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ManaaemenL and 8ehavloural

Þrocesses
Course 08M8A11
uecember 16ţ 2008
2
8eflecLlons
÷ Are leaders alwavs needed? Cnlv when Lhere ls
compeLlLlon and confllcL?
÷ llnd people and asslan work C8 flnd work and
asslan people?
÷ Are dlcLaLors leaders?

ChapLer 1
eadlna
÷ WhaL ls Lhe naLure of leadershlp?
÷ WhaL are Lhe lmporLanL leadershlp LralLs and
behavlors?
÷ WhaL are currenL lssues ln leadershlp
developmenL?
÷ WhaL are Lhe conLlnaencv Lheorles of leadershlp?

FIGURE 13-1 Leading viewed in relationship the other management Iunctions.
Schermerhorn/Management, 7e
Chapter 13, Figure 13-01

¾Ŧ
W ComplexlLv
W Þlannlna Ǝ 8udaeLlna
1araeLs/Coals
W Craanlzlna Ǝ SLafflna
W ConLrolllna Ǝ Þroblem
Solvlna
W Chanae
W SeLLlna ulrecLlon ŴŴ
vlslons
W Allanlna Þeople
W MoLlvaLlna
ºlnsplrlna/Movlna"
kotiono/
lntuitive
oLLer
Manager¾ eader¾
6
WhaL ls Lhe naLure of leadershlp?
eadershlpţ vlslonţ and vlslonarv leadershlp
÷ eadershlp
W 1he process of lnsplrlna oLhers Lo work hard Lo accompllsh
lmporLanL LasksŦ
÷ vlslon
W A fuLure LhaL one hopes Lo creaLe or achleve ln order Lo lmprove
upon Lhe presenL sLaLe of affalrsŦ
÷ vlslonarv leadershlp
W A leader who brlnas Lo Lhe slLuaLlon a clear and compelllna sense
of Lhe fuLure as well as an undersLandlna of Lhe acLlons needed Lo
aeL Lhere successfullvŦ

WhaL ls Lhe naLure of leadershlp?
MeeLlna Lhe challenaes of vlslonarv
leadershlpť
÷ Challenae Lhe process
÷ Show enLhuslasm
÷ Pelp oLhers Lo acL
÷ SeL Lhe example
÷ CelebraLe achlevemenLs
8
Manager|a| Þower Lquat|on
Manager|a|
Þower
ƹ
Þo¾|t|on
Þower
Þer¾ona|
Þower
+
- keward¾
- Þun|¾¯ent¾
- eg|t|¯acy
- Lxpert|¾e
- keference

