in its velocity.

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Newton’s Laws of Motion

#2 Law of Acceleration

• Acceleration is a change in velocity with respect to


time. It can be either an increase or decrease in
velocity

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Newton’s Laws of Motion

#3 Law of Action and Reaction


For every action, there is an equal and opposite
reaction
• If an interaction occurs between two bodies, equal
forces in opposite directions will be imparted to
each body

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Newton’s Laws of Motion

#3 Law of Action and Reaction


• Because wings typically fly with “an angle of
attack” the air that gets deflected downward also
generates some lift

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Airfoils

An airfoil is the 2D cross-section shape of the wing,


which creates sufficient lift with minimal drag

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Airfoils

Typical
streamlines

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Airfoils

Angle of Attack (AOA)


Relative
Wind  chor
d lin
e
V

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Airfoils

Critical Angle
• The AOA where
airflow separates
and lift decreases
rapidly.
• Also called stall
angle.
• Always occurs at
the same angle for
a given aircraft.
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Airfoils

Stall

Video:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WFcW5-1NP60
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Airfoils

Problems in the stall


• If the wing stalls over the whole span the aircraft
has no roll control (the ailerons stall first!)
• To address this we design in “Wash Out”

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Airfoils

Problems in the stall


• Some wings stall along the entire trailing edge
naturally.
• Stall strips are
sometimes added
to the leading edge
near the wing root
to “trip” the stall
early and improve
stalling behavior.
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Airfoils

Center of Pressure
• Lift is acting over the whole surface of an airfoil
• This is difficult to work with, so we “add up” all the
little contributions over the surface of the wing and
come up with single
force vector
representing the
total lift produced.

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Airfoils

Laminar flow & Turbulent flow


• Laminar where airflow is very smooth, not
interfering with each other
• Turbulent where airflow is not smooth (“whirlpools”
in flow)
– Can be turbulent
attached or detached
• Detached flow means
the wing is at least
partially stalled.
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Airfoils

Laminar flow & Turbulent flow


• Why?
– At the wing surface a “boundary” layer forms
once movement begins
– Closer to the surface air velocity is lower

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Airfoils

Airflow separation – how can we control it?


• It depends on what/how it is happening.

• To separate section of the


wing span , we use fences.

• Vortex generators can be


added to “suck away” some
of the boundary layer and
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Airfoils

Airflow separation – how can we control it?

• Boundary layer suction

• Blown flap

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Airfoils

Airflow separation – how can we control it?

• Slots

• Slats

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Historical Airfoils

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Historical Airfoils

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The Bottom Line

In normal flight a light airplane derives its forward


motion from the thrust provided by the engine-driven
propeller.

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The Bottom Line

If the aircraft is maintaining a constant height,


direction and speed then the thrust force will balance
the air's resistance (drag) to the aircraft's motion
through it.

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The Bottom Line

The forward motion creates an airflow over the wings


and the dynamic pressure changes within this airflow
create an upward acting force or lift.

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The Bottom Line

This will balance the force due to gravity – weight –


acting downward.

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The Bottom Line

Thus in normal un-accelerated flight the four basic


forces acting on the aircraft are in equilibrium.

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The Bottom Line

The pilot is able to change the direction and


magnitude of these forces and thereby control the
speed, flight path and performance of the airplane.

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The Bottom Line

An aircraft in flight is
'airborne' and its velocity
is relative to the
surrounding air, not the
Earth's surface

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The Bottom Line

When the aircraft


encounters a sudden
change in the ambient air
velocity — a transient gust —
inertia comes into play and
momentarily maintains the
aircraft velocity relative to
the Earth or – more
correctly – relative to space.

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The Bottom Line

This momentarily changes


airspeed and imparts other
forces to the aircraft. (The
fact that inertia over-rides
the physics of aerodynamics
is sometimes a cause of
confusion).
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Direction of forces

The direction of the forces


are relative to the flight
path.

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Direction of forces

Although we said that lift


acts vertically upward with
thrust and drag acting
horizontally, this is only
true when an aircraft is in
straight and level flight.

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Direction of forces

In fact, lift acts


perpendicular to both the
flight path and the lateral
axis of the aircraft, drag
acts parallel to the flight
path and thrust usually
acts parallel to the
longitudinal axis of the aircraft. 79
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The Lift Equation

Aerodynamicists have found it convenient to resolve


that resultant force into just two components:
• The part acting backward along the flight path is
drag
• The part acting perpendicular to the flight path is
lift.

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The Lift Equation

Is there a way to calculate the lift and drag?

