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WELDING SAFETY

OSHA TRAINING
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.251 - 255

WELCOME
COURSE OBJECTIVES
DISCUSS THE FOLLOWING:
 TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
 CONTRACTOR SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
 THE RELEVANT REGULATORY STANDARDS
 VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS FOR WELDING
 ELECTRIC WELDING SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
 THE BASICS OF CONFINED SPACE OPERATIONS
 FIRE EVACUATION, PREVENTION AND PROTECTION
 THE GENERAL HAZARDS INVOLVED WITH WELDING
 OXYGEN-FUEL GAS WELDING SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
BASIS FOR THIS COURSE
 HUNDREDS OF WELDERS CRITICALLY INJURED ANNUALLY

 WELDERS ARE EXPOSED TO NUMEROUS TOXIC FUMES AND GASES

 WELDERS ARE EXPOSED TO NUMEROUS PHYSICAL HAZARDS

 OSHA WELDING SAFETY STANDARDS REQUIRE:

 ESTABLISHMENT OF A “WORKER SAFETY” PROGRAM


 TRAINING BE CONDUCTED
 WRITTEN “HOTWORK” PERMITS
 USE OF MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS
 USE OF LABELS AND OTHER WARNINGS
 THAT HAZARDS AND PRECAUTIONS BE EXPLAINED
BASIS FOR THIS COURSE

THE BOTTOM LINE


TRAINING YOU TO BE KNOWLEDGEABLE
OF HOW TO LOWER YOUR LIFETIME
WORKPLACE EXPOSURE
TO THE WELDING HAZARDS
YOU ARE POTENTIALLY EXPOSED TO IN
YOUR DAILY WORKING LIFE!
REGULATORY STANDARD
THE GENERAL DUTY CLAUSE

FEDERAL - 29 CFR 1903.1


EMPLOYERS MUST: Furnish a place of employment free
of recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to
cause death or serious physical harm to employees.
Employers must comply with occupational safety and
health standards promulgated under the Williams-Steiger
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.
OSHA REGULATORY STANDARDS

29CFR - SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS

1910 - GENERAL INDUSTRY

252 - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS


DANGER
253 - OXYGEN WELDING
HOTWORK
IN 254 - ARC WELDING
PROGRESS 255 - RESISTANCE WELDING
REGULATORY STANDARD
NFPA and ANSI WELDING CRITERIA

NFPA - 51B

FIRE PREVENTION IN THE USE OF CUTTING


AND WELDING PROCESSES

ANSI - Z49.1

SAFETY IN WELDING AND CUTTING


GENERAL PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

ALL EMPLOYERS MUST: THE


SAFETY
 REVIEW FIRE HAZARDS PROGRAM

 INSTITUTE SAFE WORK PRACTICES

 PROVIDE COMPLETE HAZARD INFORMATION

 PROVIDE HEALTH SCREENING WHERE NEEDED

 PROVIDE TRAINING TO ALL REQUIRED EMPLOYEES

 INSTALL ENGINEERING CONTROLS WHERE POSSIBLE


TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

WELDING
SAFETY
THE EMPLOYER MUST:

 MAINTAIN A WELDING SAFETY PROGRAM.


 DISCUSS EMPLOYEE PROTECTIVE MEASURES.
 REVIEW THE PROGRAM ON AN ANNUAL BASIS.
 TRAIN ALL EMPLOYEES PRIOR TO JOB ASSIGNMENT.

 DISCUSS PERIPHERALS SUCH AS LOCKOUT AND CONFINED


SPACES.
RETRAINING REQUIREMENTS

REQUIRED WHEN THERE IS A: WELDING


SAFETY

 CLOSE-CALL EVENT
 CHANGE IN JOB ASSIGNMENT
 NEW HAZARDS OR EQUIPMENT
 NEW HAZARD CONTROL METHODS
 FAILURE IN THE SAFETY PROCEDURES
 REASON TO DOUBT EMPLOYEE PROFICIENCY
PROGRAM MANAGEMENT FORMS

COMMONLY USED PROGRAM MANAGEMENT FORMS

 NON-ROUTINE TASK -
PROTECTIVE MEASURES DETERMINATION FORM:

USED BY SUPERVISORS TO ASSESS JOBS THAT ARE NOT


PERFORMED ON A ROUTINE BASIS, BUT WHERE THE
POSSIBILITY OF INJURY TO AN EMPLOYEE EXISTS.
NON-ROUTINE TASKS

 DEFINITION: A TASK THAT IS REQUIRED ONLY ON OCCASION AND


WHERE EMPLOYEES ARE NOT COMPLETELY FAMILIAR
WITH ALL ASPECTS OF THE JOB.

