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CHE327

Petrochemical Technology

Module 2
Petrochemical Precursors (Raw Material)
Course Outcome

Explain the importance and the growth


of petrochemical industry in Malaysia
and describe the principles of the raw
materials and their sources.
Course Learning Outcome
By the end of the module, students should be able to:

• Describe the principle raw


1 materials and the source

• Identify the types of precursor


2

• Describe the production processes,


3 safety and waste treatment
1.Principle raw
materials and the
source

OUTLINE

3. Production
processes,
2.Types of
safety and
precursor
waste
treatment
PRIMARY RAW MATERIALS

RAW
MATERIAL

PRIMARY
OTHER RAW
RAW
MATERIAL
MATERIAL

CRUDE OIL NATURAL GAS COAL OIL SHALE TAR SAND


PRIMARY RAW MATERIAL – NG/
CRUDE OIL
• NATURAL GAS/ CRUDE OIL
• Composition is relatively different based on the origin/ reservoirs
• Unreactive hydrocarbon; HC with variable amount of non-
hydrocarbons; NHC
• Essentially free from olefins (Question: how to get this olefins?)
• Very low concentration of C6-C8 (aromatic HC) (Q: How to get
these aromatic HC?)
• Important as a raw material to produce syn gas mixtures (CO2 +
H2) (Q: how to get syn gas mixture?)
NATURAL GAS
• Naturally occurring mixtures of light HC accompanied by some
non-HC compounds

Nonassociated NG – is found in reservoirs containing no oil – dry


well)

NG

Associated gas – is present in contact with and / or dissolved in


CO and is coproduced with it
PRIMARY RAW MATERIALS –
NG/ CO
NG/ CO

Major sources Also precursors of a special


of HC group of compound or
petrochemicals mixtures (NHC intermediates)

Syn Gas
Hydrogen Sulfur Carbon Black
mixtures

Hence, chemicals from CO/ NG being termed PETROCHEMICALS


• Primary RM for petrochemicals
• Naturally occuring substances that have not been subjected to
chemical changes after being recovered – NG/ CO
• Secondary RM for petrochemicals/ Intermediates
• Obtained from NG/ CO through different processing scheme
Secondary RM for petrochemicals/
Intermediates

Methane

Light HC

Ethane
Light Naptha
Primary Secondary RM/
(5-6 Carbon atom)
RM- CO/ NG Intermediates
BP: 30-90oC
Naphta
Heavy Naptha
Heavier HC (6-12 Carbon atom)
BP: 90-200oC
Gas Oil

Gas oil is crude fraction with different boiling point range


OTHER RAW MATERIALS- Coal, Oil
Shale, Tar sand, Gas Hydrate
• H/C ratio lower than crude oil
• Solid/ semi solid - not easy to handle/ to use as fuel
• High sulfur; S and/ or nitrogen; N – extensive processing
• Possible to change to liquid/ gases fuels – must undergoing
lengthy and extensive process: expensive
• Alternative/ possible energy and chemical sources
• Complex carbonaceous materials
OTHER RAW MATERIALS-
COAL
• Originated from plant remain in prehistoric period
• Important coal rank;
• 1. anthracite
• 2. bituminous coal
• 3. sub- bituminous coal
• Lignite
• Combustible rock
• Organic heterogeneous plus inorganic compounds
• 1973 war; Oil price rose – hence extensive research on
changing coal to liquid gasification
OTHER RAW MATERIALS-
COAL
Coal
Gasification
Process

Fuel Gas Mixtures of CO2 and H2

Syngas:
Can be used Precursor of 2
Can be used as syn
as fuel big volume
gas mixtures
petrochem;
ammonia and
methanol

To produce
Chemicals
fuel
OTHER RAW MATERIALS- OIL
SHALE
Oil shale is a sedimentary rock containing organic
matter rich in hydrogen, known as kerogen Estonian oil
shale:

C10 H15.2 O0.93 S0.08 N0.03

Oil shales of different deposits differ by, for example,


genesis, composition, calorific value and oil yield

Oil shale also contains mineral matter. In Estonian oil


shale carbonates and sandy-clayey minerals
OTHER RAW MATERIALS- OIL
SHALE
• Low permeable rock
• Made of inorganic material interspersed (mixed together/
spread/ combine) with high molecular weight (MW) organic
substance called kerogen

Viscous and high


Oil Shale Retorting Liquid fuel
MW oily material
• Q: What is retorting process?
• A : A process of heating oil shale to produce shale oil, shale
gas and spent shale
Oil Shale oil retorting process

Thermal Combustion
Drying decomposition

To condensation
OTHER RAW MATERIALS- TAR
SAND (OIL SAND)
• Large deposits of sand saturated with bitumen and water
• Commonly found at or near the earth’s surface
• Western Canada is the largest producer- produce 99%
Canada’s crude oil
• Difficult to handle – summer: soft, sticky
- winter: hard, solid material
Bitumen derived fom the oil sands deposits in Alberta, Canada
areas has an API gravity of around 8oAPI. It is upgraded to an
API gravity of 31oAPI to 33oAPI. The upgraded oil is known as
synthetic crude.
OTHER RAW MATERIALS- GAS
HYDRATES
• Ice-like material; constituted of methane molecule encaged in
cluster of water molecules and held together by hydrogen; H
bond
• This material occurs in large underground deposits found
beneath the ocean floor on continental margins and in places
north of the arctic circle such as Siberia.
• It is estimated that gas hydrate deposits contain twice as
much carbon as all other fossil fuels on earth.
• If proven feasible for recovery, could be a future energy as
well as chemical source for petrochemicals.
• A solid material only under high pressure and low
temperature; hence it cannot be processed by conventional
methods used for natural gas and crude oils.
Summary
References & Acknowledgement
• Jacob A. Moulijn, Michiel Makkee, Annelies Van Diepen
(2007). Chemical Process Technology. John Wiley & Sons.
Developer

Zarina Omar
zarin363@tganu.uitm.edu.my
Faculty of Chemical Engineering