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The Lift Equation

The amount of lift, and drag, generated by the wings


is chiefly dependent on:
• the angle at which the wings meet the airflow or flight path,
• the shape of the wings particularly in cross section – the
airfoil,
• the density (i.e. mass per unit volume) of the air,
• the speed of the free stream airflow i.e. flight airspeed,
• and the wing plan-form surface area.

Lift  CL 1
2
 2
v A
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The Lift Equation

Lift  CL 1
2
 2
v A
• The values in the expression are:
•  (the Greek letter rho) is the density of the air, in
kg/m³
• v² is the flight speed in meters per second
• A is the wing area in square meters
• CL is a dimensionless quantity – the lift coefficient.
Mostly depends on the ANGLE of Attack and the
SHAPE of the wing. 83
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The Lift Equation

Angle of Attack (AOA) and the


lift coefficient
• The diagram shows a typical
CL vs. angle of attack curve
for a light airplane not
equipped with flaps or
high-lift devices.
• From it you can read the
CL value for each “AOA”,
e.g. at 10°the ratio for
conversion of dynamic
pressure to lift is 0.9
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The Lift Equation

What effect does decreasing speed have?


• As speed is decreased in straight and level flight
the amount of lift produced must remain constant.
• The only way to do that is to increase the lift
coefficient
• “Typically” we do not change the shape or area of
the wing, so the angle of attack must be increased
to do increase the CL
Lift  CL 1 v 2 A
2
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The Lift Equation

How?
• The pilot adjusts control pressures to apply an
aerodynamic force to the aircraft's tailplane ( or
some other control surface)
• This as the effect of rotating the aircraft a degree
or so about its lateral axis, pitching the aircraft
nose up and increasing the AOA.

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The Drag Equation

The drag equation is similar to the lift equation with


the exception that we have a DRAG COEFFICIENT
rather than a LIFT COEFFICIENT.
Similar to CL depending on “AOA”, CD depends on
the SQUARE of the “AOA”.

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The Drag Equation

Drag  CD 1
2
 2
v A
• The values in the expression are:
•  (the Greek letter rho) is the density of the air, in
kg/m³
• v² is the flight speed in meters per second
• A is the wing area in square meters
• CD is a dimensionless quantity – the drag
coefficient. Mostly depends on the ANGLE of
attack and the SHAPE of the wing. 88
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The Drag Equation

Without the needed thrust, weight has more


influence than lift and pulls the airplane toward the
ground. Helping the force of weight is drag.
Drag is present at all times and can be defined as
the force which opposes thrust, or, better yet, it
is the force which opposes all motion through
the atmosphere and is parallel to the direction of
the relative wind

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The Drag Equation

INDUCED DRAG: Newtonian & Pressure Induced


• Induced drag is the unavoidable by-product of lift
and increases as the angle of attack increases
• Newtonian or DYNAMIC
DRAG is caused by the
INERTIA of AIR.
• Pressure Induced Drag
occurs when the “AOA”
is too large and the air
flow becomes turbulent.
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The Drag Equation

Parasite Drag
• Parasite drag is all drag created that is not
involved in creating lift.
• Skin-friction drag is caused by the friction between
outer surfaces of the aircraft and the air through
which it moves. It will be
found on all surfaces of
the aircraft: wing, tail,
engine, landing gear,
and fuselage .
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The Drag Equation

Parasite Drag
• Form drag is due to the shape of the object
moving through the air

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The Drag Equation

Interference Drag
• Interference drag is generated by the mixing of
airflow streamlines between airframe components

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Putting it all together

Lift and Drag


The LIFT/DRAG ratio can be found by taking the lift
coefficient and dividing by the drag coefficient.

CL
L / D ratio 
CD

The L/D ratio is a measure of EFFICIENCY!!!


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L/D Ratio

What good is all this for aircraft design?

The lower the glide angle, and the greater the


distance that a plane can travel across the ground for
a given change in height.
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L/D Ratio

Because lift and drag are both aerodynamic forces,


we can think of the L/D ratio as an aerodynamic
efficiency factor for the aircraft.
Designers of gliders and designers of cruising aircraft
want a high L/D ratio to maximize the distance which
an aircraft can fly.
It is not enough to just design an aircraft to produce
enough lift to overcome weight.
The designer must also keep
the L/D ratio high to maximize
the range of the aircraft.
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Aspect Ratio

• Ratio between span & chord


– At a given speed higher aspect ratios have lower
drag and stalling speed
Issues:
– Higher aspect ratios
have structural
challenges, higher
parasitic drag, and
poor maneuverability.
– Large span aircraft
need special
facilities.
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Wing Tip Vortices

At the end of the wing we get air flow around the tip
from bottom to the top – this creates vortices.