WhaL ls Lhe naLure of leadershlp?
Þower
÷ AblllLv Lo aeL someone else Lo do someLhlna vou wanL or
make Lhlnas happen Lhe wav vou wanLŦ
Sources of poslLlon power žLends Lo be formalſ
÷ 8eward power (poslLlve relnforcemenL)
÷ Coerclve power (neaaLlve relnforcemenL)
÷ ealLlmaLe power (ºls whaL lL ls")
Sources of personal power žLends Lo be lnformalſ
÷ xperL power %now/edoe Ŷ humon copito/)
÷ 8eferenL power %networ¾ Ŷ ¾ocio/ copito/)
10
FIGURE 13-2 $ources oI position power and personal power used by managers.
Schermerhorn/Management, 7e
Chapter 13, Figure 13-02
11
WhaL ls Lhe naLure of leadershlp?
1urnlna power lnLo lnfluence ŧ
÷ Successful leadershlp relles on acqulrlna and uslna all sources of
powerŦ
÷ use of reward power or lealLlmaLe power produces Lemporarv
compllanceŦ
÷ use of coerclve power producesţ aL besLţ Lemporarv compllance
accompanled bv reslsLanceŦ
÷ use of experL power or referenL power aeneraLes commlLmenLŦ
÷ nC1ť endurlna mav noL alwavs be aood ŧŦ
12
WhaL ls Lhe naLure of leadershlp?
1urnlna power lnLo lnfluenceţ Lhrouah lnLearlLv
÷ evs Lo developlna personal powerť
W 1here ls no subsLlLuLe for experLlse (respecL)
W lkable personal quallLles are verv lmporLanL (LrusL)
W fforL and hard work breed respecL (respecL)
W Þersonal behavlor musL supporL expressed values (LrusL)
1
WhaL ls Lhe naLure of leadershlp?
1urnlna power lnLo lnfluence
÷ evs Lo developlna poslLlon powerť
W CenLrallLvŸesLabllshlna a broad neLwork of conLacLs and
aeLLlna lnvolved ln lmporLanL lnformaLlon flows
÷ Can lnfluence ever be exerLed from ouLslde wlLhouL force or
vlolence?
W CrlLlcallLvŸLaklna aood care of dependencles bv/on oLhers
W vlslblllLvŸbecomlna known as an lnfluenLlal person
1
WhaL ls Lhe naLure of leadershlp?
AccepLance Lheorv of auLhorlLv
÷ lor a leader Lo achleve lnfluenceţ Lhe oLher person
musLť
W 1rulv undersLand Lhe dlrecLlveŦ
W leel capable of carrvlna ouL Lhe dlrecLlveŦ
W 8elleve Lhe dlrecLlve ls ln Lhe oraanlzaLlon's besL
lnLeresLsŦ
W 8elleve Lhe dlrecLlve ls conslsLenL wlLh personal valuesŦ
1
WhaL ls Lhe naLure of leadershlp?
eadershlp and empowermenL
÷ mpowermenL
W 1he process Lhrouah whlch manaaers enable and help oLhers Lo
aaln power and achleve lnfluenceŦ
÷ ffecLlve leaders empower oLhers bv provldlna Lhem wlLhť
W lnformaLlon
W 8esponslblllLv
W AuLhorlLv
W 1rusL
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WhaL ls Lhe naLure of leadershlp?
Pow leaders can empower oLhers ŧ
÷ lnvolve oLhers ls selecLlna Lhelr work asslanmenLs and Lask meLhodsŦ
÷ CreaLe an envlronmenL of cooperaLlonţ lnformaLlon sharlnaţ
dlscusslonţ and shared ownershlp of aoalsŦ
÷ ncouraae oLhers Lo Lake lnlLlaLlveţ make declslonsţ and use Lhelr
knowledaeŦ
÷ llnd ouL whaL oLhers Lhlnk and leL Lhem help deslan soluLlonsŦ
÷ Clve oLhers Lhe freedom Lo puL Lhelr ldeas and soluLlons lnLo pracLlceŦ
÷ 8ecoanlze successes and encouraae hlah performanceŦ
1
WhaL are Lhe lmporLanL leadershlp LralLs and
behavlors?
1ralLs LhaL are lmporLanL for leadershlp successť
÷ urlve
÷ SelfŴconfldence
÷ CreaLlvlLv
÷ CoanlLlve ablllLv
÷ 8uslness knowledae
÷ MoLlvaLlon
÷ llexlblllLv
÷ PonesLv and lnLearlLv
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WhaL are Lhe lmporLanL leadershlp LralLs and
behavlors?
1ask concerns
÷ Þlans and deflnes work Lo be
done
÷ Asslans Lask responslblllLles
÷ SeLs clear work sLandards
÷ uraes Lask compleLlon
÷ MonlLors performance resulLs
Þeople concerns
÷ AcLs warm and supporLlve
Loward followers
÷ uevelops soclal rapporL wlLh
followers
÷ 8especLs Lhe feellnas of
followers
÷ ls senslLlve Lo followers'
needs
÷ Shows LrusL ln followers
1
WhaL are Lhe lmporLanL leadershlp LralLs and
behavlors?
8lake and MouLon eadershlp Crld
÷ 1eam manaaemenL
W Plah Lask concernŤ hlah people concern
÷ AuLhorlLvŴobedlence manaaemenL
W Plah Lask concernŤ low people concern
÷ CounLrv club manaaemenL
W Plah people concernŤ low Lask concern
÷ lmpoverlshed manaaemenL
W ow Lask concernŤ low people concernŦ
÷ Mlddle of Lhe road manaaemenL
