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IGCSE History Year 10

Were the peace treaties of 1919-23 Fair?

 Performance expectations:

1) Reading of sources

2) Critical thinking skills

3) Persuasive and argumentative writing (highlight both


4) Be able to demonstrate the capacity to distinguish

between the essential and the ancillary
Focus points
 What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at

 Why did all the victors not get everything they wanted?

 What was the impact of the peace treaty on Germany up

to 1923?

 Could the treaties be justified at the time?

High hopes for peace
 Woodrow Wilson. (USA)

Don’t be too harsh on Germany

Strengthen Democracy in defeated countries

International cooperation

Give self-determination to small countries that had once

been part of the European Empires.
High hopes for peace
 Georges Clemenceau (France)

 He wanted revenge and punish the Germans harshly.

 He wanted to make Germany pay for the damage of the


 He also wanted to weaken Germany by gaining land so

France wouldn’t be invaded again.
High hopes for Peace
 Lloyd George (UK)

 He wanted justice but not revenge.

 He was afraid if Germany would be punished too

harshly that a world war would soon happen again.

 UK depended on Germany for export/import reasons

and a harsh punishment would intervene with the
The Treaty at Versailles
 War guilt. (Germany)

 Reparations

 Germany’s European borders

 Germany’s armed forces

 League of Nations (Germany excluded)

The Big Three

This cartoon by a British artist

appeared in Punch on 19 February
The caption read: German
Criminal to Allied Police: Here, I
say, stop! You're hurting me!
(Aside: If I only whine enough I
may be able to wriggle out of this
How did Germany react to the
 War guilt and reparations.  was hated by the Germans.

 Disarmament->100.000 men, too small.

 German territories ->10% of the land lost.

 14 points League of Nations -> Anschluss was


 Non-representation-> Germany was not represented in

the League of Nations/Peace Treaties.
How did Germany react
to the Treaty?
 For clarification, read page 14.
Peace settlements
 Treaty of St. Germain

 Treaty of Neuilly

 Treaty of Sevres
The impact of the Treaty
on Germany
 Kapp Putsch.

 Conflict in the Ruhr. (strikes).

 Hyperinflation. (printing more money).

The Treaty of Sevres
 10th of August 1920.

 Ottoman Empire.

 Britain took control of Palestine and Iraq, France took

over Syria and Lebanon. The British were also given oil
concessions via Turkish Petroleum Company.

 Armenia became a sovereign state.

 The Ottoman Army was limited to 50,000 men. Air

force was forbidden.
Task in class
 Read chapter one.

 Study the keywords of chapter one.

 Read the chapter summary.

 Page 21 Exam Practice.

Focus task A
 In class

 Page 13.
 Read page 10 till 15.

 Do revision tip page 13, Focus task and Revision tip page

 Finish group project.