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Methods (3rd Ed.). Routledge.

• Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. . (2010). Multivariate

data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River: NJ: Prentice Hall.

• Pallant, Julie. (2011). Spss survival manaul: A step by step guide to data

analysis using spss for windows 4rth edition. Berkshire, UK: Open

University Press: McGraw-Hill Education.

• Field, (2013) Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics (4th Ed.). Sage

• Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5 ed.).

Boston: Pearson Education.

• Hair, Hult, Ringle, Sarstedt. (2016) A premier on partial least squares

structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd Ed.). Sage

• Census

• Researchers prefer to collect data from all members of a population

under investigation

Sample

probability procedures.

Whether a probability of non-probability is used

design issues is necessary in selecting the

sample.

• Probability Sampling is typically used in quantitative

research

procedure to ensure objectivity in selecting the sample.

• The findings from the sample data then can be generalized to the

population with a specified degree of accuracy.

• Non-probability sampling is typically used in

qualitative research

• Findings from the sample can be used to describe, discover, and

develop theory.

• While the findings can be used to generalize to the population, it

cannot be done with a specified degree of accuracy.

• Sample size is an important consideration in both

qualitative and quantitative research

sample is required.

develop theory on organizational behavior a small

number of cases may be sufficient.

Sampling

• Is part of basic research process. It involves answering

following questions:

2) If a sample, then which sampling approach is best?

3) And, how large a sample is necessary?

• We collect information for decision making therefore

we need to involve those people who are

knowledgeable.

universe.

characteristics.

• E.g people, supermarkets, hospitals

• In probability sampling researchers are able at a

minimum to calculate the error associated with a

particular sampling design and can make decisions

with this knowledge in hand.

• In non-probability sampling researchers are not able to

calculate the error but have made informed judgments

in an effort to obtain usable sample information.

Remember, a sample must be representative of the

population from which it is drawn.

this objective.

The sampling process

1. Defining the target population

2. Choosing the sampling frame

3. Selecting the sampling method

4. Implementing the sampling plan

1. Defining the target population

defining the target population.

to the research project.

process are known as sampling unit (people, households,

businesses, or any logically unit relevant to the study’s objectives).

• Element Employees with incentive pay

• Sampling unit customer service representatives and branch managers

• Extent All branch locations in Sindh province

• Time March 2011

2. Choosing the sampling frame

which the sample is drawn.

Eg. Yellow pages listing of restaurants, a telephone directory,

company’s internal database, electronic directories.

Ideally, a sampling frame is an accurate, complete listing

of all the elements in the population targeted by the

research.

In reality, sampling frame is often flawed

in a number of ways:

1. It may not be up-to-date

2. It may include elements that do not belong to the

target population

3. It may not include elements that do belong to the

target population

4. It may have been compiled from multiple lists and

contain duplicate elements as a result of the manner in

which the list was constructed.

What’s the point!

Before drawing a sample from the sampling frame list,

the researcher must therefore confirm the list’s accuracy

irrespective of its origin.

3. Selecting sampling method

• Depends on number of theoretical and practical issues.

They include:

• Considering the nature of the study

• The objectives of the study

• And the time and budget availability

Sampling Methods

Probability Non-probability

• Simple random Convenience

• Systematic Judgment

• Stratified Snowball/Referral

• Cluster Quota

• Multistage

1) Simple random:

is a straightforward

Assigns each element of target population an equal probability of being

selected.

Drawing names from a hat

Easy (drawing names from hat) with a small population

Large target population; other approaches are necessary

telephone survey

Issues: nonworking numbers, refusal to answer a telephone, lack of

time/interest etc

Procedure for drawing large samples

1. Sequentially assign a unique identification number to

each element in the sampling frame

2. Use a random number generator to identify the

appropriate elements to be selected in the sample

3. Ensure that no element is selected more than once.

2) Systematic sampling

thereafter every nth element in the sampling frame is

selected.

particular university and you want a sample of 500

students.

• Your sampling objective is a representative cross-

section of the student body.

size and then calculate the sampling interval.

elements between each unit selected for your sample.

• In this case, the sampling interval is 20

(10,000 students / sample of 500 = 20)

Systematic sampling produces representative data if

executed properly.