They are strongest when the aircraft is flying slowly

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Wing Tip Vortices

Winglets are often used to reduce tip vortices


• They increase the aspect ratio of the wing without
increasing span.
• The surface acts like a “fence” preventing air
“leakage”
• The cant angle causes the winglet to produce
“thrust”

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Wing Tip Vortices

Other methods of reducing wing tip vortices include


tip tanks, “sharklets”& drooped (Hoerner) wing tips.

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Wing Planform & Taper

Planform is the shape of the wing when viewed from


above or below.

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Wing Planform & Taper

• Straight wings are most structurally efficient, and


have good stall behavior.
• Elliptical wings have the highest theoretical
efficiency, but are hard to make, have poor stall
characteristics.
• Tapered wings are structurally & aerodynamically
more efficient than a straight wing. Allows us to
approximate the performance of an elliptical wing
without the complexity.
• Swept wings have lower drag at high speeds, but
can handle badly near/in stalled flight, also require
high stiffness.
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Wing Planform & Taper

• Swing wings combine the advantages of straight


tapered & swept back wings

• Delta wing offers the advantages of a swept wing


with good structural efficiency & high strength

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Wing Planform & Taper

Taper – thickness
• Thicker at the root is:
• Stronger, lighter & more stiff
• allows for more fuel volume
• Improves CLmax
• increases low speed drag slightly
• at high speeds causes considerable transonic
drag, limiting speed

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Stalling behavior
r

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Stalling behavior

Stalls in a twin with one


engine inoperative lead
to roll or spin entry

– The propeller
slip stream delays
the stall

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Aircraft Axes

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Turning Flight

All aircraft turning flight is achieved by use of


differential lift.

For example:

– More lift on one wing than


the other results in a roll
around the longitudinal axis.

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Turning Flight

– This tilts the lift sideways


– The horizontal component
of that lift is what turns the
aircraft.
– Because the vertical
component is reduced
more total lift must be
created, so we need to
increase the angle of
attack, the pilot “pulls
back” a little in turns.
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Turning Flight

– However, more lift means


more induced drag on that
wing – resulting in adverse
yaw.
– Adverse yaw can be corrected
by rudder application
– Or Frise ailerons are used,
they create parasitic drag on
the up-going aileron to
compensate.
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Turning Flight

Greater angles of require greater lift so that:


– The vertical component of lift equals weight (to
maintain altitude)
– The horizontal component of lift equals centrifugal
force (for constant radius, coordinated turns)

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Turning Flight

Load factor (multiples of aircraft weight that the


wings support) increases with bank angle.
Stall speed increases
accordingly.
limit load
factor:

acrobatic 6G

Normal 3.8G

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Turning Flight

As bank angle increases, load factor increases


But as airspeed increases, rate of turn decreases
– In order to make a 3 degree per second turn at
500kts the aircraft would have to bank more than
50 degrees
– This gives an uncomfortable & possibly unsafe
load factor
This is why jet powered aircraft use a standard rate
turn is 1.5 degrees per second.

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Flight
Controls

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Flight Controls - Primary
• Motion About The Axis

Roll:( Lateral Control) (Lateral


Stability)
Motion about the “Longitudinal
Axis”
Controlled by "ailerons"
Pitch: (Longitudinal Control)
(longitudinal stability)
motion about the " Lateral Axis "
controlled by "Elevator "
Yaw: (Directional Control)
(Directional Stability).
Motion about the " Vertical Axis"
Controlled by "Rudder"
Flight Controls - Primary

Stability Stabilizing Axis Movement Control


Dynamic Factor
Longitudinal Horizontal Lateral Pitch Elevator
Stab

Directional Vertical Stab Vertical Yaw Rudder

Lateral Dihedral Angle Longitudinal Roll Aileron


Flight Controls - Primary
• Ailerons are hinged control surfaces
attached to the trailing edge of the wing
of a fixed-wing aircraft. The ailerons are
used to control the aircraft in roll. The
two ailerons are typically interconnected
so that one goes down when the other
goes up: the downgoing aileron
increases the lift on its wing while the
upgoing aileron reduces the lift on the
other wing, producing a rolling moment
about the aircraft's longitudinal axis.
The word aileron is French for "little
wing."
Flight Controls - Primary

Aileron drag:
To bank the aircraft, the
aileron on one wing goes
up, while the other goes
down, the down going
aileron gives greater lift
and more drag. Up going
aileron gives less lift and
less drag. Because of
this difference in drag an
aircraft has a tendency to
yaw in the opposite
direction of the bank.
Flight Controls - Primary

• Down going aileron is streamlined


into the wing, causing reduced
drag.Up going aileron his nose is
projected into the airflow below the
wing increasing drag and again
canceling the extra drag produced by
the down going aileron. Frise
Ailerons Cessna 100 series

