Around 71% of the surface of the earth is covered by water that is why it is called “ water planet”.

• The ocean world was formerly
divided into 7 seas; namely N. Atlantic, S. Atlantic, N. Pacific, S. Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic. This term was popularized by Rudyard Kipling , an English poet .

Today, only four oceans are recognized;
• 1. PACIFIC OCEAN – means “ peaceful or
calm”, named by Magellan • Covers 1/3 of the global surface • Area; 166 million km2 • Ocean floor is dominated by East Pacific rise. Western Pacific is divided by deep trenches. Marianas trench ( 10, 924m) the world’s greatest depth is located here. • It supplies half of the world’s total fish catch.

• Ocean floor is dominated by the MidAtlantic Ridge which forms as Sshaped pattern at the center. • Rich in natural resources like oil, gas, fish, marine mammals etc.

Mid- Indian Oceanic Ridge and subdivided by the SE Indian ocean Ridge, SW Indian ocean and 90 East Ridge. • Java trench is the maximum depth ( 7, 725 m) • 40% of the world’s offshore oil production comes here.

• Smallest of the world’s four oceans. • 50% of itas ocean floor is a
continental shelf. • Fram basin is the deepest depth ( 4 665m)

Southern Hemisphere is the “ water hemisphere”
• 40% of the Northern hemisphere is
called the “ land hemisphere”

• A solution consisting of about 3.5%(
by weight) dissolved salts. • SALINITY – refers to the proportion of dissolved salts to pure water expressed in parts per thousand (0/00) • The average salinity is 35%

• A. CHEMICAL WEATHERING OF ROCKS • The dissolved salts are carries by streams

to the oceans at the rate of 2.5 billions tons per year. • B. OUTGASSING- process when volcano erupts, large quantities of water and dissolved gases are emitted to the earth’s surface.. The presence of larger amounts of chlorine, bromine, sulfur and boron in the ocean than on earth’s crust confirm that volcanic activities is largely responsible for the formation of oceans.

• SODIUM – 10.56 0/00 • Magnesium – 1.30 • Calcium – 0.40 • Potassium- 0.38 • Chloride- 19.00 • Sulfate- 2.65 • Bicarbonate- 0.14 • Bromide- 0.06

OCEANOGRAPHY – deals with the study of the ocean and its phenomena

• 1. H.M.S. Challenger – the expedition was

the first and the most comprehensive study of the global ocean ( Dec. 1872- May 1876) • 2. Fridtj of Nansen- a Norwegian oceanographer and zoologist studied ocean surface currents. He designed the Nansen bottle- the standard oceanographic sampling device

3. 1925- German ship “ Meteor” – made the 1st modern oceanographic voyage • It had an electronic depth- sounding

device known as “ echosounder”.. An apparatus that measures the depth of water by determining the time interval between the transmission of a sound and the return of echo from the bottom of the ocean.

4. Glomar Challenger _ ( 1967) and Joides Resolution ships ( 1985) • Their expiditions gave new
information about the sea floor and its sediments

MODERN DEVICES USED IN STUDYING MARINE ENVIRONMENT • 1. Sonar scanner • 2. magnetic surveys • 3. magnetometers • 4. submersible research vessels • 5. tools for collecting cores of

• CONTINENTAL SHELF- is a relatively
shallow, submerged platform bordering the continents. It is of economic significance. It is a rich fishing ground nd may ontain deposits of minerals, petroleum, and natural gas.

CONTINENTAL SLOPE- this leads to deep water.
• Submarine canyons – steep, irregular
sides of a continental slope • Continental rise- it links the deep ocean basin floor to the continental slope. • These make up the continental margin..

• The area occupied by the ocean
basin floor is large, it is almost 30% of the earth’s surface. • OCEAN TRENCHES – long, narrow depressions in the ocean floor that have steep sides. Around 2 km deeper than the level of ocean floor. Phil. Trench ( 10, 057) is the 3rd deepest ocean trench

OCEAN RIDGES – consists of layers of basaltic rocks that have been faulted and lifted.

• They form a continuous mountain range.

Ridges have rifts, the deep clefts the sites • Where magma wells up.

• ABYSSAL PLAINS – the flat portions on the

ocean floor • SEAMOUNTS – are volcanic peaks. They rise as much as hundreds of metres above the sea floor. Guyots are the submerged flat-topped seamounts