 PROBLEM: THIS LACK OF FAMILIARITY CONTRIBUTES GREATLY TO A


HIGHER PROBABILITY OF INJURY.

 EXAMPLE: THE ANNUAL (OR INFREQUENT) CLEANING OF REACTOR


VESSELS IN PROCESSES.

 SUPERVISORS MUST: IDENTIFY NONROUTINE TASKS AND ASSESS


THEIR DEGREE OF RISK TO EMPLOYEES.
PROGRAM MANAGEMENT FORMS

COMMONLY USED PROGRAM MANAGEMENT FORMS

 HOTWORK PERMIT: DANGER

 PRE-WORK SAFETY EVALUATION


FIRE HAZARD
 ISSUED BY COMPETENT AUTHORITY
HOTWORK PERMIT
 LOWERS RISK OF ACCIDENTS AND FIRES REQUIRED
 STANDARDIZES WORK ACCOMPLISHMENT
 ESTABLISHES TIMEFRAMES WHEN HOTWORK CAN OCCUR
 GENERALLY NOT NEEDED FOR DESIGNATED FIRE-SAFE AREAS
GENERAL WELDING HAZARDS

 ARC RADIATION.
 EXPLOSIVE DUSTS. DANGER
 ELECTRICAL SHOCK.
 WELDING CLEANING. HOTWORK
 AIR CONTAMINATION. IN
 FIRE AND EXPLOSION. PROGRESS
 CONFINED SPACE OPERATIONS.
 CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS ENERGY.
 COMPRESSED GAS HANDLING AND USE HAZARDS.
 OTHER HAZARDS RELATED TO SPECIFIC PROCESSES OR
OCCUPATIONS.
SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS

AIR CONTAMINANTS

 GASES. GENERALLY USED IN A COMPRESSED FORM.


CAN EFFECT ALL ROUTES OF ENTRY.

 VAPORS. FORMED BY EVAPORATION OF LIQUIDS OR


SOLIDS. AMOUNT USUALLY DEPENDS UPON EXPOSED
SURFACE AREA, TEMPERATURE, AND VAPOR PRESSURE
OF SUBSTANCE. CAN BE DEADLY.
SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS

AIR CONTAMINANTS

 FUMES. USUALLY METALLIC AND FORMED BY WELDING,


CUTTING, OR BRAZING OPERATIONS.
EXTREMELY HAZARDOUS TO INHALE.

 PARTICULATES. COMPOSED OF SOLID OR LIQUID


PARTICLES THAT ARE SUSPENDED OR DISPERSED IN AIR.
SUCH AS DUST, MISTS, OR SMOKES. CAN BE EXPLOSIVE
AND HAZARDOUS TO BREATH.
SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
ROUTES OF ENTRY FOR METALS

- INHALATION:

 MOST COMMON ROUTE OF ENTRY.

 SMALLER PARTICULATES ARE TRAPPED IN LUNGS


AND ABSORBED.
SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
ROUTES OF ENTRY FOR METALS

- INGESTION:

 EATING, DRINKING, OR SMOKING WITHOUT WASHING HANDS


FIRST.

 EATING, DRINKING, OR SMOKING CONTAMINATED


CONSUMABLES.
SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
ROUTES OF ENTRY FOR METALS

- ABSORPTION.

 CAN OCCUR THROUGH UNBROKEN SKIN OR MUCOUS


MEMBRANES.

 ABSORPTION GENERALLY LEAST HAZARDOUS ROUTE


OF ENTRY.
SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
ROUTES OF ENTRY FOR METALS

- INJECTION.

 USUALLY CAUSED BY PUNCTURE WOUNDS INVOLVING


METALS.

 COMPRESSED AIR CAN ALSO CAUSE INJECTION OF


METALS.
SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS

- METAL PARTICULATES:

 COME FROM SAND BLASTING, DEBURRING, AND LIKE


OPERATIONS.
 METALS CAN TAKE THE FORM OF AIRBORNE DUSTS.
 ENGINEERING CONTROLS ARE USUALLY REQUIRED.
 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION IS NEEDED WHERE DUSTS
CANNOT BE ADEQUATELY CONTROLLED WITH ENGINEERING
CONTROLS.
SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS

- FUMES:

 COMMON TO ALL WELDING OPERATIONS


 FUMES ARE MADE UP OF VERY TINY SOLID METAL PARTICLES.
 PARTICLES ARE THE CONDENSATES OF VAPORIZED METAL.
 EFFECTS ON THE HUMAN BODY CAN BE DISASTROUS IF PROPER
VENTILATION IS NOT USED.
 THINK OF THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF METALS AND BONDING
MATERIALS USED USED IN A WELDING OPERATION.
SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
SPECIFIC METALS

- CADMIUM.

