3 REASONS FOR A THIRD BRITISH PORT

Why did the British need a third post? 1. 2. 3. China Trade Failure of Penang and Bencoolen Check Dutch power

1. THE CHINA TRADE
• Need for a port of call to serve the lucrative China trade • Chief items : Tea and opium • Why tea? Why opium? • Tea imports : 1761 £2.5m to 1800 £23m • Importance of opium : Balance Britain’s lop-sided trade with China

THE EIC
Importance of China trade : • Profits used to finance the EIC’s administrative expenses in India Importance of trade with Malay Archipelago • Trade was flourishing Importance of trade with Europe : • Huge demand for Straits produce • For all these reasons, the EIC needed a port better located than Penang to control this trade

2. FAILURE OF PENANG & BENCOOLEN
PENANG • Too far north up the S/M to control trade in SEA • Health hazard : Malaria • Piracy; could not protect its own ships BENCOOLEN • Too far south on the west coast of Sumatra away from the main trade routes in S/M

3. CHECK DUTCH POWER
“It is clear that the object of the Dutch is to control all trade in the Archipelago. By controlling the only passes to the Archipelago, namely the Straits of Malacca and the Sunda Straits, they have also in their power at all times to disrupt our China trade.” Raffles

3. CHECK DUTCH POWER
• 1811-1816 : British-occupied Java • Batavia - centre of trade • After Napoleonic Wars in 1816, Indonesia was returned to the Dutch • Dutch continued trade monopoly • Imposed high tariffs on British ships • British ships allowed to trade only with Batavia, not other Dutch ports

3. CHECK DUTCH POWER
• This badly affected British trade • Thus the need for a base to check Dutch influence and control of trade in SEA • Attract traders from around the main trading in the Archipelago to trade in the British port

3 REASONS FOR A THIRD BRITISH PORT 1. 2. China Trade Failure of Penang and Bencoolen Check Dutch power

3.

RAFFLES : THE MAN AND HIS VISION

RAFFLES : THE MAN AND HIS VISION
• Vision of a British Empire in the East Indies • Counter Dutch influence in the Malay Archipelago • Saw the potential of a base south of the Malay Peninsular
– Acheh – Rhio Islands

RAFFLES : THE MAN AND HIS VISION
• Dutch : Occupied Rhio and claimed control over Lingga and Johore • Carimon Islands - Suitable?Unsuitable? • Then came Singapore to the rescue!!!!!

RAFFLES : what he wrote………….
At Singapore, I found advantages far superior to what the other islands had to offer. It is located at the southern entrance of the Straits of Malacca, thus, in a commanding position to protect our ships as they sail from India to China. It has also been my good fortune to discover one of the safest harbours in the area. Singapore is everything we could desire. It will soon rise in importance and break the Dutch monopoly of trade in the Archipelago.

WHAT’S SO GREAT ABOUT SINGAPORE ?
initially

• Geographical Location • Natural Harbour • Good supply of drinking water • No Dutch flag

TREATY OF 6 FEB 1819
1. 2. 3. Permission for EIC to estb a settlement Annual payment of Rp$5000 to Sultan and Rp$3000 to Temenggong EIC - protection and support to S and T who will protect the Bri settlement from attacks S & T - No treaties with other powers

4.

TREATY OF 6 FEB 1819
5. 6. EIC : Administer and pay for the cost of the port of S’pore S & T entitled to half of any duties collected from native ships

DEVELOPMENT OF SINGAPORE UP TO 1824
• • • • • • Rapid Growth Trade Town Planning Justice Social Progress Why the rapid growth?

DEVELOPMENT OF SINGAPORE UP TO 1824
• Rapid Growth
– Jun 1819 : Population 5,000 – 1824 : First census 10,683 – After 1836 , Chinese outnumbered Malays

DEVELOPMENT OF SINGAPORE UP TO 1824
• Trade
– 1823, Annual trade > Sp$ 13,000,000 – Free from government monopoly – Entrepot trade

DEVELOPMENT OF SINGAPORE UP TO 1824
• Town Planning
• Raffles returned 4 months later and gave Farquhar instructions on town planning • When Raffles came back in Oct 1822, he was unhappy with the way Farquhar had planned and governed Singapore

DEVELOPMENT OF SINGAPORE UP TO 1824
• Town Planning
• Made John Crawfurd the 2nd Resident of Singapore • Much of Raffles’ Town Plan still remain today

DEVELOPMENT OF SINGAPORE UP TO 1824
• Administration of Justice • Temporary Code of Law drawn up by Raffles • A local headman or kapitan was appointed for each of the major Asian communities • 12 European merchants appointed as magistrates, assisted by headmen. • Dealt with minor cases

DEVELOPMENT OF SINGAPORE UP TO 1824
• Major cases dealt by Resident • A police force was organised to maintain law and order

DEVELOPMENT OF SINGAPORE UP TO 1824
• • • • Social Progress Slave trade slowly abolished Land registration was introduced Singapore’s first Botanical Gardens was opened • Roads and drainage works • Reservoirs, bridges

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF SINGAPORE’S TRADE
1. 2. 3. 4. Geographical Position Excellent harbour Free Port Free Trade

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF SINGAPORE’S TRADE
1. Geographical Position
– favourably located on the trade route to China – convenient port-of-call for European traders sailing through the S/M – stop at S’pore for trade, supplies and information – meeting place between East & West – Important coaling station when steamships were introduced

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF SINGAPORE’S TRADE
2. Excellent Harbour
– accommodate all ships large or small – especially important when bigger ships were built

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF SINGAPORE’S TRADE
3. Free Port
– traders did not have to pay import or export duties – only opium and liquor were taxed – for the first 10 years, S’pore was the only free port in the Malay Archipelago – other free ports established later were unable to challenge S’pore
• unique geographical advantages • foreign investment in infrastructure

FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF SINGAPORE’S TRADE
4. Free Trade
– trade did not come under control of British government – ships of any nationality could trade freely in Singapore without restrictions

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