• Up going aileron goes up a larger


amount than the down going aileron.
This gives up going aileron more
drag, which cancels the extra drag
produced by the down going aileron.
King Air 90 Differential Ailerons:
Flight Controls - Primary
• Elevators are control surfaces,
usually at the rear of an aircraft,
which control the aircraft's
orientation by changing the pitch of
the aircraft, and so also the angle
of attack of the wing. An increased
wing angle of attack will cause a
greater lift to be produced by the
profile of the wing, and a slowing
of the aircraft. A decreased angle
of attack will produce an increase
in speed (a dive). The elevators
may be the only pitch control
surface present (and are then
called a stabilator), or may be
hinged to a fixed or adjustable
surface called a stabilizer.
Flight Controls - Primary

• The rudder is usually


attached to the fin
(or vertical stabilizer)
which allows the
pilot to control yaw
in the vertical axis,
i.e. change the
horizontal direction
in which the nose is
pointing. The
rudder's direction is
manipulated with the
movement of foot
pedals by the pilot.
Flight Controls
Pitch Control

• Elevators

• Sole function is to change the angle of attack of the


airplane, which alters its speed, lift and drag.
Pitch Control
Pitch Control

• Stabilator

• All-movable tail
• Anti-servo tab

• Ruddervators

• Provides both longitudinal and directional stabilization


and control.
Lateral Or Roll Control

• Ailerons

• Rolling action produced is the primary method of lateral


control on most aircraft.
Lateral Or Roll Control
Directional Control

• Adverse aileron yaw

• The aileron that moves downward creates lift and


induced drag.

• Induced drag pulls the nose of the airplane around in the


direction opposite the way the airplane should turn.
Directional Control

• Rudder

• Rotates the airplane about its vertical axis (Yawing)

• Also provides a form of roll control because the


application of rudder causes yaw which will induce a
roll.
Directional Control
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Compound flight controls

Elevons – Elevators and ailerons combined

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Compound flight controls

Flaperons - combine flap and aileron functions

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sg0SndLjtfE
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Compound flight controls

Stabilator - combines horizontal stabilizer and


elevator function, also called an all-flying tail

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Compound flight controls

Ruddervators – combine rudder and elevator


functions

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Secondary flight controls - Trim devices

• Aircraft are not always “perfectly balanced” – this


can be caused by uneven fuel burn,
passengers/cargo moving.
• This requires small movements of the control
system to return the aircraft to “balance”.
• Small, simple aircraft use fixed ground adjustable
“tabs” to do this.

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Secondary flight controls - Trim tab

• As aircraft go faster
fixed tabs can no longer
do the job – the amount
of deflection changes
with airspeed.

• Adjustable tabs are


required.

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Secondary flight controls – balance tab

• At the same time control forces are increasing, so


the pilot finds it harder to move the controls.
• Balance tabs – are coupled to the primary control
surface by a rod, and move in the opposite
direction.
• In this way the tab generates a force that reduces
the one applied by the pilot to move the control.

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Secondary flight controls – servo tabs

• Servo tabs are similar in operation & appearance


to “regular” trim tabs – BUT
• Only the servo tab moves in response to the pilot’s
controls, airflow forces on the servo tab move the
primary control surface

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Secondary flight controls – anti-servo tabs

• Anti-servo tabs are similar in operation &


appearance to servo tabs – BUT
• They move in the same direction as the primary
control and increase the control forces

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Secondary flight controls – spring tabs

• Spring tabs are a form of servo tab, but with a


spring added.
• This spring holds the tab in line with the control at
low speeds, but “gives” under aerodynamic loads
at high speeds and provides “servo” function

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Auxiliary Lift devices

We want to land & take off at the lowest possible


speeds, so most aircraft have ways of increasing the
lift produced by the wing.

To do this the camber of the wing is normally


increased with flaps to increase the lift and drag for a
given angle of attack

Flaps are normally moved by an electric


motor/jackscrew or hydraulically.

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Auxiliary Lift devices

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Auxiliary Lift devices

• Plain flaps increase the camber of the wing,


increasing lift approx. 50%.

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Auxiliary Lift devices

• Split flaps increase the camber of the wing,


increasing lift approx. 60%, also increase drag
more than plain flaps

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Auxiliary Lift devices

• Slotted flaps increase the camber of the wing,


increasing lift approx. 65%, the slot injects high
speed air onto the upper surface and delays
airflow separation

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Auxiliary Lift devices

• Fowler flaps increase the area of the wing,


increasing lift approx. 90%

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Auxiliary Lift devices

• Double slotted Fowler flaps increase the area of


the wing, increasing lift approx. 100%

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Auxiliary Lift devices

• Trailing edge flaps sometimes are not enough so


leading edge devices are also used
• Slotted wing – has fixed slots in the wing
connecting the lower surface to the upper surface
increases lift 40%

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Auxiliary Lift devices

• Slatted wing – a smaller


airfoil shaped portion
forward of the leading edge,
can be fixed or moving,
increases lift 50-60%.

