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Virginia Henderson s

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Born Nov. 30, 1897 Kansas City, Missouri 5th of the 8 children Dad: Atty. Daniel Henderson Mom: Lucy Abbot RIP: 99 y/o; March 19, 1996

Washington.ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ 1921: Received Diploma in Nursing from the Army School of Nursing at Walter Reed Hospital. DC 1921-23: worked as staff nurse at Henry Street Visiting Nurse Service 1923: Teacher at Norfolk Protestant Hospital in Virginia 1932: BS Degree at Teacher s College at Columbia University 1934: MA Degree 1929-1948: Faculty of Columbia University 1953: Research associate at Yale University School of Nursing .

The Nature of Nursing. It was reprinted by the National League of Nursing in 1991. . unique function. The sixth edition of the Principles and Practice of Nursing. was published in 1966 and describes her concept of nursing s primary. was coauthored by Henderson. published in 1978.ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Co-authored the 4th edition of Bertha Harmer s Textbook of the Principles and Practice of Nursing 5th edition includes VH s own definition of Nursing Her book.

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Received honorary doctoral degrees Mary Tolle Wright Founders Award for Leadership First Christianne Reimann Prize Received a special citation of honor .

was her involvement as a committee member in a regional conference of the National Nursing Council in 1946. ƒ ƒ ƒ . ƒ Third. First. who was not fully satisfied with the definition adopted by the ANA in 1955.a definition rather than a theory synthesis of many influences. ƒ Second. she revised the textbook Principles and Practice of Nursing in 1939. Henderson identifies her work for this text as the source that made her realize the necessity of being clear about the function of nurses. Her committee work was incorporated into Esther Lucile Brown s 1948 report. Henderson says this report represented my point of view modified by the thinking of others in the group . some positive and some negative . the American Nurses Association s (ANA) 5 year investigation of the function of the nurse interested Henderson. Nursing for the Future .

ƒ Her ideas about the definition of nursing were influenced by her nursing education and practice by her students and colleagues at Columbia University School of Nursing. ƒ ƒ . she participated in the revision of a nursing textbook. and by distinguished nursing leaders of her time. she was concerned that many states had no provisions for nursing licensure to ensure safe and competent care for the consumer. First. Second.

as main learning source for nursing practice should present a sound and definitive description of nursing. Henderson was committed to the process of regulating nursing practice through licensure by each state. She believed that a textbook that serves. ƒ .ƒ Henderson recognized the need to be clear about the functions of the nurse.

It is likewise the unique contribution of nursing to help the individual to be independent of such assistance as soon as possible.³Nursing is primarily assisting the individual (sick or well) in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength. or knowledge.´ . will.


and spiritual components. ƒ Considers the biological. Requiring assistance to achieve health and independence or a peaceful death. ƒ ƒ .Have basic needs that are component of health. and the patient is neither client nor consumer. psychological. sociological. ƒ The theory presents the patient as a sum of parts with biopsychosocial needs. ƒ Mind and body are inseparable and interrelated.

All external conditions and influences that affect life and development. In return she expects society to contribute to nursing education. Supports tasks of private and public agencies Society wants and expects nurses to act for individuals who are unable to function independently. Individuals in relation to families Minimally discusses the impact of the community on the individual and family.ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Settings in which an individual learns unique pattern for living. Basic nursing care involves providing conditions under which the patient can perform the 14 activities unaided .

and intellectual capacities. Affected by age. cultural background. physical. ƒ Nurses need to stress promotion of health and prevention and cure of disease.Definition based on individual s ability to function independently as outlined in the 14 components. and emotional balance Is the individual s ability to meet these needs independently? ƒ . ƒ Good health is a challenge.

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Temporarily assisting an individual who lacks the necessary strength. will and knowledge to satisfy 1 or more of 14 basic needs. and the knowledge. Assists and supports the individual in life activities and the attainment of independence. The nurse is expected to carry out physician s therapeutic plan Individualized care is the result of the nurse s creativity in planning for care. Nurse serves to make patient complete whole . But I go on to say that the nurse makes the patient independent of him or her as soon as possible. the will. or independent. . Henderson s classic definition of nursing: I say that the nurse does for others what they would do for themselves if they had the strength.


Individuals desire health or a peaceful death and will act in such a way to achieve this.ƒ Independence is valued by the nurse and the patient. ƒ ƒ ƒ . more than dependence. Health has a meaning shared by the society at large. Individuals will perform activities leading to health if they have the knowledge. capacity or will.

ƒ The individual s goal and the nurse s goal are congruent. Nursing s goal may be subsumed into the medical treatment plan. ƒ ƒ ƒ . The 14 basic needs represent nursing s basic function. The major explicit assumption is Henderson s content that the nurse is an independent practitioner.

Communicate with others in expressing emotions. Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment. Worship according to one s faith. Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying environment Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others. or opinions. Select suitable clothes-dress and undress. or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities. Sleep and rest. Move and maintain desirable postures. Eliminate body wastes. Learn. discover. Play or participate in various forms of recreation. needs. . Eat and drink adequately.ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Breathe normally. fears.



ƒ Theories can interrelate concepts in such a way as to create a difference. Theories should be relatively simply yet generalize. Theories can be the bases for the hypothesis that can be tested or for theory to be explained. Theories must be logical in nature. ƒ ƒ ƒ .

Theories must be consistent with other validated theses.ƒ Theories contribute to and assist in increasing body of knowledge within discipline through research. principles. Theories can be used by practitioner to guide and improve their practice. but leave open unanswered questions that need to be investigating. ƒ ƒ . laws.