W nonŴcommlLLal for boLh Lask concern and people concern
20
|ake Ǝ Mouton'¾ eader¾|p Gr|d
Autocrat|c
|eader
"n|gŴn|g#
e¯ocrat|c
|eader
a|¾¾ezŴfa|re
|eader
nu¯an re|at|on¾
|eader
Concern
for
1a¾k
ioh
Low
Low ioh
Concern for Þeop|e
21
FIGURE 13-3 anagerial styles in Blake & outon`s
Leadership Grid.
Schermerhorn/Management, 7e
Chapter 13, Figure 13-03
lour svsLems of manaaemenL
8ensls lkerL
W SvsLem 1 Ŷ xplolLlveŴauLhorlLlve
W SvsLem 2 Ŷ 8enevolenLŴauLhorlLlve
W SvsLem Ŷ ConsulLaLlve
W SvsLem Ŵ ÞarLlclpaLlve
lour svsLems of manaaemenL
SvsLem 1 Ŷ xplolLlveŴauLhorlLlve
÷ Manaaer makes all workŴrelaLed declslons
and orders Lhe subordlnaLes Lo carrv ouL
Lhe orders
÷ Manaaers have llLLle LrusL of emplovees and
seL rlald sLandards Ŷ fallure means
punlshmenL
÷ SubordlnaLes fear manaaemenL
÷ Cenerallv producLlvlLv ls poor
lour svsLems of manaaemenL
SvsLem 2 Ŷ 8enevolenLŴauLhorlLlve
÷ Manaaer wlll sLlll make all workŴrelaLed
declslonsţ however subordlnaLes can
commenL and have flexlblllLv Lo carrv ouL
Lhe orders
÷ Manaaers and subordlnaLes are cauLlous of
each oLher
÷ 8ewards are avallable for Lhe subordlnaLes
÷ ÞroducLlon ls saLlsfacLorv
lour svsLems of manaaemenL
SvsLem Ŷ ConsulLaLlve
÷ Coals are seL and orders are passed down
Lo subordlnaLes afLer Lhere has been a
dlscusslon
÷ 1eamwork ls encouraaed
÷ ManaaemenL aenerallv LrusLs Lhelr
subordlnaLes
÷ 8ewards and noL LhreaLs are used as
moLlvaLlon Lools
lour svsLems of manaaemenL
SvsLem Ŷ ÞarLlclpaLlve
÷ Coals and work relaLed declslons are made bv a aroup
÷ lull parLlclpaLlon and commlLmenL Lo Lhe oraanlzaLlon's
aoals
÷ Manaaers moLlvaLe bv economlc rewardsţ and also
make subordlnaLes feel lmporLanL and needed
÷ Cood communlcaLlons
÷ xcellenL producLlvlLvţ verv low absenLeelsm and labor
Lurnover
÷ 1bls ls tbe most fovoteJ stvle of mooooemeot
2
WhaL are currenL lssues ln leadershlp
developmenL?
CharlsmaLlc leaders
÷ uevelop speclal leaderŴfollower relaLlonshlps and
lnsplre oLhers ln exLraordlnarv wavsŦ
1ransformaLlonal leadershlp
÷ Someone who ls Lrulv lnsplraLlonal as a leader and
who arouses oLhers Lo seek exLraordlnarv
performance accompllshmenLsŦ
1ransacLlonal leadershlp
÷ Someone who ls meLhodlcal as a leader and keeps
oLhers focused on proaresslna Loward aoal
accompllshmenLŦ
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WhaL are currenL lssues ln leadershlp
developmenL?
CharacLerlsLlcs of LransformaLlonal leaders
÷ vlslon
÷ Charlsma
÷ Svmbollsm
÷ mpowermenL
÷ lnLellecLual sLlmulaLlon
÷ lnLearlLv
2
WhaL are currenL lssues ln leadershlp
developmenL?
moLlonal lnLelllaence
÷ 1he ablllLv of people Lo manaae Lhemselves
and Lhelr relaLlonshlps effecLlvelvŦ
÷ ComponenLs of emoLlonal lnLelllaenceť
W SelfŴawareness
W SelfŴreaulaLlon
W MoLlvaLlon
W mpaLhv
W Soclal sklll
0
WhaL are currenL lssues ln leadershlp
developmenL?
Cender and leadershlp
÷ Women Lend Lo use lnLeracLlve leadershlpŦ
W A sLvle LhaL shares quallLles wlLh LransformaLlonal leadershlpŦ
8ehavlorsŦ
÷ Men Lend Lo use LransacLlonal leadershlpŦ
÷ lnLeracLlve leadershlp provldes a aood flL wlLh Lhe
demands of a dlverse workforce and Lhe new
workplaceŦ
÷ luLure leadershlp success wlll depend on a person's
capaclLv Lo lead Lhrouah poslLlve relaLlonshlps and
empowermenLŦ
1
WhaL are currenL lssues ln leadershlp
developmenL?
urucker's ºoldŴfashloned" leadershlp
÷ eadershlp ls more Lhan charlsmaŤ lL ls ºaood oldŴ
fashloned" hard workŦ
÷ ssenLlals of ºoldŴfashloned" leadershlpť
W ueflnlna and esLabllshlna a sense of mlsslonŦ
W AccepLlna leadershlp as responslblllLv raLher Lhan rankŦ
W arnlna and keeplna Lhe LrusL of oLhersŦ
2
WhaL are currenL lssues ln leadershlp
developmenL?
Lhlcal aspecLs of leadershlp
÷ lnLearlLv ŧ
W 1he leader's honesLvţ credlblllLvţ and conslsLencv ln
puLLlna values lnLo acLlonŦ
W Cruclal for LransformaLlonal leadershlp and aood oldŴ
fashloned leadershlpŦ
÷ Moral obllaaLlon Lo awaken people's poLenLlalŦ
÷ Moral leaders lnsLlll hlah expecLaLlons and leL
oLhers do Lhelr besLŦ