 HIGHLY TOXIC, INHALATION MOST COMMON ROUTE OF ENTRY.


 SMALLER PARTICULATES ARE TRAPPED IN LUNGS AND
ABSORBED.
 DANGEROUS DOSES CAN BE ASYMPTOMATIC FOR HOURS.
 KNOWN HUMAN CARCINOGEN.
 TARGET ORGANS INCLUDE, KIDNEYS, RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
SPECIFIC METALS

- COPPER AND ZINC.

 HIGHLY TOXIC, INHALATION MOST COMMON ROUTE OF ENTRY.


 CAN CAUSE “METAL FUME FEVER” RESULTING IN
(SEVERE FLU-LIKE SYMPTOMS).
 TARGET ORGANS INCLUDE, KIDNEYS, RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
SPECIFIC METALS

- NICKEL.

 CAN BE ABSORBED THROUGH SKIN, OR LUNGS.


 ABSORPTION GENERALLY LEAST HAZARDOUS ROUTE OF ENTRY.
 TARGET ORGANS INCLUDE; CNS, RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
METALS - GENERAL PRECAUTIONS

 IF YOU’RE NOT FAMILIAR WITH THE METAL, FIND OUT!


 READ THE MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET!
 READ THE LABELS ON CONTAINERS.
 OBSERVE WRITTEN WARNINGS!
 DON’T EAT, DRINK, OR SMOKE AROUND METAL DUSTS.
 CHANGE YOUR CLOTHS! DON’T TAKE IT HOME!
SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS
METALS - GENERAL PRECAUTIONS (CONTINUED)

 ENSURE WORK AREA IS VENTILATED.


 WEAR APPROPRIATE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT.
 SPILLS OF METALS MUST BE CONTAINED, NOT RAISED!
 FOR LARGE SPILLS, CONTACT SAFETY OFFICER.
 STORE ACIDS FROM BASES TO PREVENT REACTIONS.
 MAGNESIUM IS WATER REACTIVE, USE DRY SAND TO
EXTINGUISH MAGNESIUM FIRES.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

EYE PROTECTION:

 FOLLOW LOCAL JOB PROCEDURES


 SEE ANSI STANDARD Z87.1 FOR SHADING CRITERIA
 SEE CHART IN 29CFR 1910.252 FOR SHADING CRITERIA
 REVIEW THE JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS ASSESSMENT
 IF A NEW JHA IS NEEDED REQUEST IT
 IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS CONSULT YOUR SUPERVISOR
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

GUIDE FOR SELECTION OF SHADE NUMBERS:

WELDING OPERATION SHADE #

Soldering 2
Torch Brazing 3 or 4
Light Cutting, up to 1 Inch 3 or 4
Medium Cutting, 1 to 6 Inches 4 or 5
Heavy Cutting, 6 Inches and Over 5 or 6
Gas Welding (Light) Up to 1/8 Inch 4 or 5
Gas Welding (Medium) 1/8 to 1/2 Inch 5 or 6
Gas Welding (Heavy) 1/2 Inch and Over 6 or 8
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

GUIDE FOR SELECTION OF SHADE NUMBERS:


WELDING OPERATION SHADE #

Shielded Metal-Arc Welding 1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32 Inch Electrodes 10


Gas-Shielded Arc Welding (nonferrous) 1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32 Inch Electrodes 11
Gas-Shielded Arc Welding (ferrous) 1/16, 3/32, 1/8, 5/32 Inch Electrodes 12
Shielded Metal Arc Welding 3/16, 7/32, 1/4 Inch Electrodes 12
Shielded Metal Arc Welding 5/16, 3/8 , Inch Electrodes 14
Atomic Hydrogen welding 10-14
Carbon Arc Welding 14
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

SHADE NUMBER SELECTION:

 AS A RULE OF THUMB, START WITH A SHADE THAT IS


TOO DARK TO SEE THE WORK ZONE. THEN GO TO A
LIGHTER SHADE WHICH GIVES SUFFICIENT VISIBILITY
OF THE WORK ZONE WITHOUT EXERTING A STRAIN ON
YOUR EYES.

