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Comité Puentes - Chile

First US-Chile Workshop on Bridge Earthquake Engineering

30-31 August 2016

Bridge Design Code prior to 2010

Matías A. Valenzuela.
P.E, MsC, Ph.D,
Public Works Ministry Chile
Reinforcement Concrete Bridges

1925 - 1950

In 1925
Road Department
Use of Reinforcement Concrete
Typology: Frame and slab-girder
Span < 24 m.

Still in service
Suspension Bridge – Timber deck

1940 - 1967

1940, design and construction

Spans: 40 - 50 m.

After Earthquake May 1960

Alliance for Progress
Replace with suspension
T Girders: Steel beam bridges

1940 - 1980

Steel girder
Concrete / Timber Slab

Simple supported
Frames (Tornapunta)
Span : 50 m
Pre-stress Concrete Bridges

1980 -2010

1960: Few Pre-stress bridges

(Maipo, Juan Pablo II, Manuel
1980: Pre/Post stress girder with
concrete slab
1970 – 1980: Box girder deck (pre-
Pre-stress Concrete Bridges


Precast concept
Use of prestress girders
Reduce time and cost
Remarks Bridges

Amolanas Bridge, Region of Juan Pablo II Bridge in Concepción,

Coquimbo. It has a length of 268 m Region of Biobío. It is 2430 m and is
and a height of 101.3 m structured in 75 spans of 32.4 m
each, with piers-piles and pre-
BTITLE stressed beams
Schemes Traditional Bridges

Table 1. Elements of a traditional beam bridge

Design Conditions

General Scheme


• AASHTO Standard
• Manual de Carreteras Vol.3-5

Live Loads

HS 20 - 44:

MOP Factor (1980): 20%

Seismic Loads

Superstructure: only mass applied to infrastructure

Performance target:

Design capacity:

1) No damage in the elastic range – moderate events

2) Limited damage in non structural elements – medium events
3) Total or partial collapse – severe events
I. Damage in ease inspections zones
II. Not allowed risk for human being


1) Span: 70 m
2) Traditional typologies (not cable-stayed, suspension, among others)
Seismic Loads

General Requirements

• Soil Acceleration coefficient (Ao) and seismic maps.

Zone 3: Coastal area - Zone 1: Andes area

Regions IV a la IX subregional tables

Exceeded probability of 10% in 50 years, return period 475 years.

Ao’ Maximum Net Acceleration Coefficient (PGA) = Ao / g

Seismic Loads

• Maximum soil acceleration (ao)

Average value measurement by accelerometers in hard soil with a return period of

475 years.

• Importance category(CI).

Bridges located on Seismic Zone 2 and 3

Bridge Department Criteria

Essential Bridges CI=I

Others Bridges CI = II
Seismic Loads
Seismic Loads

• Seismic Scour Hazard (PSS).

Scour residual level after the maximum scour, in percentage

Important in torrential rivers.

Total Scour = General = Local (return period 200 years)

Seismic Loads

• Seismic Category Behavior (CCS).

Four Categories from ‘a’ to ‘d’.

Allows to define the minimal asses and design requirements.

Seismic Loads

• Soil Coefficient (S).

Depends on soil profile.

It is included :

1. Seismic Coefficients
2. Seismic design spectrum
Analysis Methods

• Seismic Coefficient
• Seismic Coefficient modify by structural response
• Response Spectrum Analysis

Applied to traditional bridges, model by superstructure and only pier of


• Modal Spectrum + Seismic Risk Study

• Linear and Non Linear Time History Analysis

Bridge Department Criteria based on:

Critical, singular (complex geometry) or close of a surface geologycalactive fault.

Analysis Methods

• Seismic Coefficient

Footbridge and simple supported bridge

Two spans 70 m
Height from length bearing and scour < 12 meters

Horizontal Seismic design coefficient (Kh):

R factors = 1
Independent analysis direction (long-trans)
Analysis Methods

• Seismic Coefficient modify by structural response

Simple supported and continuous bridge

More than two spans: 70 m
Height from length bearing and scour < 25 meters

Seismic Force for each element and

connections obtained applying R factors
Analysis Methods

• Seismic Coefficient modify by structural response

Natural Period for girder bridges: T = 0,8 (s)
Natural period (Tn) by Rayleigh Method or:
Analysis Methods

• Seismic Coefficient modify by structural response

The Minimal Total Baseline Shear of the Bridge:

Analysis Methods

• Response Spectrum Analysis

Simple supported and continuous bridge

More than two spans: 70 m
Height from length bearing and scour < 50 meters

Spectral acceleration mode m ,Sa(Tm), is obtained by:

Superposition by CQC:
Analysis Methods

• Response Spectrum Analysis


Sum mass equivalent 90% of total mass per each direction

Minima baseline shear:

Analysis Methods

• Response Spectrum Analysis

Analysis Methods

• Response Spectrum Analysis

Load Combination

Orthogonal seismic force

Load Combination I:

Eqx + 0,3 Eqy

Load Combination II:

Eqy + 0,3 Eqx.

Structural Design: Seismic

• Minimum longitudinal seat width

All typologies
Structural Design: Seismic

•Minimum longitudinal seat width

Common practice:

75 cm - 100 cm.
Structural Design: Seismic

• Single span bridges

Seismic Coefficient Method.

Seismic force on each restricted direction applied horizontally.
Deck- abutment connection design by tributary dead load x seismic coefficient
R Factor = 1

• Diaphragm

Seismic Zone 3
Due to higher vertical seismic component
Structural Design: Seismic

• Seismic Bars

Reinforcement steel bar (22 mm of diameter).

Vertical seismic coefficient Kv = Ao/2g

Ascendant direction
Not consider self-weight

Materials: ASTM A 706M,

(ASTM A 615M, gr. 280 and420) if:
Structural Design: Seismic

• Lateral stoppers

Seismic transverse displacement

Height > 30 cm.
½ of Total Horizontal Seismic Force
Gap = Seismic Displacement + 5 cm
Ductile behavior

• Seismic Expansion Joints

S1, S2= total displacement of bearing

Sj :
Tip. 40 cm
Old expansion joint 5 @ 10 cm

• Isolation System

“Guide Specification For Seismic Isolation Design”.

Structural Design: Seismic
Lateral walls and main (50 cm), back wall, access slab, seat length (100 cm), pile
cap (20 cm), pile cap wall (35 cm).

Mononobe – Okabe active pressure: in order

to consider displacements.
Structural Design: Seismic

Design condition:

- Scour Level
- River-sea max level
- Admissible soil stress
- Soil structure
- Water conditions
Structural Design: Seismic


Scour protection

Bearing, frictional or combined

(depends on soil condition).

Timber piles: diameters 25 @ 35 cm.

Steel Piles (Yoder): 0,8 – 1,5 m

Santiago – CHILE
18 al 20 de Octubre de 2017
October 18 to 20, 2017


Santiago - Chile

18 - 20 October 2017

Organizan / Organized by
Segundo Congreso Internacional de Puentes – Chile 2017: Diseño, Second International Bridges Congress - CHILE 2017: Design,
Construcción y Mantenimiento Construction and Maintenance

Santiago – CHILE
16 al 21 de Octubre de 2017 - October 18 to 20, 2017


Dr. Matías Valenzuela Saavedra, Bridge Department, Public Works Ministry of Chile
Venue – Santiago Chile

Technical Visit – Puerto Montt, Chile

Chacao Bridge Project