WPA1 Au8S uCŦŦŦ
W 8ecrulLsţ doesn'L [usL hlre
W 8reaLhes vlslon lnLo people
W Models poslLlve behavlor
W Challenaesţ provokes
W ls lnLellecLuallv sLlmulaLlna
W uoesn'L lnLerfereţ has couraae Lo leL lL happen
W ulscovers LalenLs
W 8ullds Lhe hablLaL for creaLlvlLv
W lnsLllls ownershlp

WhaL are Lhe conLlnaencv Lheorles
of leadershlp?
lledler's conLlnaencv model
÷ Cood leadershlp depends on a maLch beLween
leadershlp and slLuaLlonal demandsŦ
÷ ueLermlnlna leadershlp sLvleť
W 1askŴmoLlvaLed leaders
W 8elaLlonshlpŴmoLlvaLed leaders
÷ ulaanoslna slLuaLlonal conLrolť
W CuallLv of leaderŴmember relaLlons (aood or poor)
W uearee of Lask sLrucLure (hlah or low)
W AmounL of poslLlon power (sLrona or weak)

WhaL are Lhe conLlnaencv Lheorles
of leadershlp?
lledler's conLlnaencv model
÷ MaLchlna leadershlp sLvle and slLuaLlonal
conLrolť
W 1askŴorlenLed leaders are mosL successful ln
÷ verv favorable (hlah conLrol) slLuaLlonsŦ
÷ verv unfavorable (low conLrol) slLuaLlonŦ
W 8elaLlonshlpŴorlenLed leaders are mosL successful ln
÷ SlLuaLlons of moderaLe conLrolŦ
6
FIGURE 13-4 atching leadership style and situation: summary predictions Irom Fiedler`s
contingency theory.
Schermerhorn/Management, 7e
Chapter 13, Figure 13-04

WhaL are Lhe conLlnaencv Lheorles
of leadershlp?
PersevŴ8lanchard slLuaLlonal leadershlp model
÷ eaders ad[usL Lhelr sLvles dependlna on Lhe
readlness of Lhelr followers Lo perform ln a alven
slLuaLlonŦ
W 8eadlnessŸhow ableţ wllllna and confldenL followers
are ln performlna LasksŦ
8
WhaL are Lhe conLlnaencv Lheorles
of leadershlp?
PersevŴ8lanchard leadershlp sLvles
÷ ueleaaLlna
W owŴLaskţ lowŴrelaLlonshlp sLvle
W Works besL ln hlah readlnessŴslLuaLlons
÷ ÞarLlclpaLlna
W owŴLaskţ hlahŴrelaLlonshlp sLvle
W Works besL ln lowŴ Lo moderaLeŴreadlness slLuaLlons