 DO NOT ALLOW OBSERVERS TO REMAIN IN THE AREA


WITHOUT PROPER PROTECTION.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

SKIN PROTECTION:

 FOLLOW LOCAL JOB PROCEDURES


 USE ONLY APPROVED WELDING SAFETY EQUIPMENT
 ENSURE FULL SKIN PROTECTION IS PROVIDED
 SEE ANSI STANDARD Z49.1 FOR SPECIFIC CRITERIA
 SEE 29CFR 1910.132 AND 252 FOR GENERAL CRITERIA
 REVIEW THE JOB HAZARD ANALYSIS ASSESSMENT
 IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS CONSULT YOUR SUPERVISOR
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

FIRE RESISTANT PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:

 WEAR CLOTHING WITHOUT POCKETS OR CUFFS


 SLEEVES SHOULD BE ROLLED DOWN AND BUTTONED
 COLLARS SHOULD BE BUTTONED
 WEAR A LEATHER CAP OR HARD HAT
 REMEMBER TO WEAR PROPER SHOES FOR THE JOB
 ENSURE CLOTHING IS FREE OF IGNITABLE STAINS
 CONSIDER SCARFS, GAUNTLETS AND LEGGINGS
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

HEAD PROTECTION:

 FOLLOW LOCAL JOB PROCEDURES


 USE ONLY APPROVED WELDING SAFETY EQUIPMENT
 REQUIRED FOR ALL ARC WELDING OR ARC CUTTING
 HELMETS MUST BE INSULATED AND HEAT RESISTANT
 HELMETS MUST PROTECT FACE, NECK, HAIR AND EARS
 HELMETS MUST BE MADE OF NONFLAMMABLE MATERIAL
 HELMETS MUST BE CAPABLE OF BEING STERILIZED
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION:

 FOLLOW LOCAL JOB VENTILATION PROCEDURES


 ADEQUATE VENTILATION IS MANDATORY
 USE APPROVED RESPIRATORY PROTECTION EQUIPMENT
 NEVER BREATH METALLIC FUMES
 ALWAYS ASSUME WORST-CASE SCENARIO WHEN
SELECTING RESPIRATORY PROTECTION MEASURES
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

OBSERVERS/CO-WORKER PROTECTION:

 NEED THE SAME PROTECTION AS THE WORKER


 DESIGNATE SAFE AREAS TO ALLOW FOR SMOOTH
OPERATIONS IN THE LOCAL WORKING AREA
 ALWAYS ASSUME WORST-CASE SCENARIO WHEN
SELECTING PROTECTIVE MEASURES
FIRE EVACUATION

BASIC CONSIDERATIONS:

 KNOW TWO MEANS OF ESCAPE FROM AREA


 KNOW THE WRITTEN POLICY
 KNOW THE PREFERRED MEANS OF ALERTING OTHERS
 KNOW WHERE THE EVACUATION RELOCATION POINT IS
 YOU WON’T HAVE TIME TO LEARN SHOULD YOU HAVE
TO EVACUATE!
FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION

BASIC PRECAUTIONS:

 NFPA STANDARD 51B HAS DETAILED REQUIREMENTS


 ADEQUATE VENTILATION IS MANDATORY
 SITE ASSESSMENT FOR HOT-WORK MUST BE MADE
 SITE PRECAUTIONS VARY FROM SITE TO SITE
 MOVABLE FIRE HAZARDS MUST BE MOVED
 NON-MOVEABLE FIRE HAZARDS MUST BE GUARDED
 HOT-WORK PERMITS ESSENTIAL IN NON FIRE-SAFE AREAS
FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION

WELDING SURFACES:
 FLOOR OPENINGS AND CRACKS MUST BE PROTECTED
 WET SURFACES MUST BE PROTECTED
 CONSIDER EFFECT ON LOWER LEVEL SURFACES
 CONSIDER HOLES IN WALLS, DOORWAYS, AND WINDOWS
 CONSIDER DUCTING OR VENTS THAT CAN CARRY SPARKS
 CONSIDER EFFECTS OF HIGH WIND AREAS
 CONSIDER EFFECT RAIN COULD HAVE ON THE JOB
FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION

FIRE EXTINGUISHING EQUIPMENT:


