Chapter 2

THE FIRST WORLD WAR 1914-1918 & THE SECOND WORLD WAR 1939 - 1945
“Evil (sins and disobedience to Allah) has appeared on land and sea because of what the hands of men have earned (by oppression and evil deeds), that He(Allah) may make them taste a part of that which they have done, in order that they may return (by repenting to Allah, and begging His Pardon).” Surah Ar-Rum, Verse 41 OFF

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2.1

THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1914 – 1918)
• A powerful nation • Rapidly growing economy • Wanted to obtain greater share of colonies • By 1898 – Began building a strong army and navy

Suspicious of growth of Germany’s navy Naval arms race began

By 1914, there was very little trust between countries in Europe

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2.1
28th June 28th July 29th July 1st Aug 3rd Aug 4th Aug

THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1914 – 1918)

Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated Austria declared war on Serbia Austrian troops attacked Belgrade, capital of Serbia Russia supported Serbia Germany declared war on France Germany invaded Belgium. Britain declared war on Germany

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2.1

THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1914 – 1918)

TRIPLE ALLIANCE

TRIPLE ENTENTE

• Germany • Italy • Austria - Hungary

• Britain • France • Russia
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2.1

THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1914 - 1918)

Central Powers • Germany • Austria-Hungary • Turkey • Bulgaria

Allies • Britain • Russia • France • Italy • Japan • USA

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2.1

THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1914 – 1918)

• British Navy formed blockage to stop passage of shipping to or from Germany • German Navy strong • Germans used U-boats to launch torpedo attacks on Sinking of the Lusitania, 1915 Allied shipping

• First time that airships were used in war
A Zeppelin
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2.2

END OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR
The First World War ended on 11 November 1918.

Germany

Treaty of Versailles 28 June 1919

Allies

Germany: • Territorial losses • War Reparations • Military Limitations
Signing the Treaty of Versailles
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2.2

END OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR
Massive destruction Land boundaries redefined

German empire reduced Germans angry

The League of Nations formed

Countries torn apart

First meeting of the League of Nations

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2.3

THE SECOND WORLD WAR (1939 – 1945)

Harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles

Great Depression of the 1930s

Ambitions of Germany, Italy and Japan

Axis Power
The Axis Powers, 1940
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2.3

THE SECOND WORLD WAR (1939 – 1945)
Hitler • 1920 – Formed the National Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nazi Party) • Once in power, other opposition parties banned • 1934 – Hitler as Supreme Leader, or Fuhrer of Germany • 1935 – Began rebuilding the military • 1938 – Invaded Austria • 1939 – Invaded Czechoslovakia
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2.4

THE WAR IN EUROPE
was invaded on 1st September 1939 Allies – Britain, France – demanded for Germany to withdraw from Poland Germany refused to withdraw Allies declared war on Germany on 3rd September 1939 By 5th Oct, Poland had been captured by Germany and Russia

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2.4
1940 June 1940 Aug 1940 June 1941 Dec 1941 Sept 1943

THE WAR IN EUROPE
Belgium defeated by Germany France defeated by Germany Battle of Britain Russia invaded by Germany
Winston Churchill, the British Prime Minister during the Battle of Britain

United States attacked by Japan. United States entered war Italy withdrew from the war
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2.5

THE END OF THE WAR IN EUROPE
• On 6th June 1944, the Allies combined forces to invade France • Largest air-land-sea military operation in history Attack at Normandy, France took Germans by surprise Germans forced back to Rhine, freeing Belgium, Holland, France

• Dec 1944 – Russia invaded Germany • March 1945 – Allies entered Germany • 7 May 1945 – Germany surrendered
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2.6

THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC
Japan By the1930s, Japan had expanded into Manchuria and China By 1940, it had signed a treaty with Germany  wanted to conquer Asian nations and obtain more raw materials

Attack on Pearl Harbour, 1941

Japan had to destroy the American presence in Southeast Asia first to ensure the success of their expansion there

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2.6

THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC
Between 1941 and 1942, Japan conquered…

1942: Battle of Coral Sea and Battle of Midway – Japanese defeated in both battles by the Americans.
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2.7

THE END OF THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC
By early 1945, the Allies were ready to invade major Japanese cities When Japan refused to surrender, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima on 6 August 1945. On 15 August 1945, Emperor Hirohito announced Japan’s surrender in a radio broadcast.
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2.8

EFFECTS OF THE WAR
• The Allies suffered estimated 45 million deaths • The Axis Powers suffered 11 million deaths • World balance of power shifted to the United States and Russia • Millions of Jews died in death camps • In Asia, nationalist feelings were strong. Movements to end colonial rule and work towards independence were given a new impetus.
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2.9

THE UNITED NATIONS
• Established on 1st January 1942 • 26 original member nations

To maintain world peace and security

To develop friendly relations among nations

To help each other solve world problems
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CHAPTER 2: SUMMARY
1914: Two opposing camps formed Triple Alliance vs Triple Entente Central Powers vs The Allies

1918: More countries had joined in

1919: Peace settlements signed in Paris
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CHAPTER 2: SUMMARY
The Axis Powers vs The Allies Britain France Russia USA

Germany Italy Japan May 1945: Germany surrendered August 1945: Japanese surrendered

October 1945: The United Nations was formed
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