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Auxiliary Lift devices

• Krueger flapped wing – flap, hinged at the leading


edge, hinged at the
leading edge.

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Auxiliary Lift devices

Spoilers
• Sometimes we have too
much lift/not enough
drag.
• Flight spoilers are used
to decrease the lift and
increase the drag of an
aircraft, allowing it to
descend faster without
increasing airspeed.
• Also can be used to improve roll control when
deployed differentially.
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Auxiliary Lift devices

Spoilers
• Ground spoilers are
used to decrease the
lift and increase the
drag of an aircraft once
it lands
– preventing it
from taking off again
in wind gusts
– reducing
brake loads
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Auxiliary Lift devices

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Control surface balance

Control surfaces are typically static balanced, they


have a weight added forward of the hinge so that
they will sit “level” naturally.

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Control surface balance

If the controls “want” to deflect when disturbed by a


gust FLUTTER can occur.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=egDWh7jnNic

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Control surface balance

Controls get harder to move as airspeed increases,


so dynamic balances are added.
In smaller aircraft this is often done aerodynamically
with a horn.
Larger aircraft typically use
balance tabs.

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Stability

Stability is the tendency of an aircraft to maintain


straight & level flight without pilot input when it is
disturbed by the air around it.

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Stability

Static stability is the starting tendency of an aircraft


when disturbed.
• Positive static stability is when the tendency is to
go back to its starting attitude.
• Negative static stability is when the tendency is to
go further from the starting attitude.
• Neutral static stability is
when the tendency is to
stay at the new attitude.

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Stability

Dynamic stability is how an aircraft responds over


time to a disturbance.
Positive dynamic stability is when the oscillations
dampen out and stop over time.

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Stability

Negative dynamic stability is when the oscillations


get worse over time – avoid at all costs!

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Stability

Neutral dynamic stability is when the oscillations


stay the same over time.

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Stability

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Stability – how do we get it?

Logitudinal (pitch) stability


• The horizontal stabilizer generates lift in a
downward direction (it has a negative angle of
incidence).
• When the aircraft is pitched up by a disturbance
the AOA of the stabilizer
is reduced, lift is reduced
so the downforce on
the tail is reduced.
• This allows the aircraft
to pitch nose down to
the starting attitude.
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Stability – how do we get it?

Logitudinal (pitch) stability


• At the same time, the CG is forward of the CL
• So as wing AOA goes up lift goes up and tries to
return the aircraft to the starting attitude.

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Stability – how do we get it?

Lateral (roll) stability


• Most aircraft have dihedral
(the wings are angled up).
• When the aircraft is banked
it wants to “slide” or sideslip
towards the low wing.
• The air meets the low wing
at a higher angle of attack,
so the lower wing produces more lift, and the
aircraft rights itself.
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Stability – how do we get it?

Lateral (roll) stability

• Keel Effect - In a high


wing aircraft most of
the weight is below
the wing, and acts like
a pendulum.

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Stability – how do we get it?

Directional (yaw) stability

• Vertical stabilizer!

• Keel Effect

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Stability – how do we get it?

Directional (yaw) stability

• Sweepback
effect

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Limits of Stability

Aircraft can be designed so


that they are too stable.
• The more stable the
aircraft is the more
control forces that have
to be generated.
• This requires larger
controls, and limits how
maneuverable the aircraft is.
• So the aircraft has a balance between stability
and control.

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Another look at Stalls

Conditions leading to a stall


• Angle of Attack
• Increased weight
• Low speed flight
• High speed flight
• Rough surfaces

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Another look at Stalls

Stall warning systems


• Buffeting

• Stick shakers

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Another look at Stalls

Stall warning systems


• Audible warning
– Electric

– Pneumatic

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Another look at Stalls

The Spin

A spin is a special case of


a stall where 1 wing is “more
stalled” than the other.

The aircraft will yaw/roll quite


quickly as the nose pitches down.

Attitude can change quick rapidly.

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Another look at Stalls

The Spin

Height is lost very quickly.

