You are on page 1of 53

COMPUTER SKILLS

SUMMER, 2017-2018

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTING
COURSE COMPONENTS
Introduction to Computers
Computer Applications
Visual Programming
WHAT IS A COMPUTER
SYSTEM
• A computer is a device, that can be programmed to
perform computational tasks
• Computer: an electronic digital device that can be
programmed to perform calculations.

Data => Computer => Information


A Computer System consists of:
• Hardware
• Software
• Data
• Procedures
DIGITAL VERSUS ANALOG
A digital device uses discrete data.
• Discrete data is distinct or separate.
• Ex: Numbers or digits.
Most computers today are digital. Their circuits have only
two possible states, such as “Off” and “On” or “0” and “1”.
TYPES OF DEVICES
Digital versus Analog
An analog device operates on continuously
varying data.
Continuously varying data has an infinite
number of possible states.
HISTORY
• First Generation: Vacuum Tubes (1940-1956)
• Second Generation: Transistors (1956-1963)
• Second Generation: Transistors (1956-1963)
• Fourth Generation: Microprocessors (1971-
Present)
• Fifth Generation ??
CATEGORIES
• Microcomputers
• Minicomputers
• Mainframes
• Supercomputers
DATA
• Numeric
• Text
• Images
• Sound
• Video
DATA: BINARY NUMBERS
Decimal System: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9
Binary System: 0,1 (off/on)
Decimal Binary
0 0
1 1
2 10
3 11
4 100
5 101
6 110
7 111
DATA
MEASUREMENTS
• bit: is a binary digit (0/1)
• byte = 8 bits
• Kilobyte = 1024 bytes
• Megabyte = 1024 Kilobytes
• Gigabyte = 1024 Megabytes
• Terabyte = 1024 Gigabyte
• Petabyte = 1024 Terabyte
• Exabyte = 1024 Petabyta
• Zettabyte, yottabyte
DATA: TEXT
• ASCII, EBCDIC:
• ~1 byte per character
• 128 characters only, roman characters
• Unicode:
• ~2 byte per character
• International characters
• A = 01000001 (ASCII)
• B = 01000010 (ASCII)
DATA: IMAGES
• Digital Image = 2D Array of pixels
• Pixel: Picture Element
• Each pixel is given a binary number to
represent a color.
• More bits per pixel means more colors can be
represented
• Monochrome images 1bpp (black and white)
• 24 bpp is the norm now, it gives ~16 million
colors
DATA: OTHER
Sound
• Waves to binary
• WAV, MP3…
Video
• Sound + Images
• ~30 image per second
HARDWARE
COMPUTER
HARDWARE
Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a
processor, or a microprocessor
Memory (RAM)
Storage Devices
Input Devices
Output Devices
COMPUTER
HARDWARE
Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a
processor or a microprocessor
Memory (RAM)
Storage Devices
Input Devices
Output Devices
COMPUTER
HARDWARE
Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a
processor or a microprocessor
Memory (RAM)
Storage Devices
Input Devices
Output Devices
COMPUTER
HARDWARE
Central Processing Unit - also called “The Chip”, a CPU, a
processor or a microprocessor
Memory (RAM)
Storage Devices
Input Devices
Output Devices
CPU TYPES
• CPU or microprocessor is often described as the brain of
a computer.
• CPU is an integrated circuit or “chip” which processes
instructions and data.
• CPU types.
• Intel Core i3, i5, i7
• Intel Pentium II, III, IV
• Intel Celeron
• AMD Athlon
CPU TYPES
• CPU speed is measured by the number of completed
instruction cycles per second Currently, CPU speeds
range from 600 megahertz (MHz or million cycles per
second) to few gigahertz (GHz or billion cycles per
second) for average PCs.
• CPU speed is a critical factor in the performance of the
computer system.
MEMORY (RAM)
• RAM or Random Access Memory
• “Waiting room” for computer’s CPU.
• Holds instructions for processing data,
processed data, and raw data.
• Ram is measured by:
• Capacity (in Megabytes or Gigabytes)
• Speed (in Nanoseconds)
• RAM is temporary
• RAM is volatile
• RAM can be accessed Randomly (not sequentially)
MEMORY (RAM)
Amount of RAM installed will determine.
•Which software applications will run (efficiently)?
•How many software applications can be open
simultaneously (multitasking ability)?
RAM upgrades are cost-effective and easy to
install.
MEMORY (ROM)
• Read Only Memory
• Non Volatile (permanent)
• Stores special instructions to start the
computer
• CPU can read ROM, Can’t change its value
STORAGE
TECHNOLOGY
• Electronic devices that store, retrieve, and save
instructions and data.
• Today’s microcomputers or PCs include several types of
storage devices.
• Capacity and speed are important considerations when
selecting a new storage device for a PC.
STORAGE
TECHNOLOGY
Magnetic storage devices store data by
magnetizing particles on a disk or tape. They
have a limited life-span of 1 to 5 years,
depending on the device.
Optical storage devices store data as light and
dark spots on the disk surface. They have an
unlimited life-span.
STORAGE DEVICES
Hard Disk Drives
Capacity is measured in gigabytes and terabytes
Typically permanently installed.
Used to store operating system, application software, utilities
and data.
Magnetic storage device.
STORAGE DEVICES
Floppy Disk Drives
Capacity is 1.44 to 2.0 megabytes (MB or
millions of bytes).
• Storage device with the smallest capacity
• Most portable storage media
Magnetic storage device.
STORAGE DEVICES
CD-ROM Drives
Typically installed on all new computer systems. (Were add-
on device until the mid 1990’s).
Capacity is 600 to 750 megabytes
(MB or millions of bytes).
Most mass-produced commercial software is packaged on a
CD.
STORAGE DEVICES
CD-ROM Drives
Used more often now for backup storage as CD-RW
(read/write) technology has become less expensive.
Data is read from CD by a laser.
Optical storage device.
STORAGE DEVICES
Other Types of Drives
Zip Drives – Several different capacities are
available.
Tape Drives – Generally used for system
backups, becoming less common.
DVD drives – Can also read CDs, now more
common as a standard device on new
computer systems.
MEMORY CARDS
Secure Digital (SD)
• Small
• Portable
• (soon up to 2 TB)
INPUT DEVICES
Input is all information put into a computer. Input can be
supplied from a variety of sources:
• A person
• A storage device on computer
• Another computer
• A peripheral device
• Another piece of equipment, such as a musical instrument or
thermometer
INPUT DEVICES
Input devices gather and translate data into a form the
computer understands.
Primary input device:
• Keyboard - Most common input device; used to type in
commands and data.
• Mouse or trackball enhances user’s ability to input
commands, manipulate text, images.
• Joystick useful in education as an adaptive or assistive input
device.
INPUT DEVICES
Scanners are peripheral input devices which allow users to
import:
• Text
• Graphics
• Images
Specialized software aids in translating information into a
format the computer can understand and manipulate.
INPUT DEVICES
Digital Cameras are peripheral input devices that
allow users to create pictures and/or movies in a
digital format.
• Some require specialized
software to import images
into the computer.
• Some record digital images directly to a disk that
can be read by the computer.
OUTPUT DEVICES
Monitors are the most commonly used output device.
Most monitors use a bitmap display.
• Allows user to resize the display.
• Divides the screen into a matrix of tiny square “dots” called
pixels.
• The more “dots” a screen can display, the higher the
resolution of the monitor.
OUTPUT DEVICES
Monitors are connected to a computer system via a port
integrated on the video adapter or graphics card.
Graphics cards convert digital data output from software to
analog data for display on monitors.
Typically have additional memory chips on card.
OUTPUT DEVICES
Printers
Dot matrix
• Seldom used in a classroom.
• Still frequently used in business.
Bubble or ink jet
Laser
OUTPUT DEVICES
Projection systems or classroom TVs can display
information from a computer system on a larger screen for
whole-class instruction.
NETWORKS
A collection of computers and other devices that
communicate to share data, hardware, and software.
A stand-alone computer is called a workstation on a network.
A workstation provides access to:
• Your computer’s local resources
• Network resources
NETWORKS

