CHAPTER 1

THE EXPANSION OF EUROPEAN INFLUENCE IN THE EAST

“O you believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely Allah is Most Merciful to you.” (An-Nisaa:29)
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1.1 THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
At the beginning of the 16th Century, Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, British and French came to the East to trade. In the 18th Century, the Industrial Revolution began in Europe.

Machines were invented.

More goods could be produced in a shorter time and at cheaper prices.
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1.2

RIVALRY AMONG EUROPEAN POWERS
Asia was seen by Europeans as • a market to sell manufactured goods • a place to get raw materials

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RIVALRY AMONG EUROPEAN POWERS

Europeans needed a port of call along the India-China trade route. A place to harbour ships Reasons why European traders needed port of call in the East A place to repair ships A place to conduct trade
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A place to obtain food supplies

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RIVALRY AMONG EUROPEAN POWERS

Rivalry occurred when all the European powers wanted to be the supreme power in the East. Anglo-French Rivalry in India Because of this, British looked for a new strategic naval base in Southeast Asia

In 1784, Sir Francis Light suggested Penang Sir Francis Light
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1.2

RIVALRY AMONG EUROPEAN POWERS

However, Penang did not become a naval base because… Unsuitable trading centre; too far north of Malay Archipelago Unsuitable as dockyard; invention of steamships that could sail against wind Lack of skilled manpower High administration costs; too many highsalaried officials
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1.2

RIVALRY AMONG EUROPEAN POWERS
Kew Letters of 1795 – allowed British to take over Dutch possessions, in order to prevent French from seizing them British occupied Java in 1811. Stamford Raffles was LieutenantGovernor of Java

Anglo-Dutch Rivalry

Stamford Raffles

Java returned to Dutch in 1816

Founding of Singapore led to rivalry
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1.2
British continued looking for a suitable port in Southeast Asia. Stamford Raffles landed in Singapore in 1819 and signed a treaty with the Temenggong. The Story behind the treaty

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In return Sultan Hussein gave the British permission to set up a settlement in Singapore.
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1.2

RIVALRY AMONG EUROPEAN POWERS
The Treaty of London 1824 (Anglo-Dutch Treaty)

The Dutch claimed that Singapore was under their control

The British were unwilling to give up Singapore

To avoid war, the Treaty of London was signed. This divided the Malay Archipelago into British and Dutch zones of influence.

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1.2

RIVALRY AMONG EUROPEAN POWERS
The Treaty of London 1824 (Anglo-Dutch Treaty)

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1.2

RIVALRY AMONG EUROPEAN POWERS
The Treaty of London 1824 (Anglo-Dutch Treaty)

Terms of the treaty: 1) Commercial • Holland allowed to retain spice trade monopoly over the Moluccas only • Dutch treaties on tin for Perak and Selangor cancelled • Most favoured nation treatment • No trade discrimination
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1.2

RIVALRY AMONG EUROPEAN POWERS
The Treaty of London 1824 (Anglo-Dutch Treaty)

2) Financial • Dutch settled debts with British 3) Security • British and Dutch to co-operate to suppress piracy

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1.2

RIVALRY AMONG EUROPEAN POWERS
The Treaty of London 1824 (Anglo-Dutch Treaty)

4) Territorial • No interference in each other’s area • British and Dutch to hand over ceded territories on 8 March 1825 • Dutch to give Malacca to Britain in return for Bencoolen • Dutch to cede all bases in India and Malaya to Britain • Straits of Malacca divided into two zones of influence: British – North of Singapore; Dutch – South of Singapore
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CHAPTER 1: SUMMARY
The Expansion of European Influence in the East A New Chapter in the History of Man • Discovery of new sources of power • Invention of new machines

The Industrial Revolution Rivalry Among European Powers British Settlement at Penang The Anglo-Dutch Rivalry British Occupation of Java British Settlement in Singapore
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CHAPTER 1: SUMMARY
The Expansion of European Influence in the East From 16th Century • European powers set up colonial empires • Anglo-French Rivalry

The Industrial Revolution Rivalry Among European Powers British Settlement at Penang The Anglo-Dutch Rivalry British Occupation of Java British Settlement in Singapore
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CHAPTER 1: SUMMARY
The Expansion of European Influence in the East 1786 • Founding of Penang • Unsuitable port of call • High administrative costs • Lack of skilled manpower

The Industrial Revolution Rivalry Among European Powers British Settlement at Penang The Anglo-Dutch Rivalry British Occupation of Java British Settlement in Singapore
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CHAPTER 1: SUMMARY
The Expansion of European Influence in the East 18th – 19th Century • Dutch and British competing for control of trade • Holland at war with France • Kew Letters 1795– Britain to take over Java

The Industrial Revolution Rivalry Among European Powers British Settlement at Penang The Anglo-Dutch Rivalry British Occupation of Java British Settlement in Singapore
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CHAPTER 1: SUMMARY
The Expansion of European Influence in the East 1811 • Stamford Raffles as Lieutenant Governor of Java 1816 • Return of Java to the Dutch

The Industrial Revolution Rivalry Among European Powers British Settlement at Penang The Anglo-Dutch Rivalry British Occupation of Java British Settlement in Singapore
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CHAPTER 1: SUMMARY
The Expansion of European Influence in the East 1819 • British possession of Singapore 1824 • Anglo-Dutch Treaty: commercial, territorial, financial and security

The Industrial Revolution Rivalry Among European Powers British Settlement at Penang The Anglo-Dutch Rivalry British Occupation of Java British Settlement in Singapore
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