DANGER
 PORTABLE EXTINGUISHERS NO SMOKING,
 PAILS OF WATER MATCHES OR
OPEN FLAME
 PAILS OF SAND
 MUST BE MAINTAINED FOR INSTANT USE
 IS THE METHOD APPROPRIATE FOR THE HAZARD?
 ARE PERSONNEL TRAINED IN PROPER USE?
 WHAT IF THE EXTINGUISHING EQUIPMENT ISN’T ENOUGH?
 WHO WILL CONTACT THE LOCAL FIRE DEPARTMENT?
FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION

FIRE WATCHERS ARE:

1. OBSERVERS WHO ARE SPECIFICALLY TRAINED TO


WATCH OVER AREAS WHERE HOT-WORK IS BEING
PERFORMED.

2. REQUIRED WHENEVER WELDING OR CUTTING IS


PERFORMED IN LOCATIONS WHERE OTHER THAN A
MINOR FIRE MIGHT DEVELOP, OR IF ANY OF THE
CONDITIONS NOTED ON THE FOLLOWING SLIDE
EXIST.
FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION

FIRE WATCH IS REQUIRED WHEN:


 COMBUSTIBLES ARE CLOSER THAN 35 FEET
 COMBUSTIBLES ARE EASILY IGNITED BY SPARKS
 COMBUSTIBLES ARE ADJACENT TO METAL PARTITIONS
 COMBUSTIBLES CAN BE IGNITED BY CONDUCTION
 COMBUSTIBLES CAN BE IGNITED BY RADIATION
 WALLS, CEILINGS OR FLOOR HOLES CONTAIN
COMBUSTIBLES
 WHENEVER SPECIAL HAZARDS WARRANT FIRE WATCH
FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION

FIREWATCHERS MUST:
 BE EQUIPPED WITH PROPER EXTINGUISHING EQUIPMENT
 BE TRAINED TO RECOGNIZE OUT-OF-CONTROL FIRES
 BE FAMILIAR WITH LOCAL FIRE ALARM PROCEDURES
 BE TRAINED TO KNOW THEIR LEVEL OF CAPABILITY
 OBSERVE HOT AREAS FOR 1/2 HR AFTER COMPLETION
 BE FAMILIAR WITH THE HOT-WORK PERMITTING SYSTEM
PROHIBITED WELDING SITUATIONS

WELDING OR CUTTING IS PROHIBITED:


 IN AREAS NOT AUTHORIZED BY MANAGEMENT
 IN SPRINKLER IMPAIRED BUILDINGS
 IN THE PRESENCE OF EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES
 WHERE EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES CAN DEVELOP
 NEAR EXPOSED READILY IGNITABLE MATERIALS
 ON UNPREPARED DRUMS, BARRELS, TANKS ETC.
 ON UNPREPARED PIPE LINES, VALVES ECT.
VENTILATION
FOR GENERAL WELDING

MECHANICAL VENTILATION IS PROVIDED WHEN:


 THE WORK AREA IS LESS THAN 10,000 CF PER WELDER
 CEILINGS HEIGHTS OF LESS THAN 16FT ARE PRESENT
 NATURAL VENTILATION IS OBSTRUCTED

MINIMUM RATE:
 2000CFM PER WELDER MUST BE MAINTAINED
CONFINED SPACE OPERATIONS

IMPORTANT!

CONFINED SPACE OPERATIONS ARE BEYOND THE


SCOPE OF THIS CLASS. IN DEPTH TRAINING MUST
BE PROVIDED FOR SAFE ENTRY. NEVER ATTEMPT
TO WELD IN A CONFINED SPACE WITHOUT PROPER
TRAINING AND RESCUE SUPPORT! DON’T CREATE
ANOTHER OSHA STATISTIC!
CONFINED SPACE OPERATIONS
CONTINUED

THE FOLLOWING CONSTITUTE A CONFINED SPACE:

 ITS SIZE AND SHAPE ALLOW A PERSON TO ENTER IT

 HAS LIMITED ENTRY AND EGRESS

 IS NOT DESIGNED FOR CONTINUOUS OCCUPANCY


CONFINED SPACE OPERATIONS
CONTINUED

THE FOLLOWING CONSTITUTE A PERMIT REQUIRED


CONFINED SPACE:

 CONTAINS OR HAS A POTENTIAL TO CONTAIN A


HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERE OR;

 CONTAINS A MATERIAL THAT HAS THE POTENTIAL TO


ENGULF AN ENTRANT OR;

