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21 st

Century Literature of
the Philippines and the
World
21st Century

The 21st century is the current century of the Anno Domini era
or Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. It began on
January 1, 2001 and will end on December 31, 2100.[1] It is the first
century of the 3rd millennium.
“The history of a nation can be learned in its constitutions, its laws,
and its political statements. But to know the history of the nation’s
spirit, you must read its literature.”

(Croghan, 1977)
Importance of Literature

To instill the social and spiritual values


To know the history of their own place and other parts of the world
To pass down customs, beliefs and traditions to the younger generations
Mirroring society for humans to study themselves and understand the
underlying truths common to all people
Importance of Literature

Also helps people to see life from the perspective of another


Allows people to learn about life and truth
Connects individuals with larger truths and ideas in a society
Creates a way for people to record their thoughts and experiences in a way
that is accessible to others
Literature

 it is a collection of writings in prose or verse, especially


writings having excellence of form or expression.
Literature
 It is a collection of writings in prose or verse, especially
writings having excellence of form or expression and
expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest.
 poems, plays , short stories, novels , and more…
 Classics or classical literature are those works which
stand the test of time and are described as timeless and
universal. And those who have made classical literature
are highly considered as an ‘intellectual’.
Literature
 came from the Greek word
‘literatura’ meaning ‘writing/learning’
‘literatus’ meaning ‘literate/learned’

 a literary piece is produced by someone who is literate


or learned in the language or culture of a social group.
Genres of Literature

Poetry
Prose
Drama
Genres of Literature

POETRY is that broad genre of literature that is written


in stanza form. It is characterized by a regular rhythmic
pattern, rhyme, horizontal and/or vertical measure,
imagery, symbolism and figurative language.
Genres of Literature
 PROSE is that broad genre of literature that is written
in paragraph form.
 it is an expression that does not have a regular rhythmic
pattern.
 It differs in poetry in the sense that it does not have
measure and rhyme.
 All genres of prose, except essays, have the following
elements: SETTING, CHARACTERS, THEME, PLOT,
CONFLICT, POINT OF VIEW, TONE and ATMOSPHERE.
Genres of Literature

Drama is a form of art that depicts life’s experiences through the


re enactment of events that take place in the real world or
happen in the mind of the writer.
It mirrors life.
Genres of Literature
• Dram
• Greek word meaning to act or to do,

• Drama is performed on stage or in front of the camera


by actors and actresses under the supervision of the
director.
POETRY
GENRES OF LITERATURE
1. Measure
2. Rhythm
3. Rhyme
4. Imagery
5. Symbolism
6. Figures of Speech

Elements of a poem
Measure

 It involves the counting of the number of line and


stanzas (vertical measure) and the number of syllables and
feet (horizontal measures)
vertical MEASURE
(no of lines)

Couplet – two lines


Triplet/Tercet – three lines
Quatrain/Quartet – four lines
Cinquain/Quintain – five lines
Sestet – six lines
Septet – seven lines
Octave – eight lines
Nonet – nine lines
HORIZONTAL MEASURE
(no of syllables)

Monosyllabic Heptasyllabic
Disyllabic Octosyllabic
Trisyllabic Nonasyllabic
Tetrasyllabic Decasyllabic
Pentasyllabic Undecasyllabic
Hexasyllabic Dodecasyllabic
HORIZONTAL MEASURE
(no of feet/meters)

Monometer Pentameter
Dimeter Hexameter
Trimeter Heptameter
Tetrameter Octameter
rhythm

 It is the regular succession of accented and unaccented


syllables in a line. It is associated with the metrical feet.
rhyme

 It is the presence of words that have similar or identical


final sounds.
rhyme
 INTERNAL RHYME. When the rhyming words are found
within one line.
 TERMINAL RHYME. When the rhyming words are found
at the end of lines
 PERFECT RHYME. Occurs when the final sounds of
rhyming words are identical.
 EYE RHYME. Occurs when the words have identical final
letters which do not sound the same.
rhyme
 MASCULINE/SINGLE RHYME. Occurs when the rhyming
words have one (single) syllable each.
 FEMININE/DOUBLE RHYME. Occurs when the rhyming
words have two (double) syllables each.
 COMPUND RHYME. Occurs when the rhyming words are
compound words forming two pairs of rhyming words.
rhyme
 MONORIME. Exists when all the lines in the stanza have
the same final sound.
 DIRIME. Exists when all the lines has two pairs or sets of
rhyming words. (quatrain; pattern: abab, aabb, or abba)
 TRIRIME. Exists when all the lines in the stanza has three
pairs or sets of rhyming words. (sestet; pattern: abcabc,
aabbcc, abccba)
 RIME RICHE/IDENTICAL RHYME. Occurs when the
rhyming words are homonyms.
Imagery