Recovery may not be possible depending in


aircraft loading/conditions.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=er3bgOTsILw

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Alternate Arrangements

Canards
• Have a small wing forward
of the main wing
• Wright flyer was a canard
• Can reduce wing loading
and improve high AOA
handling/performance
• Very complicated/ hard to
analyze

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Alternate Arrangements

Wing sweep
• Delays shock wave formation &
drag rise at high speeds.
• Does not matter if it is forward or
backwards
• Aft sweep has poor tip stall issues
• Forward sweep has no tip stall
issues

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Alternate Arrangements

Wing sweep
• Large forward sweep for high
aircraft almost impossible
• Stall causes pitch up
• Very unstable
• Has dangerous flex effects if wing is not
stiff enough
• Computer control only possible

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Alternate Arrangements

“T” Tails
Advantages:
• Tailplane is well out of disturbed
airflow, better pitch control on non-
propeller powered aircraft.
• Acts like a “winglet” for the vertical tail increasing
it’s effectiveness.
• Gets the tail away from the heat of the engines on
some aircraft

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Alternate Arrangements

“T” Tails
Disadvantages:
• On propeller powered aircraft
pitch control is worse since
propeller slipstream is no longer
hitting elevators
• Structurally heavier, vertical stabilizer must be
stronger
• Can loose pitch control at very high angles of
attack when the tail gets into wing wake.
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Turning Tendencies

Torque Reaction

• Newton! – Airplane
turns propeller,
propeller turns
airplane.
• Causes a left-banking
tendency

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Turning Tendencies

Directional (yaw) stability

• Corkscrew effect
– Propwash spirals
around the fuselage
– The vertical
stabilizer is on top
of the aircraft, not the bottom.
– This creates a left-yawing tendency.
– The vertical stabilizer is often mounted on an
angle to the fuselage to address this.
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Turning Tendencies

“P-factor”
•Downward moving
blade takes a bigger
“bite” of air than upward
moving blade.
•Causes a left-yawing
tendency at high angles of attack.

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Turning Tendencies

Gyroscopic precession
•90 degrees ahead in
the direction of rotation
•Occurs during pitching
(e.g. rotation about the
lateral axis).
•Right-yaw tendency when the nose is rising
•Left-yaw tendency when the nose is falling

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Turning Tendencies

Gyroscopic precession
•A left-turning tendency
during takeoff in
taildragger aircraft only.

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Primary Flight Controls

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More on load factors

We looked at loads on the aircraft earlier in turns –


looking primarily on the wings.
What about on the fuselage?
– The “G” forces discussed
earlier apply.
– Pressurization is trying to
“blow up” the fuselage like a balloon – at the
same time!
– Landing forces can be much higher than flight
loads
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More on load factors

– Pressurization is trying to “blow up” the fuselage


like a balloon – at the same time!

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More on load factors

Wing loading
• Ratio of:
Aircraft gross weight
Total wing area
A good indicator of
how fast the aircraft
will be:
High loadings have fast takeoff/approach speeds
Low loadings have slow takeoff/approach speeds
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Symmetry

For balanced handling the aircraft typically needs to


be symmetrical.
Primarily around longitudinal axis

We want the aircraft to


behave the same way
when turning left
& right.

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Symmetry

Non-symmetrical designs are possible, but are


difficult design challenges

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Symmetry

Checking airframe symmetry


Aircraft are checked pretty
carefully at the factory.
Not often necessary.
May be required after a
heavy landing
Normally we measure using
a measuring tape on small
aircraft, other tools like water
level, surveyor's transit, laser
systems can be used.
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Symmetry

Where we really watch for symmetry is on control


surface rigging!

Always follow the


maintenance manual.

Typically both ailerons/elevators on an aircraft have


the same travels (e.g. 20◦ up and 14◦ down).

Rudder travel left and right is also usually the same


for single engine aircraft, multi-engine aircraft are
often different.
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High Speed flight

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High Speed flight

As WWII progressed, aircraft flew faster and faster.


By mid-war, P51s, Spitfires, and other types were
reaching speeds close to that of sound, especially in
dives.
Pilots began to report
control difficulties and
unexpected problems
which experts determined
were due to flying too
close to the speed of
sound.

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High Speed flight

In 1940, NACA commissioned the Bell Aircraft to


build a special research aircraft for the purpose of
exploring the speed range near and beyond the
speed of sound.
It was considered better to do the research using an
actual aircraft because the USA had no wind tunnels
capable of operating at
supersonic speed.
Of course, the Germans did.
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High Speed flight

By the time the war was over, the German research


data had been captured and several of the questions
the X1 was intended to answer were already known.
Nevertheless, the X1 became the first aircraft to
exceed the speed
of sound in October
1947 when Chuck
Yeager flew it to
Mach 1.1 .

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High Speed flight

If we look at air very closely we find that the


molecules are very far apart.
When we compress those molecules the pressure
goes up according to Mr. Boyle as the volume
goes down.

The spaces between the molecules get smaller.

Air is compressible

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High Speed flight

If we look at water very closely we find that the


molecules are very close together.