 HAS AN INTERNAL CONFIGURATION IN WHICH AN


ENTRANT COULD BE TRAPPED OR ASPHYXIATED BY
INWARDLY CONVERGING WALLS OR BY A FLOOR
WHICH SLOPES DOWNWARD AND TAPERS TO A
SMALLER CROSS-SECTION OR;
CONFINED SPACE OPERATIONS
CONTINUED

 CONTAINS ANY OTHER RECOGNIZED SERIOUS SAFETY


OR HEALTH HAZARD
CONFINED SPACE OPERATIONS
CONTINUED

 EXAMPLES OF CONFINED SPACES INCLUDE:

 SILOS
 TANKS DANGER
 SEWERS
 BOILERS CONFINED SPACE
 FLOOR PITS ENTRY PERMIT
 CRAWL SPACES REQUIRED

 REACTORS VESSELS
CONFINED SPACE OPERATIONS
CONTINUED

THE FOLLOWING TRAINING MUST BE PROVIDED:


 EMERGENCY ENTRY AND EXIT PROCEDURES
 USE OF APPLICABLE RESPIRATORS
 FIRST AID PROCEDURES
 LOCKOUT PROCEDURES
 LOCAL PERMIT SYSTEMS
 STANDARD SAFE WORK PRACTICES IN USE
CONFINED SPACE OPERATIONS
CONTINUED

THE FOLLOWING PRECAUTIONS MUST BE TAKEN:


 PROPER TRAINING IS ESSENTIAL AND MANDATORY
 FOLLOW LOCAL ENTRY PERMIT PROCEDURES
 SHUT OFF ALL UNNECESSARY PIPES, AND DUCTS
 SHUT OFF ALL UNNECESSARY ELECTRICAL LINES
 PROVIDE CONTINUOUS MECHANICAL VENTILATION
 PERFORMED PROTOCOL FOR INITIAL AIR MONITORING
 LOCATE GAS CYLINDERS AND POWER SOURCES FOR
WELDING OUTSIDE OF THE SPACE
CONFINED SPACE OPERATIONS
CONTINUED

THE FOLLOWING PRECAUTIONS MUST BE TAKEN:

 ATTENDANTS MUST BE DESIGNATED TO MAINTAIN


VISUAL AND VOICE CONTACT
 WHEN NOT IN USE, GAS SUPPLIED EQUIPMENT MUST BE
REMOVED FROM THE SPACE

 WHEN NOT IN USE ARC WELDING ELECTRODES MUST BE


PREVENTED FROM MAKING CONTACT
 CONFINED SPACE EXTRACTION EQUIPMENT MUST BE
USED AND OR WORN
OXYGEN-FUEL GAS WELDING

FUMES AND GAS HAZARDS:


 PROVIDE SUFFICIENT VENTILATION FOR OPERATION
 NEVER BREATH FUMES OR GASES
 REMOVE PAINTS OR COATINGS FROM WELDING SURFACE
 CONSIDER EFFECTS ON CO-WORKERS
 CONSIDER ALL FUMES, GASES, SMOKES HAZARDOUS
OXYGEN-FUEL GAS WELDING

OXYGEN HAZARDS:
 KEEP OIL AND GREASE FROM HOSES, REGULATORS ETC.
 NEVER USE LUBRICANTS ON OXY-FUEL EQUIPMENT
 OXYGEN ENRICHED MATERIAL BURNS MUCH HOTTER!
 KEEP OXYGEN FROM ENTERING PERMEABLE MATERIAL
 NEVER HANDLE OXYGEN IN GREASE OR OILY AREAS
 CONSIDER ALL FUMES, GASES, SMOKES HAZARDOUS
 OXYGEN IS “NOT” AIR, NEVER USE FOR DUST-OFF OF
CLOTHING OR WORK SURFACES!
OXYGEN-FUEL GAS WELDING

FUEL GASES:
 CAN DISPLACE BREATHING AIR
 WORK AREAS MUST HAVE AT LEAST 18% OXYGEN
 CONTACT THE GAS SUPPLIER FOR SPECIFIC INFORMATION
 RELATIVE VAPOR DENSITY IS A CRITICAL CONSIDERATION!
 FUEL GASES CAN COLLECT IN HIGH OR LOW AREAS
 VAPOR DENSITY WILL DETERMINE WHERE THESE GASES GO
 HOSES CAN LEAK AND DISPERSE GASES IN UNWANTED AREAS
 FORCED VENTILATION AND EXHAUST DUCTS MAY BE NEEDED
OXYGEN-FUEL GAS WELDING