 It is the creation of a picture or pictures by using words


that appeal to the senses. It is either: visual ,auditory,
olfactory, gustatory, tactile or tactual, kinesthetic or
thermal.
Imagery
 VISUAL IMAGERY. Involves the sense of sight and
pertains to size, shape, color and similar physical
characteristics contribute to the visual imagery.
 AUDITORY IMAGERY. Involves the sense of hearing and
pertains to sound to present auditory imagery.
 OLFACTORY IMAGERY . Involves the sense of smell and
pertains to odors or scents.
 GUSTATORY IMAGERY. Involves the sense of taste.
Imagery
 TACTILE OR TACTUAL IMAGERY. Involves the sense of
touch and pertains to texture.
 KINESTHETIC IMAGERY. Involves the sense of movement.
 THERMAL IMAGERY. Involves the sense of heat.
symbolism

 It is manifested when one thing is let to represent


another. A symbol is something which represents
something else by association, resemblance or
convention.
Figure of speech

 These are words or phases connotatively used by the


writer to communicate and abstract idea or to produce an
effect that words use in their ordinary or denotative sense
can’t produce.
PROSE
GENRES OF LITERATURE
1. Setting 5. Conflict
2.Characters 6.Point of
3.Theme View
4. Plot 7. Tone
8. Atmosphere

Elements of a prose
CHARACTERS
PRINCIPAL CHARACTERS :
Protagonist
Primary antagonist
SUPPORTING CHARACTERS:
Supporting antagonists
Confidants
Foil
Background characters & Unseen Characters
CHARACTERS
 PROTAGONIST – the hero or the main character around
whom the story revolves.

 ANTAGONIST – the villain; the main/supporting character


who opposes the protagonist. (If the antagonist is not a
human being but a natural force, the villain is called an
ANTAGONISTIC FORCE)
CHARACTERS
 CONFIDANT/E – the supporting character upon whom
the protagonist confides; the sidekick of the hero; the
constant companion of the hero and knows almost
everything about the hero.
 FOIL – the supporting character who serves as a contrast
to the hero but does not necessarily opposes him; the
trait of the foil balance those of the hero.
CHARACTERS
 BACKGROUND CHARACTERS – those characters who
provide reality to the story by their mere presence.

 UNSEEN CHARACTERS – an absent character who, even


in his absence, affects the development of the story.
CHARACTERS
 The characters may be dynamic or static.
 The characterization is divided into 4 levels:
1. PHYSICAL (sex, age, size, color, race, etc.)
2. SOCIAL (economic status, profession, trade, religion,
family, language, social environment)
3. PSYCHOLOGICAL (mindsets, attitudes, behaviors)
4. MORAL (dilemma faced by the character)
theme

 It is the idea or concept of the author expressed in a


concise statement.
 Referred to as the message of the story.
plot
 This is the chronological sequence of events in the history. It
is divided into following parts:

1. Exposition
2. Rising Action/Incident
3. Complication
4. Crisis
5. Climax
6. Denouement/Resolution
7. Falling Action/Incident
8. Conclusion
theme
 This is the motivating, driving force that involves both
characters and readers in the narrative.

 SOCIAL (man vs. man)


 PHYSICAL (man vs. nature)
 METAPHYSICAL (man vs. supernatural)
 INTERNAL/PERSONAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL CONFLICT (man
vs. man himself)
POINT OF VIEW
 This is the angle of narration.

 The frame of reference the author takes in telling a story


is either first person or third person.
tone
 This is the emotional climate inherent in the story.