When we compress those molecules the pressure


goes up, but the volume does not change
because there is no space between the water
molecules to allow them to get closer together.

Water is not compressible.

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High Speed flight

At subsonic speed (less than Mach 1) air acts as if


it’s an incompressible fluid.

– Can change it’s velocity and pressure but not


density.

– As long as it can still move, the space between


molecules will effectively not change → density
remains constant.

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High Speed flight

At subsonic speed (less than Mach 1) air follows


Bernoulli

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High Speed flight

At supersonic speed (more than Mach 1) air can be


compressed and it’s density increased:

The space between the molecules can be and is


reduced.

Bernoulli’s principle is different for supersonic flows

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High Speed flight

At supersonic speed the effects are the opposite

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High Speed flight

Importance of the speed of sound:


Sound is a pressure disturbance radiating in all
directions from the source.
It behaves similar to waves
in water, but the motion is
not up/down but compression
& expansion of the molecules.
It travels at 661.7 knots (kts)
(1116.9fps, 761.5mph) under
Standard Conditions
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High Speed flight

Importance of the speed of sound:


Speed is directly proportional to temperature
(goes down as temp. goes down).
Can be calculated:
(Cs = local speed of sound)
Cs in kts = 29.04  oR
Cs in fps = 49.022  oR
Cs in mph = 33.42  oR
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High Speed flight

Importance of the speed of


sound:
At 36,089’ the temperature
stabilizes and the speed of
sound also stabilizes at
573.8kts.
Above 80,000’ the temp starts
to rise and so does the speed
of sound.

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High Speed flight

In subsonic flight sound wave radiate from all points


of the airframe.
They can go in all directions as they are faster than
the aircraft.

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High Speed flight

In supersonic flight the aircraft is faster, so sound


waves “pile up” at the nose of the airfoil.
This creates Shock Wave(s)
which are changes in the
pressure and velocity of
airflow.
The shockwave concentrates
the sound and increases it’s
intensity.
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High Speed flight

Mach # = ratio of True Airspeed of the aircraft to the


speed of sound at that temperature

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High Speed flight

The shock wave where the air goes transonic can be


seen if you know where to look.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K08Gc0tKWoA

They form when the aircraft or parts of it exceed


Mach 1
Sound wave are slower than the aircraft
Air “piles” up in Compression Wave, there are
large changes in pressure, velocity & density of
the airflow.
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High Speed flight

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Aviation Technician - AIRC 113

High Speed flight

There are 3 kinds of shock waves:

Oblique
Normal
Expansion

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High Speed flight

Oblique shock waves:


Form on sharp edges like leading and trailing
edges.
Points downstream
in airflow.
Angle gets less as
speed goes up,
“flattens out”.

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High Speed flight

Normal shock waves:


Form in front of or on blunt objects, or ones with
large angles

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High Speed flight

Normal shock waves:


When in front:
molecules pile up
and create a wave
detached and in
front of the object
– like a bow wave
on a boat.

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High Speed flight

Normal shock waves:


When on:
they attach to
curved areas
where airflow is just above Mach 1.
In the transonic range form on upper airfoil first
around .75 Mach, and on lower surface around
.85 Mach
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HekbC6Pl4_Y
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High Speed flight

Expansion shock waves:


Form where the surface
turns away from the
airflow direction (middle
of the airfoil).
Velocity increases.
Pressure and density decrease.
Temperature is constant – little or no total energy
change (this is not a compression wave).
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High Speed flight

Subsonic airfoils

Below .75 Mach all flow


is subsonic.

In Transonic speed range


at some airspeed (the
critical Mach number or
MCR) some airflow will
reach or exceed Mach 1.
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High Speed flight

Subsonic airfoils
In Transonic speed range:
A normal shock wave
forms on upper surface
where the max airfoil
thickness is (greatest
velocity).
Causes a large increase in drag.

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High Speed flight

Subsonic airfoils
In Transonic speed range:
Pressure rise through
shock wave reduces
strength of low pressure
area on wing
Normally low pressure “sucks” air against airfoil
for smooth flow.

