CHAPTER 6

BRUNEI’S EXTERNAL RELATIONS IN THE 16TH –18TH CENTURIES
“And kill not your children for fear of poverty. We provide for them and for you. Surely, the killing of them is a great sin.” Surah Al-Isra verse 31
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THE COMING OF THE EUROPEAN TO SOUTH EAST ASIA
In 1453, the Ottomon Turks captured the city of Constantinople. As such, trade routes from Europe to the east were cut off. Europeans were not allowed to use the Silk route. Thus, the Portuguese and the Spanish tried to find a sea route to Asia from Europe.
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DISCOVERY OF SEA ROUTES
The Spanish tried to sail around the world by going west from Europe. Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492.

Christopher Columbus
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The Portuguese tried to find a way around Africa to get to Asia.

Vasco da Gama discovered Africa and the Cape of Good Hope and the sea route to India.

Vasco da Gama
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At the end of the 15th century, European traders and ships started to visit ports in Southeast Asia.

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THE PORTUGUESE AT MALACCA
In 1511,the Portuguese captured the important port of Malacca.

They encouraged traders from countries in Southeast Asia to continue to use the Port of Malacca.

They also tried to control the spice trade.
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ARRIVAL OF THE SPANISH

In 1521, a Spanish ship ,Victoria arrived in Brunei. The Spanish returned to the Philippines in 1551. Seized lands controlled by Brunei, Stopped the spread of Islam by Brunei’s missionaries in the Philippines. Ferdinand Magellan
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THE CASTILLE WAR
Events leading to the war
• Spanish mission to Brunei in 1576 asked for: i. Permission of spread Christianity in Brunei. ii. Brunei’s missionaries to stop spreading of Islam in the Philippines. • Sultan Saiful Rijal would not agree to the terms.

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OUTBREAK OF THE CIVIL WAR
• In April 1578, the Spanish attacked and captured Brunei’s capital. • Achieved as a result of assistance rendered to the Spanish by 2 nobles • In June 1578, Brunei drove the Spanish out.

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Brunei’s Traditional System of Government
SULTAN
WAZIR • PENGIRAN BENDAHARA • PENGIRAN TEMENGGONG • PENGIRAN DI-GADONG • PENGIRAN PEMANCHA CHETERIA (NOBLE) MANTERI

HULUBALANG PEGAWAI, IMAM, KHATIB, BILAL
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BRUNEI’S TRADITIONAL LAND RIGHTS SYSTEMS

Kerajaan

Kuripan

Tulin

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BRUNEI’S TRADE
Brunei obtained its money from trade. All important officials including the Sultan, were traders. They sold Bruneian products to other traders who came from China, India, Arabia, Cambodia, Siam, Pahang, Java, Sumatra, The Moluccas ( spice islands ) and Mindanao in the Philippines.

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BRUNEI’S IMPORT AND EXPORT

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INFLUENCE OF THE DUTCH IN BORNEO ISLAND AND THE RELATIONS WITH BRUNEI
The Dutch visited Brunei in 1600.

The Dutch were interested in the spice trade and as such, did not sign any agreement with Brunei.

In 1619, the Dutch set up base in Batavia. (Jakarta)
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IN 1641, THE DUTCH CAPTURED MALACCA. Traders from Brunei went to Malacca to trade.

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BRUNEI AND THE BRITISH
The British started to come to Brunei at the end of the 16th century A.D..

They formed the East India company in the year 1600 to control all of their trade in Asia.

The British were interested in the trade in China and India.

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Near the end of the 18th century, a British trader named Alexander Dalrymple made an agreement with the Sultan of Sulu. The agreement allowed the the British to use part of the Coast of North Borneo and some nearby islands for their trade.

A trading post was set up in 1773 in Balambangan.

The trading post was destroyed by pirates two years later.

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In 1774, the EIC sent an agent John Jesse to Brunei. His job was to buy pepper from the Chinese Gardeners along the Brunei river. In 1775, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin I then offered Labuan to the British. In return Brunei wanted to get assistance from the British against the people of Sulu.

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The British trading post in Labuan was closed as it did not make money. The British then lost interest in Brunei until 1819 when Singapore was founded.

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Sea routes taken by the European explorers
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BACK

Kerajaan
Controlled by the sultan himself. The lands were administered by his officials. Taxes from these lands belonged to the sultan.

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BACK

Kuripan
Given to important officials as long as they held their important positions. When a new official was appointed to that position, the lands were transferred to him. The money earned from these lands provided the salary for that official.

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Tulin
Belonged to noble families. The money earned from these lands belonged to the head of the family. These lands were passed from father to son. The owner of these lands could sell them if he wished.

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