• To work properly, the sampling interval must divide

the sampling frame into relatively homogeneous

groups, if there is a cyclic sequence to the sampling

frame instead of a random sequence, systematic

sampling will not work.

• For instance, Alphabetical listings are considered

random not cyclic.

our customers and our interval was 7, the sample

would produce biased information, because we would

always interview on the same day of the week. To be

truly random, we must conduct interviews across at

least several different days of the week.

• Lets say, if our list of customers is 1030 arranged according

to frequency of dinning, and the first 100 names on the list

eat at our restaurant at least once a week and the remaining

930 eat at our restaurant an average of four times a year,

we would have a problem using systematic sampling.

• If the sampling interval is 10 and our sample size is 103,

then our sample may underrepresent the frequent

customers (only 10 frequent customers) and overrepresent

the less frequent customers (93 nonfrequent customers)

Thus, we must know ahead of time if there are

underlying systematic patterns in the data so we can

account for them in our sampling plan.

3) Stratified sampling

Requires the research to partition the sampling frame

into relatively homogeneous subgroups that are distinct

and nonoverlapping, called strata.

• The researcher usually does the stratification on the

basis of some predetermined criteria that may be the

result of his/her past experience, or stratification could

even be specified by the client.

stratify customers on the basis of characteristics such as

age, marital status, family size, income level, frequency

of eating out, level of satisfaction, who selected the

restaurant, or a combination of these.

• The researcher determines the total sample size as well

as the required sample sizes for each of individual

strata.

• For example, total sample size might be 400 and the

four individual strata might each have a sample size of

100.

• The stratified sample is the composite of the samples

taken from the strata.

• Elements for the stratified sample are usually selected

either by drawing simple random or systematic

samples of the specified size from the strata of the

target population.

• With stratified sampling, elements must be selected

from all the strata of the total sample.

•Practically, stratified sample is selected

in one of two ways; Proportionately or

disproportionately.

• In Proportionately stratified sampling, the overall

sample size will be the total of all the elements from

each of the strata.

• The number of elements chosen from each stratum is

proportionate to the size of a particular stratum relative

to the overall sample size.

• So if we have a stratum that is 25 percent of the target

population, then the size of the sample for that stratum

will be 25 percent of the total sample.

• For example, if we use proportionately stratified

sampling to select a sample of males and females at IBA

with 10,000 student, and 6,000 students are females and

4,000 students are males, then the overall sample would

include 60 percent females and 40 percent males.

• In disproportionately stratified sampling the sample

elements are chosen in one of the two ways;

• One approach involves choosing the elements from

each stratum according to its relative importance.

• Relative importance is usually based on practical

considerations such as economic importance of the

various strata.

• For example, if that restaurant is located in an area

dominated by older individuals who dine out less

frequently, then sampling a high proportion of younger

customers that dine out more often would be viewed as

more important to him.

• With disproportionately stratified sampling based on

economic or other reasons, the sample size from each

stratum is determined independently without

considering the size of the stratum relative to the

overall sample size.

• The more important a particular stratum is considered,

the higher will be the proportion of the sample

elements from the stratum.

• Another approach to selecting a disproportionately

stratified sample considers the variability of the data

within each stratum.

• Elements from each stratum are selected based on the

relative variability of the elements.

• Strata with high relative variability will contribute a

higher proportion of elements to the sample. Similarly,

lower the variability of a stratum the lower will be its

proportional representation in the total sample.

• For example, assume IBA with 10,000 students has 50 percent

male students and 50 percent female students. We know that

almost all the male drink beer, and there is wide variation in beer

drinking habits, with some drinking beer every day and a very

small number not drinking beer at all.

• On the other hand, only a small proportion of the female students

drink beer and not very often (they prefer fresh juices), so there is

not much variation in their beer consumption patterns.

• In this example, we would sample a larger number of male

students in our survey so we could more accurately represent

male beer consumption patterns, Since female students do not

vary much in their beer consumption habits, the smaller sample of

females should still accurately represent their behavior.

4) Cluster sampling

• In cluster sampling, the target population is viewed as

being made up of heterogeneous groups,

• Examples of cluster are ethnic groups, companies,

households, business units, and geographic areas.