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High Speed flight

Subsonic airfoils
In Transonic speed range:
Loss of low pressure
means the air is not
sucked down smoothly
and Shock Induced Separation occurs on upper
surface.
So we have a loss of lift and reduced control
effectiveness from turbulence.
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High Speed flight

Subsonic airfoils
In Transonic speed range:
As speeds get closer to
Mach 1:
Normal wave forms on
lower surface& upper wave moves further back
towards the trailing edge
Shock induced separation occurs on bottom too.
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High Speed flight

Subsonic airfoils
As the shock wave moves
aft the center of lift moves
aft.
This causes the aircraft to
want to pitch “nose down”.
Transonic and faster aircraft incorporate a “Mach
Trim” that will counter this pitching action by
changing the aircraft stabilizer angle to compensate
or by changing the balance of the aircraft.
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High Speed flight

Subsonic airfoils
In Transonic speed range:
At Mach 1:
The top and bottom waves
have moved to the trailing
edge and form oblique waves there.
The entire surfaces have smooth supersonic flow.
The leading edge has a normal wave forming in
front of it - the Bow Wave, like on a boat
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High Speed flight

Subsonic airfoils
In Transonic speed range:
At Mach 1:
The area behind the bow
wave is relatively slow and
is called the Stagnation Area.
The large energy loss through the normal wave
creates significant drag.

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High Speed flight

Subsonic airfoils
In Transonic speed range:
At Mach 1:
The area behind the bow
wave is relatively slow and
is called the Stagnation Area.
The large energy loss through the normal wave
creates significant drag.

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High Speed flight

Subsonic airfoils
In Transonic speed range:
Above Mach 1:
Stagnation area gets
smaller but energy loss
increases.
There is greater change in velocity and pressure
through the normal wave
Greater drag occurs (proportional to speed)
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High Speed flight

Subsonic airfoils

Check out for more information:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bELu-if5ckU

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High Speed flight

Subsonic airfoils:
To increase critical Mach number (delay shock
induced separation) vortex generators or swept
wings can be used.

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High Speed flight

Subsonic airfoils:
Horizontal stabs suffer these same problems, and
loose control effectiveness.
It can be kept effective by
making it’s angle of
incidence adjustable.
The F86 was the first A/C
to use this to allow
supersonic speeds while
maintaining control
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High Speed flight

Supersonic airfoils:
To eliminate Shock Induced Separation in transonic
range you need airfoils with max. thickness at 50% of
chord.

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High Speed flight

Supersonic airfoils:
Thin airfoils needed – no normal shock wave forms.
Sharp edges form obliques with tiny bow wave and
expansion wave in the middle.

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High Speed flight

Supersonic aircraft configurations:


Wing planform should have low aspect ratio and
tapered for good strength to weight.
Sweptback for transonic and low supersonic flight.
Straight for high supersonic (Mach 2+).
Delta wings have many advantages of other wing
types, but have very high drag at low speeds.

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High Speed flight

Supersonic aircraft configurations:


Airfoil:
Low Thickness ratio
Gradual change in thickness (airfoil shape)
Max thickness at 50% of chord
Sharp leading and trailing edges

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High Speed flight

Supersonic aircraft configurations:


Fuselage & Nacelles
Long
Slender
Fuselage “Wasp Waisted”
Decreases overall form and
interference drags from
interaction of shockwaves on
various structures
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High Speed flight

Supersonic aircraft configurations:


Tail surfaces
Planform & airfoils like wings
Are generally all moveable surfaces

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High Speed flight

Aerodynamic heating:
As speeds increase above Mach 1 the stagnation
area sees great temperature rises.
The faster you go the
hotter it gets.
Effects are smaller at
higher altitudes

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High Speed flight

Aerodynamic heating:
Increased temps means decreased metal
strengths.
Near hypersonic
speeds temps are
so high that normal
materials melt.
Research is focused
on ceramics and
composite materials.
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High Speed flight

High speed flight & Aerodynamic heating:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-1250fZuhUg

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High Speed flight

The Future?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6bS4drItm1U

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References

•De Remer D (1992) Aircraft Systems for Pilots Casper: IAP


•FAA (1997) Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge AC61-23C Newcastle: ASA
•Lowery J (2001) Professional Pilot Ames: Iowa State Univ. Press
•Schiff B (1985) The Proficient Pilot vol. 1 New York: Macmillan
•U.S. Navy (1965) Aerodynamics for Naval Aviators Newcastle: ASA
•Benson, T Stability & Control, https://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-
12/airplane/Talks/FlightControl.ppt
• Cutler, Colin (2015) The 3 types of static and dynamic stability,
http://www.boldmethod.com/learn-to-fly/aerodynamics/3-types-of-static-and-dynamic-stability-
in-aircraft/
•Handling of fuselage, https://www.solving.com/case-studies/18t-handling-of-fuselage
•Wing loading, http://forum.milavia.net/military-aircraft/wing-loading/
•Rutan Boomarang, http://fly.blakecrosby.com/2008/05/single-engine-multiengine-nonh.html
•Symmetry – Cessna 340, http://www.slideshare.net/lccmechanics/assy-rigging
•Spin image, http://flyacro.us/images/spin%20afh.jpg
•High Speed flight section from Harry L. Whitehead, High speed aerodynamics
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References

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