WhaL are Lhe conLlnaencv Lheorles
of leadershlp?
PersevŴ8lanchard leadershlp sLvles
÷ Selllna
W PlahŴLaskţ hlahŴrelaLlonshlp sLvle
W Work besL ln moderaLeŴ Lo hlahŴreadlness slLuaLlons
÷ 1elllna
W PlahŴLaskţ lowŴrelaLlonshlp sLvle
W Work besL ln lowŴreadlness slLuaLlons
0
FIGURE 13-5 Leadership implications oI the Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership
model.
Schermerhorn/Management, 7e
Chapter 13, Figure 13-05
1
WhaL are Lhe conLlnaencv Lheorles
of leadershlp?
Pouse's paLhŴaoal leadershlp Lheorv
÷ ffecLlve leadershlp deals wlLh Lhe paLhs Lhrouah
whlch followers can achleve aoalsŦ
÷ eadershlp sLvles for deallna wlLh paLhŴaoal
relaLlonshlpsť
W ulrecLlve leadershlp
W SupporLlve leadershlp
W AchlevemenLŴorlenLed leadershlp
W ÞarLlclpaLlve leadershlp
2
WhaL are Lhe conLlnaencv Lheorles
of leadershlp?
Pouse's paLhŴaoal leadershlp Lheorv
÷ use dlrecLlve leadershlp when [ob asslanmenLs are
amblauousŦ
÷ use supporLlve leadershlp when worker selfŴ
confldence ls lowŦ
÷ use parLlclpaLlve leadershlp when performance
lncenLlves are poorŦ
÷ use achlevemenLŴorlenLed leadershlp when Lask
challenae ls lnsufflclenLŦ

FIGURE 13-6 ontingency relationships in the path-goal leadership theory.
Schermerhorn/Management, 7e
Chapter 13, Figure 13-06

WhaL are Lhe conLlnaencv Lheorles
of leadershlp?
SubsLlLuLes for leadershlp
÷ AspecLs of Lhe work seLLlna and Lhe people
lnvolved LhaL can reduce Lhe need for a leader's
personal lnvolvemenLŦ
÷ Þosslble leadershlp subsLlLuLesť
W SubordlnaLe characLerlsLlcs
W 1ask characLerlsLlcs
W CraanlzaLlonal characLerlsLlcs

WhaL are Lhe conLlnaencv Lheorles
of leadershlp?
vroomŴ!aao leaderŴparLlclpaLlon Lheorv
÷ Pelps leaders choose Lhe meLhod of declslon
maklna LhaL besL flLs Lhe naLure of Lhe
problem slLuaLlonŦ
÷ AlLernaLlve declslonŴmaklna meLhods
W AuLhorlLv declslon
W ConsulLaLlve declslon
W Croup declslon
6
WhaL are Lhe conLlnaencv Lheorles
of leadershlp?
vroomŴ!aao leaderŴparLlclpaLlon Lheorv
÷ use aroupŴorlenLed and parLlclpaLlve declslonŴ
maklna meLhods when ŧ
W 1he leader lacks sufflclenL lnformaLlon Lo solve a
problem bv hlmself/herselfŦ
W 1he problem ls unclear and help ls needed Lo clarlfv Lhe
slLuaLlonŦ
W AccepLance of Lhe declslon bv oLhers ls lmporLanLŦ
W AdequaLe Llme ls avallable for Lrue parLlclpaLlonŦ

WhaL are Lhe conLlnaencv Lheorles
of leadershlp?
vroomŴ!aao leaderŴparLlclpaLlon Lheorv
÷ use auLhorlLvŴorlenLed declslonŴmaklna meLhods
when ŧ
W 1he leader has areaLer experLlse Lo solve a problemŦ
W 1he leader ls confldenL and capable of acLlna aloneŦ
W CLhers are llkelv Lo accepL Lhe declslonŦ
W lLLle or no Llme ls avallable for dlscusslonŦ
8
FIGURE 13-7 Leadership implications oI Vroom-Jago
leader-participation model.
Schermerhorn/Management, 7e
Chapter 13, Figure 13-07