• the most frequently used type of cluster sampling is

geographic area sampling.

• For example, assume you want to interview managers of

banks in Sindh province.

• The research could obtain a list of zip codes in which banks

are located: each area is then a cluster.

• The cluster to be sampled would be randomly selected, and

then all bank managers or a random sample of managers of

banks would be interviewed in each of the selected clusters.

• This process generally works well with and produces

representative data.

Cluster sampling procedure

1. Define the cluster characteristics in a way that ensures clusters are

unambiguously identified in the target population. In this manner,

the total number of clusters in the population will be known ahead of

time.

2. Decide on how many clusters to sample.

3. Choose the cluster(s) in a random manner

4. Obtain a sampling frame for the chosen clusters

5. Decide whether to conduct a census on the chosen cluster(s) or

whether to take a probability sample from the cluster(s).

6. If a probability sample is desired, determine the total sample size. If

more than one cluster will be used, then the sample size should be

allocated appropriately. This is generally done on proportionate

sampling basis.

5) Multistage sampling

• Involves a sequence of stages.

• These stages are illustrated by the following example.

• The problem is to investigate the views of medical

practitioners in the US concerning the use of medical

software to assist in patient diagnosis. The first stage is to

select a random sample of regions in the US. The regions

are clusters. The Second stage is to select a random sample

of hospitals from the selected regions, and then either

collect information from all medical practitioners from the

chosen hospitals or a random sample from within each of

the chosen hospitals.

• Even more complex multistage sampling is possible.

Determining sample size

either large (infinite) populations or small

(finite) populations.

Sampling from a large population

Researchers often need to estimate characteristics of

large populations. To achieve this in an efficient manner,

it is necessary to determine the appropriate sample size

prior to data collection.

• Determining sample size is complex because of many

factors that need to be taken into account simultaneously.

• Challenge is to obtain acceptable balance among several of

these factors. These factors include:

• the variability of elements in the target population,

• The type of sample required,

• Time availability,

• Budget

• Required estimation precision,

• And whether the findings are to be generalized and, if so, with what degree

of confidence.

What is ‘good’ and ‘bad’ data?

• You must understand how SPSS works and how to talk to it

appropriately.

Pre-testing (Refer Hunt et al., 1982)

• What items?

• Length, layout, format, number of lines for replies, sequencing

• Individual questions, respondents hesitate

• What method?

• Personal interviews, phone, and email

• Debriefing (after) or protocol (during)?

Pre-testing (Continued……)

• Who should do?

• Best interviewers

• Who are the subjects?

• Respondents who are similar as possible

• Representative vs convenience

• How large a sample?

• Vary from 12, 20, 30 to 100

Remember, then comes pilot-

test.

A recent reflection by Joe F. Hair

•Remember, Research design has

implications for the quality of the

data collected and analysed.

• The data you enter must come from

somewhere—responses to a questionnaire,

information collected from interviews, coded

observations of actual behaviour, or objective

measurements of output or performance.

• The data are only as good as the

instrument that you used to collect

them and the research

framework that guided their collection.

• From

• Review of the literature,

• Formulation of hypotheses,

• Choice of study design,

• Selection and allocation of participants,

• Recording of observations and collection of data.

the data you have to analyse and the way you address your

research questions.

•In designing your own study I would

recommend that you take your time

working through the design process to

make it the best study that you can

produce.

• Reading a variety of texts on the topic will

help

A few tips

are here…..!

1.

• Consider what type of research design (e.g. experiment,

survey, observation) is the best way to address your research

question.

approaches; choose the most appropriate approach for your

particular research question. Have a good understanding of the

research that has already been conducted in your topic area.

2.

• If you choose to use an experiment, decide whether a between-

groups design (different cases in each experimental condition)

or a repeated measures design (same cases tested under all

conditions) is the more appropriate for your research question.

• There are advantages and disadvantages to each approach (see

Stangor 2006), so weigh up each approach carefully.

• In experimental studies, make sure you include enough levels

in your independent variable. Using only two levels (or groups)

means fewer participants are required, but it limits the

conclusions that you can draw.

