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AN AN T K UMAR RAI REG. NO.- U05EC005
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OBJECTIVES

   

Describe the Cellular Concept Explain the GSM Access Network Explain the GSM Core Network Explain the GPRS Core Network

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Communication - Mobile

Subscriber Line (2W)

Inter-Exchange Junction

BSC BTS
Telephone Mobile Switching Exchange Centre (MSC)

MS

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CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS
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WHAT IS A CELL ?
• A base station (transmitter) having a number of

RF channels is called a cell • Each cell covers a a limited number of mobile subscribers within the cell boundaries ( Coverage area) • Typical Cell Radius Aprrox = 30 Km (Start up), 1 KM (Mature)

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A RADIO CELL
Voice Channels
th pa d ar rw ath Fo ep rs ve Re

Co ve are rage a

Lines to BSC

Or control channels

MS

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Fundamental problems

• Radio range, or coverage • No. of channels, or voice circuits • Full, seamless service coverage • Large no. of subscribers in the range of millions

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CELLULAR MOBILE CONCEPTS
FERQUENCY SCARCITY PROBLEM

Tel Ex.

 
WIRED NETWORK

BW for Telephony speech: 3KHz increases to 25 KHz with FM for Radio Trans. 100,000 50 Khz = 5 Ghz (NOT POSSIBLE)

Hence Individual RF Loop is not extended But a Common group of channels is shared
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GSM Specifications
45 124

Carrier Separation 200 kHz Duplex Distance MHz No. of RF Carriers Access Method Modulation Method GMSK Transmission Rate Kbps Speech Coding 6.5 Kbps

TDMA/FDMA 270.833

-

Full rate 13 Kbps Half rate
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GSM FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access

890
0

25 MHz
1 2

915

935
0

25 MHz
1 Base to Mobile

960
2

Mobile to Base
890.2 890.4 890.6
(MHz)

935.2

935.4

935.6

200 kHz

45MHz

200 kHz

Channel layout and frequency bands of operation
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GSM TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)

Amplitude

45 MHz
5 6 7 8 3 4 5 6 7 8

1

2

3

4

1

2

Frequency

F1 (Cell Rx)

F2

F2’ F1’ (Cell transmit)

Typical TDMA/ FDMA frame structure
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FDMA/TDMA Scheme

T IME
BP2 BP1 BP8 BP7 BP6 BP5 BP4 BP3 BP2 BP1

BURST F R A M E
890.2 890.6 891.0 890. 890.4 890.8 891.2 0

FREQ MHz 915.8
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GSM RF CHANNELS

LOGICAL CHANNELS
• USER INFORMATION( TRAFFIC) • SIGNALLING INFORMATION (CONTROL)

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OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS
Subscribers are not allocated dedicated channels TCH Allocated to users only when needed

• • •

Hence IDLE MODE & DEDICATED MODE

• DEDICATED MODE -- When a full Bi -directional P to P CHL has been allocated during an established call • IDLE MODE MODE -When MS is powered on (active) without being in dedicated mode
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Network Architecture
OSS
HLR

1 MSC=16 BSC 1 BSC=1024 TRU


PSTN ISDN

B T S B T S

BSC BSC
A-bis interface

MSC VLR

A Interface
B T S

Data Networks

Air interface

MSC VLR
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GSM Network Structure

• GSM Service Area: Total area served by the

combination of all member countries where a mobile can be served. • PLMN Service Area: It is one N/W area.

• MSC Service Area: There can many MSC/VLR in one

PLMN area.It is one Mobile Exch. Area. • GMSC: All I/C calls for PLMN N/W will be routed through GMSC. In a GSM/PLMN N/W all mobile terminated calls will be routed to a Gateway MSC. Call connections between PLMNs , or to fixed N/Ws must be routed to a GMSC.The GMSC contains the Inter working functions to make these connections.

• Location Area • Cells

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GSM Network Structure

LOCATION AREA : There are several LA in a
MSC/VLR combination. A LA is a part of the MSC/VLR service area in which a MS may move freely without updating location information to the MSC/VLR exchange that control the LA. Within a LA a paging message is broadcast in order to find the called mobile subs. LA can be identified by system using the LAI. CELL : A cell is an identity served by one BTS. The MS distinguishes between cells using the BASE STATION IDENTIFICATION CODE(BSIC) that the cell site broadcast over the air.
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GSM PLMN Service Area

I
MSC/VLR MSC/VLR

II

MSC/VLR

IV

MSC/VLR

III

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GSM
MSC Service Area
LA 1 LA 2

LA 3

LA 6 LA 4 MSC/VLR LA 5
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GSM Cells
C1

LA 1

LA 2

C2 C5

LA 3
C3

C6 C4 C7

LA 6 LA 4 MSC/VLR LA 5

C = Cell
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GSM Relation between areas in GSM

Cell Location Area Area served by a BTS Location Area MSC Service Area PLMN Service Area GSM Service Area
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GSM Functions of Mobile Station

• Voice and data transmission • Frequency and time synchronization • Monitoring of power and signal quality of the surrounding cells • Provision of location updates even during inactive state • Equalization of multi path distortions
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GSM Mobile Station

• Portable, vehicle mounted, hand held • MS identified by unique IMEI(International Mobile Equipment
Identity)

• Shall display at least last ten received, dialled and missed calls • Minimum talk time of 1hr 30 min. and standby time of 80 hrs

