CHAPTER 4

THE RISE AND SPREAD OF ISLAM
“This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.”
OFF

Surah Al-Maidah

1

WHAT IS THE MEANING OF ISLAM? Peace and it had existed from the time of JAHILIAH. JAHILIAH
The crescent and star is a symbol widely used by the Muslims today. The crescent symbolises ‘light’ and the star symbolises ‘guidance’. Together they represent Islam as giving light and comfort to the Muslims.

2
OFF

FOUNDER OF ISLAM
He was Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). The religion was spread by Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) and his followers during the seventh century a.D. The religion was founded amidst a lot of lawlessness and crime. As such the religion was brought in to invite All mankind to obey Allah and to do good deeds.

3
OFF

ARABIA, THE LAND WHERE ISLAM BEGAN

Arabia occupies a large piece of land between the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea.
OFF

4

Most of the land in Arabia is desert land. There are places where water can be found allowing trees and crops to grow. These places are called oases. From earlier times, towns in Arabia sprang up around oases.

Arabian town between the desert and an oasis

5
OFF

PEOPLE OF ARABIA
NOMADS

BEDOUINS

A CAMEL TRAIN
OFF

TRADERS

6

THE PEOPLE OF ARABIA
During the sixth /seventh century, Arabia’s population was made up of two main groups:  People who lived in towns and villages  People who were desert nomads Bedouins

7
OFF

INFLUENCES ON ARABIA
Arabia was influenced by civilisations and cultures of its surrounding countries. Traders from these countries often crossed Arabia. Jewish and Christian ideas spread into Arabia along the trade routes. People from the neighbouring countries came to settle in many of the oases towns.
Thus the Arab people were influenced by external forces.
8
OFF

THE BEDOUINS
The Bedouins moved from place to place and lived in tents. They kept animals such as goats, sheep, camels and horses. They were organised into tribes, each with its own leaders. The leaders were known as sheikhs. The Bedouin tribes often raided towns and villages and attacked travellers crossing the desert. For protection, travellers often banded together and carried their goods on camels.

9
OFF

MAP OF THE LOCATION OF ARABIA IN RELATION TO ITS NEIGHBOURS

10
OFF

THE HOLY CITY OF MEKAH
1. Began as an oasis town. 2. A religious centre.

3. Developed into an important trading centre.

4. Tribesmen were descendants of prophet Ibrahim (On Him be bliss and peace).
11

6th Century people had different religions.

Built by Prophet Ibrahim (On him be bliss and peace).

Kaabah Most important Place of worship.

A black stone worshipped by people. Statues and idols of false gods found.
12

THE KAABAH
The Kaabah is the Qibla for Muslims. Although Muslims face Kaabah during prayers they do not worship the Kaabah. Muslims worship and bow to none but Allah.

13

EARLY LIFE OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD (PEACE BE UPON HIM)
Born in 571 A.D.. Father was a descendant of Prophet Ibrahim (On him be bliss and peace). Father died before he was born. At six years old, Mother passed away. Grandfather Abdul Mutalib and uncle Abu Talib brought him up.
14

As a child, he followed his uncle Abu Talib to Syria to trade. When he was a grown man, he became a trader.

He travelled to Syria to sell goods for a merchant called Saiditina Siti Khadijah.
When he was 25 years old, he married her.
15

The birth of Islam in the Holy City of Mekah Prophet Muhammad received first message from Allah from Angel Jibril.

The Prophet began preaching about Islam urging people to worship the one true god Allah.

Prophet Muhammad and his followers fled to Yathrib in 622. The name Yathrib was changed to the Holy City of Medinah.

THE BI RT H AND SPREAD OF IS LAM

Prophet Muhammad led an army to capture the Holy City of Mekah in 630. He died in 632.

Prophet Muhammad continued to spread Islam and established the Islamic state.
16

1. The Declaration of Faith (Syahadah) “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammed is his Prophet.” The Five Pillars of Islam (Rukun Islam) 2. Prayer (Solat) 3. Almsgiving (Zakat) 4. Fasting during Ramadan 5. The Haj
17

The Six Principles of Islam
2. Belief in the Angels (malaikat)

1. Belief in Allah

3. Belief in the Prophets 5. Belief in Predestination (Qada and Qadar)

4. Belief in the Holy Books of Allah 6. Belief in the Hereafter

18

EXPANSION OF ISLAM

RASHIDIN CALIPHS

Sayyidina Abu Bakar 632-634

After the death of Prophet Muhammad, the Islamic State was ruled by a series of Caliphs (kings and leaders).

Sayyidina Umar 634- 644

Sayyidina Uthman 644-656

Sayyidina Ali 656-661

19

THE EXPANSION OF ISLAM IN THE 7TH CENTURY

20

EXPANSION OF ISLAM
Some of the Caliphs expanded the Islamic State into Africa, Europe and much of Asia in the seventh and eight centuries. Thus the Islamic Empire was created. Though the Islamic state continued to spread, by the ninth century, the Islamic Empire began to break up.

21

THE EXPANSION OF ISLAM IN THE 7TH AND 8TH CENTURIES

22

THE UMAYYAD DYNASTY The dynasty declined in the 8th century. The main reason for the decline was the appointment of members of their family rather than choosing men of talent.
23

THE ABBASID DYNASTY ( 750 – 1258 )
ABU-AL-ABBAS ( 750 – 754 ) Set up capital at Baghdad Denotes the empire not an just an Arab Empire but a Muslim Empire.

AL-MANSUR ( 754 – 775 ) With his death, the Empire began to decline. Replaced by the Fatimid Family in 973 and later the Monguls in 1258

HARUN-AL RASHID ( 786 – 809 )

24

THE BREAK UP OF THE ABBASID EMPIRE

25

THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE MUSLIM EMPIRE
 Translation works and a Common Language  Arabic Literature a wide variety of ideas and stories from various parts of the empire

Arabic medicine especially in the study of eye diseases and infectious diseases
26

 Astronomy – Muslims learnt about the stars and planets and were also good navigators. Also used astronomy to calculate the start of each month and to work out the time for prayers

An astrolabe To measure the position of the stars and planets

The invention of the compass
27

 Architecture –Stone and marble walls mosques were built and these were richly decorated.

 Mathematics- Arabs used the Hindu system of numerals. Added the number zero – new developments in mathematics Great Muslim mathematician – Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi ( 780 – 850 )
28

 Art – geometric designs - calligraphy with stylised writing of Arabic script  Other areas of Study – in the fields of chemistry known as alchemy,botany, zoology and geography

29

WHAT IS JAHILIAH?
It was a period of time in Arabia where the people were ignorant and lawless.

30

BACK

Qibla i.e.the direction Muslims face during their prayers.

31

BACK

The journey of the Prophet from Mekah to Medinah

32 BACK