• Is a control group necessary or desirable? Will the lack of

control group limit the conclusions that you can draw?

3.

• Always select more participants than you need, particularly if

you are using a sample of humans.

they are supposed to, they get sick, drop out and don’t fill out

questionnaires properly! So plan accordingly. Err on the side of

pessimism rather than optimism.

4.

• In experimental studies, check that you have enough

participants in each of your groups (and try to keep them equal

when possible). With small groups, it is difficult to detect

statistically significant differences between groups (an issue of

power).

• There are calculations you can perform to determine the sample

size that you will need. See, for example, Stangor (2006), or

consult other statistical texts (we will discuss in detail later in

the course).

• Wherever possible, randomly assign participants to each of

your experimental conditions, rather than using existing

groups.

• This reduces the problem associated with non-equivalent

groups in between-groups designs.

• Also worth considering is taking additional measurements of

the groups to ensure that they don’t differ substantially from

one another.

• You may be able to statistically control for differences that you

identify (e.g. using analysis of covariance).

• Choose appropriate dependent variables that are valid and

reliable. It is a good idea to include a number of different

measures—some measures are more sensitive than others.

• Don’t put all your eggs in one basket.

• Try to anticipate the possible influence of extraneous or confounding

variables. These are variables that could provide an alternative

explanation for your results.

• Sometimes they are hard to spot when you are immersed in

designing the study yourself. Always have someone else

(supervisor, fellow researcher) check over your design before

conducting the study. Do whatever you can to control for these

potential confounding variables.

• Knowing your topic area well can also help you identify possible

confounding variables. If there are additional variables that you

cannot control, can you measure them? By measuring them, you

may be able to control for them statistically (e.g. using analysis of

covariance).

• If you are distributing a survey, pilot-test it first to ensure that

the instructions, questions and scale items are clear.

• Wherever possible, pilot-test on the same type of people who

will be used in the main study (e.g. adolescents, unemployed

youth, prison inmates). You need to ensure that your

respondents can understand the survey or questionnaire items

and respond appropriately.

• Pilot-testing should also pick up any questions or items that

may offend potential respondents.

• If you are conducting an experiment, it is a good idea to have a

full dress rehearsal and to pilot-test both the experimental

manipulation and the dependent measures you intend to use.

• If you are using equipment, make sure it works properly. If you

are using different experimenters or interviewers, make sure

they are properly trained and know what to do. If different

observers are required to rate behaviours, make sure they know

how to appropriately code what they see.

• Have a practice run and check for inter-rater reliability (i.e. how

consistent scores are from different raters). Pilot-testing of the

procedures and measures helps you identify anything that

might go wrong on the day and any additional contaminating

factors that might influence the results. Some of these you may

not be able to predict (e.g. workers doing noisy construction

work just outside the lab’s window), but try to control those

factors that you can.

CHOOSING APPROPRIATE SCALES AND

MEASURES

• Many different ways of collecting ‘data’,

• depending on the nature of your research.

• This might involve measuring output or performance on some

objective criteria, or rating behaviour according to a set of

specified criteria.

• use of scales that have been designed to ‘operationalise’ some

underlying construct or attribute that is not directly measurable

(e.g. self-esteem).

• Thousands of validated scales are available for research use

•How do you find the right

measure for research your

purpose?

• A thorough review of the literature in your topic area is the first

place to start.

• What measures have been used by other researchers in the area?

• Sometimes the actual items that make up the scales are included in

the appendix to a journal article; otherwise you may need to trace

back to the original article describing the design and validation of

the scale you are interested in.

• Some scales have been copyrighted, you need to purchase ‘official’

copies from the publisher.

• Other scales, which have been published in their entirety in journal

articles, are considered to be ‘in the public domain’.

• Acknowledgement is a must.

• In choosing appropriate scales there are two characteristics that you

need to be aware of:

• reliability and validity.

• Both of these factors can influence the quality of the data you obtain.

• When reviewing possible scales to use find out reliable and valid

scales.

• But, it is also important to pre and pilot-test them with your

intended sample.