Network nodes include


workstations, printers,
and servers.
NETWORKS
A server is a computer connected to a network that
distributes and stores resources for other network users.
With proper licensing, many network users can use the same
applications and data files simultaneously and share other
resources, such as storage space or a printer.
NETWORKS
Local Area Network (LAN) –
a network located in a limited area.
• LANs are found in most businesses.
• Many campuses use LANs.
A network interface card (NIC) –
a key hardware component.
• Connects a workstation to the network.
• A circuit board that sends data between the workstation and
the network.
NETWORKS
Wide Area Network (WAN) –
a network that covers a large geographical area. TENET is a
classic example.
All types of networks require special networking hardware
and networking software to allow different computers to
communicate with each other.
NETWORKS
The Internet - largest of all networks.
Communication standards called protocols allow for global
exchange of information.
• Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
• Internet Protocol (IP)
Intranets are LANs or WANs that use these communication
standards or TCP/IP.
Special hardware (modem) and software (browser) are
required.
SOFTWARE
Instructions and associated data, stored in electronic format,
that direct the computer to accomplish a task.
System software helps the computer carry out its basic
operating tasks.
• Operating systems
• Utilities
SYSTEM SOFTWARE
An Operating System (OS) is the master controller within a
computer.
EX: Windows, MacOS, DOS, UNIX, Linux
An operating system interacts with:
• All hardware installed in or connected to a computer system.
• All software installed or running from a storage device on a
computer system.
SYSTEM SOFTWARE
Microsoft Windows
• Most popular operating system.
• Supports a vast array of application software and peripheral
devices.
MacOS
• For Macintosh computers.
• Proprietary system.
• Does not have same functionality and support for software
and peripheral devices.
SYSTEM SOFTWARE
Utilities
Utilities augment functionality of operating
systems. Utilities includes device drivers and
Troubleshooting capabilities.
Utilities provide file management capabilities
such as copying, moving or renaming a file.
Norton Utilities includes an undelete function
that can recover deleted files.
Symantec and McAfee Virus checkers add
protection for all system and data files.
APPLICATION
SOFTWARE
Accomplishes specific tasks for users.
Enables a computer to become a multi-purpose machine.

Produce Create flow charts


worksheets and and graphic
reports. organizers.
Automate record Communicate
keeping like worldwide.
attendance and
grades.
APPLICATION
SOFTWARE
Productivity Software
• Spreadsheets
• Databases
Presentation Software
Document Preparation
• Word Processing
• Desktop Publishing
Project Management Software
THANK YOU