FUEL GASES (Cont.):

FUEL GAS RELATIVE VAPOR DENSITY WITH AIR

NATURAL GAS 0.55


LIGHTER THAN AIR
ACETYLENE 0.91
BREATHING AIR 1.00
PROPYLENE 1.42
MAPP 1.48 HEAVIER THAN AIR
PROPANE 1.56
BUTANE 2.05

NEVER RELEASE FUEL GASES INTO THE AIR NEAR OTHER WELDING
OR CUTTING OPERATIONS OR POTENTIAL SOURCES OF IGNITION!
OXYGEN-FUEL GAS WELDING

FUEL GASES (Cont.):

FUEL GAS EXPLOSIVE CONCENTRATION IN AIR

NATURAL GAS 2.8% TO 17%


ACETYLENE 2.3% TO 80%
PROPYLENE 2.0% TO 11.1%
MAPP 3.4% TO 10.8%
PROPANE 2.1% TO 9.5%
BUTANE 1.9% TO 8.5%

NEVER RELEASE FUEL GASES INTO THE AIR NEAR OTHER WELDING
OR CUTTING OPERATIONS OR POTENTIAL SOURCES OF IGNITION!
HANDLING GASES
GASES - GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

 UNLESS IN USE, VALVES SHOULD BE KEPT CLOSED.


 NEVER TAMPER WITH SAFETY RELIEF DEVICES.
 ALWAYS USE AN APPROVED PRESSURE-REDUCING REGULATOR.
 LEAVE “T” WRENCHES IN PLACE AT ALL TIMES.
 THAW ICE WITH WARM (NOT BOILING) WATER.
 NEVER LET RECESSED TOPS OF CYLINDERS FILL WITH WATER.
 NEVER USE A CYLINDER AS A ROLLER OR SUPPORT.
HANDLING
CONTINUED
GASES
GASES - GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

 NEVER TRANSFER ANY GAS FROM ONE CYLINDER TO ANOTHER.


 NEVER TRANSPORT USING ELECTRO-MAGNETIC LIFTS.
 SECURE CYLINDERS FROM TAMPERING WHEN NOT IN USE.
 TREAT EVERY CYLINDER LIKE A BOMB.
HANDLING
CONTINUED
GASES
GASES - PRE-OPERATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

1. INSPECT CYLINDER FOR DAMAGE BEFORE USE.


2. ENSURE “IN USE” LABEL IS PRESENT.
3. ENSURE ALL LABELS AND WARNINGS ARE READABLE.
4. PLACE UPRIGHT ON STABLE DRY SURFACE.
5. ENSURE CYLINDER IS RESTRAINED ABOVE MID-POINT.
6. NEVER SECURE TO ELECTRICAL LINES OR CONDUITS.
7. KEEP HEAT, FLAME, AND ELECTRICITY AWAY FROM CYLINDER.
8. OPERATE IN ACCORDANCE WITH WELDING PROCEDURES.
HANDLING
CONTINUED
GASES
GASES - POST-OPERATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

1. ENSURE “EMPTY” OR LIKE LABEL PRESENT.


2. ENSURE VALVE IS CLOSED COMPLETELY AND CAP CYLINDER.
3. REMOVE FROM OPERATION FOLLOWING PROCEDURES.
4. NEVER ROLL, TRANSPORT CYLINDERS USING HANDTRUCK.

5. NEVER UNDERESTIMATE HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH


COMPRESSED GASES.
TRANSPORTING GASES
GASES - TRANSPORTING REQUIREMENTS

 TRANSPORT WITH REGULATOR REMOVED.


 NEVER TRANSPORT IN CONFINED SPACES.
 ALWAYS PROVIDE PLENTY OF VENTILATION.
 PREVENT ICE OR SNOW FROM ACCUMULATING.
 USE SUITABLE HAND TRUCK OR RACKS TO MOVE CYLINDERS.
 NEVER USE OR TRANSPORT A LEAKING CYLINDER.
 NEVER TRANSPORT USING SLINGS OR ELECTRO-MAGNETS.
STORING GASES
GASES - STORAGE REQUIREMENTS

 STORE ONLY IN DESIGNATED AREAS.