• Sometimes scales are reliable with some groups (e.g. adults with an

English-speaking background), but are totally unreliable when used

with other groups (e.g. children from non-Englishspeaking

backgrounds).

PREPARING A QUESTIONNAIRE

• A poorly planned and designed questionnaire will not give good

data with which to address your research questions.

• In preparing a questionnaire, you must consider how you intend to

use the information; you must know what statistics you intend to

use.

• Depending on the statistical technique you have in mind, you may

need to ask the question in a particular way, or provide different

response formats.

• I would suggest that you read further on the topic if you are

designing your own study.

• A really great book for this purpose is DeVaus (2002) or Boyce

(2003).

Question types

• Most questions can be classified into two groups:

• closed or open-ended.

• A closed question involves offering respondents a number of

defined response choices.

• They are asked to mark their response using a tick, cross, circle,

etc. The choices may be a simple Yes/No, Male/Female, or may

involve a range of different choices. For example:

• Closed questions are usually quite easy to convert to the numerical

format required for SPSS.

• For example, Yes can be coded as a 1, No can be coded as a 2; Males

as 1, Females as 2.

• In the education question shown above, the number corresponding

to the response ticked by the respondent would be entered.

• For example, if the respondent ticked Undergraduate university, this

would be coded as a 5. Numbering each of the possible responses

helps with the coding process.

• For data entry purposes, decide on a convention for the numbering

(e.g. in order across the page, and then down), and stick with it

throughout the questionnaire.

• Sometimes you cannot guess all the possible responses that

respondents might make—it is therefore necessary to use open-

ended questions.

• The advantage here is that respondents have the freedom to

respond in their own way, not restricted to the choices provided

by the researcher. For example:

• Responses to open-ended questions can be summarised into a

number of different ategories for entry into SPSS.

• These categories are usually identified after looking through the

range of responses actually received from the respondents.

• Some possibilities could also be raised from an understanding

of previous research in the area.

• Each of these response categories is assigned a number (e.g.

work=1, finances=2, relationships=3), and this number is

entered into SPSS.

• Sometimes a combination of both closed and open-ended questions

works best.

• This involves providing respondents with a number of defined

responses, and also an additional category (other) that they can tick if

the response they wish to give is not listed.

• A line or two is provided so that they can write the response they

wish to give.

• This combination of closed and open-ended questions is particularly

useful in the early stages of research in an area, as it gives an

indication of whether the defined response categories adequately

cover all the responses that respondents wish to give.

Response format

• In asking respondents a question, you also need to decide on a response format.

• The type of response format you choose can have implications when you come to do your

statistical analysis.

• Some analyses (e.g. correlation) require scores that are continuous, from low through to

high, with a wide range of scores.

• If you had asked respondents to indicate their age by giving them a category to tick (e.g.

less than 30, between 31 and 50 and over 50), these data would not be suitable to use in a

correlational analysis.

• So, if you intend to explore the correlation between age and, say, self-esteem, you will

need to ensure that you ask respondents for their actual age in years.

• Be warned though, some people don’t like giving their exact age (e.g. women over 30!).

• Try to provide as wide a choice of responses to your questions

as possible.

• You can always condense things later if you need to (We will

discuss it further later).

• But, don’t just ask respondents whether they agree or disagree

with a statement—use a Likert-type scale, which can range from

strongly disagree to strongly agree:

• This type of response scale gives you a wider range of possible scores, and increases the statistical

analyses that are available to you.

• You will need to make a decision concerning the number of response steps (e.g. 1 to 6) that you use.

DeVellis (2003) has a good discussion concerning the advantages and disadvantages of different

response scales.

• Whatever type of response format you choose, you must provide clear instructions.

• Do you want your respondents to tick a box, circle a number, make a mark on a line?

• For some respondents, this may be the first questionnaire that they have completed. Don’t assume

they know how to respond appropriately.

• Give clear instructions, provide an example if appropriate, and always pilot-test on the type of

people that will make up

• your sample.

• Iron out any sources of confusion before distributing hundreds of your questionnaires.

• In designing your questions, always consider how a respondent might interpret the question and

all the possible responses a person might want to make.

• For example, you may want to know whether people smoke or not. You might ask the question:

• In trialling this questionnaire, your respondent might ask

whether you mean cigarettes, cigars or Shesha.

