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Individual Differences in Ability

The rate of instruction must be geared to the ability
levels of the trainees.
Also referred to as the desire to learn is of utmost
importance in training.
To somewhat degree, a high level of motivation can
compensate for a somewhat lower level of ability.
A good trainor is aware of individual differences in
motivation among the trainees and gears the level of
instruction accordingly.
10% of what we READ 20% of what we HEAR 30% of what we SEE

50% of what we SEE and HEAR 70% of what we SAY 90% of what we DO
Active Practice of the Materials
For learning to be of maximum effectiveness, trainees
must be actively involved in the learning process.

The training program must provide sufficient

oppurtunity to practice actively the skills required on the

The practice must be guided so that trainees perform

the task in the most efficient and safest manner.
Mass Versus Distributed Practice
Usually, but not always the better approach to learning.

Depends on the nature and complexity of the task or material

being learned
Mass Practice
a practice schedule in which the amount of rest between sessions
or trials is very short
Usually used for more experienced performers

Good to use when the the skill or task is simple

Useful when time is limited
Distributed Practice
a practice schedule in which the amount of rest between sessions
or trials is relatively long
Better for beginners being introduced to the skill

Better for complex skills which require a high level of

Useful when the skill has a danger element
Whole Versus Part Learning
Refers to the relative size of the unit of material to be learned.

More intelligent trainees are capable of learning larger units

of materials that might confuse slower learners

Some tasks and skills adapt themselves well to whole

learning, some require it for efficient learning

Where a task requires the initial learning of several subskills,

the part method is more efficient.
Whole Learning
The skill is demonstrated and then practiced asa whole, from
start to finish.
Best used for fast skills which cannot be easily separated into
It is unsuitable for people with low attention spans, complex
or dangerous skills.
Part Learning
The parts of the skill are practised in isolation

Useful for complicated and serial skills and is good for

maintaining motivation and focusing on specific elements of
the skill
Transfer of Training
Organizational training takes place in an artificial setting

The discrepancy between the training and job environments

must be bridged.

The conditions of training accurately reproduce the

conditions pf the job to aviod negative transfer and maximize
positive transfer.
Knowledge of Results
Indicates to learners the level of progress being made and can
be very important in terms of maintaining motivation.

Contributes directly to proper training in that it tells trainees

what they are doing wrong

To be maximally effective, feedback must occur as soon as

possible after the behavior.
Knowledge of Results
Training by itself is ineffective. Training plus feedback
achieves the desired results

Training is facilitated by the specificity of this feedback.

refers to the consequences of behavior.

The greater the reward or successful consequences following

a behavior, the more readily and rapidly those behaviors that
lead to a reward of some kind tend to be learned.

For maximum results, reinforcements should be given

immediately after the desired behavior has occurred.
Reinforcement should be given every time the desired
behavior is displayed in the early stages of training.

The behavior can be maintained and strenghtened by

providing only partial reinforcement.
Fixed Ratio Schedule

Schedule of reinforcement.
an effective means of facilitating learning
behavior modification

Reinforcement as a means of changing behavior

The use of punishment as an aid to learning is not recommended.

Punishment may eliminate an undesirable behavior, but it may

leave in its place anxiety, hostility, or anger on the part of the