 STORE AND USE ON A FIRST-IN, FIRST-OUT BASIS.
 NEVER STORE WITHOUT PROPER LABELING.
 IDENTIFY ALL EMPTY CYLINDERS.
 STORE LIKE GASES WITH LIKE GASES.
 SEPARATE EMPTY CYLINDERS FROM FULL ONES.
 STORE WITHIN PROPER TEMPERATURE RANGES.
ELECTRIC WELDING

FUMES HAZARDS:
 PROVIDE SUFFICIENT VENTILATION FOR OPERATION
 NEVER BREATH FUMES
 REMOVE PAINTS OR COATINGS FROM WELDING SURFACE
 CONSIDER EFFECTS ON CO-WORKERS
 CONSIDER ALL FUMES AND SMOKES HAZARDOUS
ELECTRIC WELDING

UNDERSTAND THE FOLLOWING:


 MANUFACTURERS’ INSTRUCTIONS FOR SAFE USE
 MAINTENANCE REPORTING REQUIREMENTS
 INDIVIDUAL MACHINE HOOK-UP PROCEDURES
 GROUNDING REQUIREMENTS
 LEAK DETECTION OF WATER, OR FUELS
 SAFE USE OF SHUT-DOWN SWITCHES
 SAFE USE OF ELECTRODES
 SAFE USE OF ELECTRIC CABLES
ELECTRIC WELDING
CONTINUED

FUMES HAZARDS:
 PROVIDE SUFFICING VENTILATION FOR OPERATION
 NEVER BREATH FUMES
 REMOVE PAINTS OR COATINGS FROM WELDING SURFACE
 CONSIDER EFFECTS ON CO-WORKERS
 CONSIDER ALL FUMES AND SMOKES HAZARDOUS
ELECTRIC WELDING
CONTINUED

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR ARC WELDING:


 ENSURE EQUIPMENT IS INSTALLED PROPERLY
 ENSURE EQUIPMENT IS SERVICEABLE
 ALWAYS WEAR SUITABLE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
 AVOID BREATHING AIR IN THE FUME PLUME
 KEEP THE WORK AREA FREE OF FIRE HAZARDS
 CONSIDER HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH WET AREA
 SAFELY DISPOSE OF ELECTRODE STUBS
 SHIELD OTHERS FROM LIGHT RAYS
 DO NOT WELD NEAR DEGREASING OPERATIONS
ELECTRIC WELDING
CONTINUED

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR ARC WELDING:


 CONSIDER LOCATION OF WORK:
- FALL HAZARDS
- MULTILEVEL WORK OPERATIONS
- CONFINED SPACE HAZARDS
- LOCKOUT TAGOUT REQUIREMENTS
- EFFECT ON LOCAL PROCESSES
- CO-WORKER PROTECTION
CONTRACTOR SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

OUTSIDE CONTRACTORS MUST:

 INFORM REPRESENTATIVES OF THE FACILITY OF THE


TYPES OF WELDING THAT THEY WILL BE PERFORMING
AND BE PREPARED TO PROVIDE SAFETY INFORMATION
UPON REQUEST

FACILITY OR EMPLOYER REPRESENTATIVES MUST:

 INFORM THE CONTRACTOR OF HAZARDS IN THE AREA


WHERE CONTRACTOR PERSONNEL WILL BE WORKING
AND BE PREPARED TO PROVIDE SAFETY INFORMATION
UPON REQUEST
TIPS FOR USING CONTRACTORS

 REMEMBER, YOU CONTROL YOUR FACILITY OR AREA!

 REVIEW THEIR PROCEDURES WITH THEM BEFORE STARTING THE JOB!

 DETERMINE THEIR SAFETY PERFORMANCE RECORD!

 DETERMINE WHO IS IN CHARGE OF THEIR PEOPLE!

 DETERMINE HOW THEY WILL AFFECT YOUR EMPLOYEES!


OSHA'S PERCEPTION
OF A SUCCESSFUL PROGRAM

1. DETAILED WELDING SAFETY PROCEDURES

2. EXTENSIVE EMPLOYEE TRAINING PROGRAMS

3. PERIODIC REINFORCEMENT OF TRAINING

4. SUFFICIENT DISCIPLINE REGARDING IMPLEMENTATION


WORK AT WORKING SAFELY

Training is the key to success in managing safety in


the work environment. Attitude is also a key factor in
maintaining a safe workplace. Safety is, and always
will be a team effort, safety starts with each individual
employee and concludes with everyone leaving at the
end of the day to rejoin their families.

Patricia A. Ice
Industrial Hygienist