• Is knowing whether they smoke enough?

• Should you also find out how much they smoke (two or three

cigarettes, versus two or three packs),

• and/or how often they smoke (every day or only on social

occasions)?

•The message here is to consider each

of your questions, what information

they will give you and what

information might be missing.

Wording the questions

• There is a real art to designing clear, well-written questionnaire items.

• Although there are no clear-cut rules that can guide this process, there are

some things you can do to improve the quality of your questions, and

therefore your data. Try to avoid:

• long complex questions

• double negatives

• double-barrelled questions

• jargon or abbreviations

• culture-specific terms

• words with double meanings

• leading questions

• emotionally loaded words.

• When appropriate, you should consider including a response

category for ‘Don’t know’ or ‘Not applicable’.

• For further suggestions on writing questions, see De Vaus

(2002) and Kline (2005).

Independent & Dependent Variables

• Independent variable: A variable thought to be the cause of some

effect. Used in experimental research to denote a variable that the

experimenter manipulated.

• Dependent variable: A variable thought to be affected by changes in

the independent variable. This is the outcome variable.

• Predictor variable: A variable thought to predict an outcome variable.

Basically an independent variable.

• Outcome variable: A variable thought to change as a function of

change in a predictor variable.

From your initial observation you generate explanations, or theories, of

those observations, from which you can make predictions (hypotheses).

Scientific statements are ones that can be verified (tested) using empirical

evidence.

Levels of Measurement

• Categorical

• Binary variable: Only 2 categories (male, female)

• Nominal variable: More than two categories: young, middle age, elderly.

• Ordinal variable: The variable is ordered by some attribute, such as pain.

(each interval does not represent and EQUAL distance). Ex: RPE & Pain ratings

• Continuous

• Interval variable:

• Ratio variable:

Measurement Error

• Measurement error is the discrepancy between a variables actual value and its

measured value.

• Some variables more prone to errors than others: attitude, pain, volume of gas

expired, blood pressure, height and weight.

• Factors that can influence measurement error:

• Accuracy of instruments

• Random variation in the variable

• Adherence to sound measurement principles

Validity and Reliability

• Validity refers to whether an instrument actually measures what it

is designed to measure.

• DEXA, hydrostatic, and skinfolds can all measure the percent body fat.

DEXA has the highest validity of the three.

• Reliability refers to the consistency of the instrument.

• The easiest way to test reliability is to measure the same people

twice (test-retest reliability).

Correlational vs Experimental Research

interfering with it.

• Ex: what is the relationship between anxiety and performance?

• In experimental research we manipulate one variable to see its

effects on another.

• Ex: What is the effect of caffeine on reaction time?

Using Descriptive Statistics

level of satisfaction and something about the variability of scores:

• Comparative Statistics

• Suppose you have been funded by a government agency to evaluate

the operation of two charity-sponsored counseling centers and you

get following summary data:

client scores)

client scores)

• Assuming that the clients are representative at each location, you

have some evidence to make a decision about which center is more

effective in terms of satisfaction scores.

• Your data suggest that the uptown location may do a better job as

far as the satisfaction score is concerned since the score for uptown

is 3.9 point higher that the score for the downtown location.

points apart?

• What level of difference would it take for you to conclude that the

average score for one location was significantly higher than for the

other?

did the survey again during some other time period, is there a

reasonable chance that the downtown location would produce a

better score?

• These questions are addressed with a properly designed and

executed statistical analysis

• Correlations Statistics

• To learn more about your survey results, you could examine your

data in another way.

• Ignoring for a moment the location of the center, you may want to

compare the relationship between educational level of clients and

satisfaction scores.

Understanding Hypotheses testing, Power, and Sample Size

• Alternate (Ha): The population means of the two groups are different

• Null hypotheses (H0) = the population means of the two groups are

the same

• In hypotheses testing two types of errors can occur

• Type-I Error:

• In statistical hypothesis testing, a type I error is the rejection of a true null hypothesis, while a

type II error is failing to reject a false null hypothesis.

• Type-II Error

Understanding the p-Value

probability called a p-value.

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