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• Let a source of constant voltage E be switched

suddenly on a line open-circuited at the far end.

• Then neglecting the effect of line resistance a

rectangular voltage wave of amplitude E and its

associated current wave of amplitude I = E/Zc will

travel with velocity v towards the open end

• At the open end, the current must of necessity

fall to zero, and consequently the energy stored

in the magnetic field must be dissipated in some

way.

• Since R and G neglected, this energy can only be

used in the production of an equal amount of

electrostatic field.

• If this is done, the voltage at the point will be

increased by an amount e such that the energy

lost by the electromagnetic field (0.5 LI2) is equal

to the energy gained by the electrostatic field

(0.5CV2).

• Hence, the total voltage at the open end

becomes 2E.

• The open end of the

line can thus be

regarded as the origin

of a second voltage

wave of amplitude E,

this second wave

travelling back to the

source with the same

velocity v.

open-ended line

The Short-Circuited Line

• In this case, the voltage at the far end of the

line must of necessity be zero, so that as each

element of the voltage wave arrives at the end

there is a conversion of electrostatic energy

into electromagnetic energy.

• Hence, the voltage is reflected with reversal

sign while the current is reflected without any

change of sign: thus on the first reflection, the

current builds up to 2I.

• It will be seen that the

line voltage is

periodically reduced to

zero, but that at each

reflection at either end

the current is built up

by the additional

amount I = E/Zc. Thus,

theoretically, the

current will eventually

become infinite as is to

be expected in the case

of a lossless line.

Reflection, Refraction and

Diffraction

Definition

• Refraction: Refers to change

in direction of waves as they

pass from one medium to

another medium

in direction of waves when

they bounce of a barrier

in direction of waves as they

pass through the opening or

around a barrier in their path

Expression for Reflection and

Refraction Wave

• Let V1 be the magnitude of a step wave (incident wave)

approaching the junction and I1 corresponding current

wave. Then I1 = V1 / ZA

• Let V2 be the reflected voltage wave. The corresponding

current waves are I2 = -V2 / ZA

• Let V3 be the refracted voltage wave. The corresponding

current waves are I3 = V3 / ZB

• At the junction by applying KCL we have

• I1 + I2 = I3 ; V1 + V2 = V3

Expression for reflected wave

Expression for refracted wave

V3=b.V1

Numerical Example

• Surge impedances of OH line ZA = 350 Ohm;

cable: ZB = 50 Ohm;

• The incident step wave magnitude: 300 kV;

Compute reflected and refracted voltage and

current wave magnitudes

Solution

I1=V1/ZA V2= a x V1

• I1 = 300,000/350 =642.9 • V2 = -0.75x300 = -225

A kV

• Reflection coefficient • Reflected current wave:

a=(ZB-ZA)/(ZB+ZA) I2=-(V2/ZA)

• a = (50-350)/(50+350) = • I2 = -(-225000)/350 =

-0.75 643 A

• Refraction coeffcient b=

2 x ZB/(ZA+ZB)

• b = 2x50/(50+350) =

0.25

• Transmitted voltage

wave: V3=b x V1

• V3 = 0.25x300 kV= 75 kV

• Transmitted current

wave:I3= (V3/ZB)

• I3 = 75000/50 = 1500 A

Note: The voltage penetrating into the cable is only 75 kV; cable some times

used to protect equipment – just insert a section of cable between OH line and

terminal equipment

Energy Conservation

• Energy is conserved at the junction by

initiation of secondary waves

• Energy input to the line

• According to the Law of conservation of

energy

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