 It can be tragic, angry, humorous, pathetic, condemning,


condescending, accusing, satirical, cynical, romantic or
sympathetic.
atmosphere

 This is either the psychological environment or the


predominant tone or mood of the literary piece.
DRAMA
GENRES OF LITERATURE
ELEMENTS OF PLAY PRODUCTION
ELEMENTS OF PLAY PRODUCTION

• 1. Direction
• The director is the overall in charge of the dramatic performance.
• He instructs the actors and all the people involved in the production .
• He is always present from the pre-production stage to the post production
stage of the play.
ELEMENTS OF PLAY PRODUCTION
• 2. Acting
• The members of the cast perform the roles assigned to
them by the director.
3. Set design
the set designer does the layout of the set.
He determines what to place as backdrop and what to
put on stage.
ELEMENTS OF PLAY PRODUCTION

• 4. Production Design
• The production designer is tasked to do the overall design for a drama to be
shown on the small screen or the wide screen.
5. Costume design
The costume designer creates the clothes to be worn by the actors and
actresses.
ELEMENTS OF PLAY PRODUCTION

• 6. Make-up
• The make-up artist beautifies or uglifies the actors and actresses based on the
roles they portray.
7. Properties
The Properties (props for short) are the things which the actor and actresses
carry or bring with them as they perform on stage or in front of the camera in
order to establish their characters.
ELEMENTS OF PLAY PRODUCTION

• 8. Light or Lighting Effects


• The Light man is in charge of determining the amount
(bright or dark) and the sources (sun, lamp, flashlight,
or candle) of light needed to make scenes realistic
and credible.
ELEMENTS OF PLAY PRODUCTION

• 9. Sound Effects
• The Sound Effects man is in charge of determining the
amount (loud or soft) and the sources (people,
animals, objects)of sound needed to make the scenes
realistic and credible.
ELEMENTS OF PLAY PRODUCTION

10. Visual Effects


The visual Effects man is in charge of producing
those sights that are not usually captured by the
camera in order to make the scenes effective,
exciting and appealing to the viewers.
ELEMENTS OF PLAY PRODUCTION
• 11. Theme Song
• It is the song composed to represent the theme or the
subject matter of the drama.

12.Musical Score
Other song played to set the mood (for example, romantic),
to excite the audience,or keep the viewers glued to their
seats
ELEMENTS OF PLAY PRODUCTION

13. Story
The story is one of the most important aspects of a play for without it, there
won’t be any production.
14. Script
The script is that which contains the dialogue or the lines to be memorized by
the performers.
It also contains the director’s instructions.
ELEMENTS OF PLAY PRODUCTION

14. Literary Elements


• it is the elements of drama are the setting, characters,
plot, theme, conflict, point of view, tone, mood and
atmosphere.
KINDS OF DRAMA
TRAGEDY
COMEDY
TRAGICOMEDY
FARCE
MELODRAMA
RELIGIOUS PLAY
HISTORICAL PLAY
MUSICAL PLAY
KINDS OF DRAMA

TRAGEDY
It is a drama in which the hero fails to fulfill his goal or goals.
His failure is attributed to his tragic flaw, a fatal mistake.
KINDS OF DRAMA

COMEDY
a comedy is a drama in which the hero succeeds in fulfilling his goal or goals.
It is comic all throughout as a comedy of manners or a slapstick comedy such
that the viewers laugh and laugh as they watch the performance.
KINDS OF DRAMA

Tragicomedy
It is a drama in which the hero fails with respect to some goals but succeeds
with respect to the other goals.
KINDS OF DRAMA

Farce
It is a drama written by an author whose intention is to poke fun at the hero, his
subject.
KINDS OF DRAMA

Melodrama
It is a drama that focuses not on the protagonist, but on the action or the
situation.
is a subgenre of drama, which is an exaggerated form of this genre.
a sensational dramatic piece with exaggerated characters and exciting events
intended to appeal to the emotions
KINDS OF DRAMA

RELIGIOUS PLAY
It is a drama that serves to reenact a biblical event or to teach truth or truths
pertaining to a centain religion.
KINDS OF DRAMA

HISTORICAL PLAY
It serves to reenact a historical event that plays an important role on the lives of
the viewers.
KINDS OF DRAMA

MUSICAL PLAY
Also known as an opera,
A musical play is an art form that combines music and drama.