• 160 characters long SMS
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GSM Mobile Identification Numbers

• • •

IMEI MSISDN IMSI

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GSM IMSI
• International mobile subscriber’s Identity
• The IMSI is an unique identity which is used internationally and used within the network to identify the mobile subscribers. • The IMSI is stored on the subscriber identity module (SIM), the HLR, VLR and AC database.
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RADIO SUB SYSTEM (RSS)

MSC/VLR

BSC BSC

BSC

RSS
n BTS n BTS
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GSM FUNCTION OF BTS -I
Encodes, encrypts, multiplexes, modulates and feeds the RF signals to the antenna Transcoding and rate adaption Functionality Time and frequency synchronisation signals transmission. 11 power classes from .01 watts to 320 watts

• • • •

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GSM FUNCTION OF BTS -II

• Frequency hopping • Random access detection • Uplink radio channel measurements • BTS mainly consists of a set of transceivers (TRX).

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GSM FUNCTIONS OF BSC-I
It is connected to BTS and offloads MSC Radio resource management Inter-cell handover Reallocation of frequencies Power control

• • • • •

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GSM FUNCTIONS OF BSC-II

• Time delay measurement of the received signals from MS with respect to BTS clock. • Performs traffic concentration to reduce the number of lines from BSC to MSC.

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GSM FUNCTIONS OF BSC-III

• BSC performs call processing • TRAU are generally located at the site of MSC. • BSC- BTS configurations as per requirement. • Data from OMC and can be down loaded to BSC

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GSM MSC-BSS Configurations
Multi - cell site (sector Cells Configuration -5 A BTS A BSS

Single - cell site Configuration -1 A-bis BTS BTS BTS Many single cell sites

MSC

A

BSS BSC

BTS BTS A-bis BTS Multi - cell site = multi--BTS site

MCC: Mobile Switching Centre BSS: Base Station System BSC: Base Station Controller BTS: Base Transceiver Station

Configuration -6

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GSM
MSC ( MOBILE SWITCHING CENTRE)

• Manages communication between GSM & other network • Call setup functions, basic switching are done • MSC takes into account the RR allocation in addition to normal exchange functions • MSC does gateway function while its customers roams to other network by using HLR /VLR

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GSM MSC Functions - I
• Paging, specifically call handling • Location updation • Handover management • Billing for all subscribers based in its area • Reallocation of frequencies to BTSs in its area

to meet heavy demands
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GSM MSC Functions - II

 Echo canceller operation control  Signaling interface to databases like HLR, VLR.  Gateway to SMS between SMS centers and subscribers  Handle interworking function while working as GMSC
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GSM VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER (VLR)-I
• It controls those mobiles roaming in its area. • VLR reduces the number of queries to HLR • One VLR may be incharge of one or more LA. • VLR is updated by HLR on entry of MS its area. • VLR assigns TMSI which keeps on changing.

• IMSI detach and attach operation

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GSM Data in VLR
• • • • • • •

IMSI & TMSI MSISDN MSRN. Location Area Supplementary service parameters MS category Authentication Key

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GSM Home Location Register(HLR)-I
Reference store for subscriber’s parameters, numbers, authentication & Encryption values. Current subscriber status and associated VLR. Both VLR and HLR can be implemented in the same equipment in an MSC. one PLMN may contain one or several HLR.
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GSM Home Location Register(HLR)-II
Permanent data in HLR

• Data stored is changed only by man-machine. • IMSI, MS-ISDN number. • Category of MS ( whether pay phone or not ) • Roaming restriction ( allowed or not ). • Supplementary services like call forwarding
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GSM Home Location Register(HLR)-II

Temporary data in HLR

• • •

The data changes from call to call & is dynamic MSRN RAND /SRES and Kc VLR address, MSC address. Messages waiting data used for SMS
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GSM SERVICES

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GSM Services
 Services are defined as anything the end user explicitly sees as worth paying for.  The primary objective of a mobile telephony system is to allow mobile subscribers to communicate effectively.

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SERVICE CATEGORIES
Main type of telecommunication services:

☻ Basic services:
Available to all subscribers to a mobile network. e.g. voice telephone calls.

☻ Supplementary services:
Additional services that are available by subscription only. e.g. Call forwarding.
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Basic Telecommunication Services
Two main categories:

• Teleservices • Bearer Services

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Basic Telecommunication Services

Teleservices
Teleservice allows the subscriber to communicate (usually via voice, fax, data or SMS) with another subscriber. It is a complete system including necessary terminal equipment.
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Basic Telecommunication Services

Bearer services
It transports speech and data as digital information within the network between user interfaces. e.g.- a bearer service associated with the speech telephony teleservice is the timeslot assigned to a call on a TDMA frame over the air interface.
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TELESERVICES

Emergency calls
The emergency call function enables a subscriber to make an emergency call by pressing a predefined button or by using the emergency number. (like 112 , 911).

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TELESERVICES

SMS Cell Broadcast (SMSCB) A text message with a maximum length of 93 characters can be broadcast to all mobiles within a certain geographic area. traffic congestion warnings accident reports, weather announcements and advertisements.
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SUPPLEMENTARY SERVICES

Calling line identification services:
These cover both the presentation and restriction of the calling line identity. The presentation part of the service supplies the called party with the ISDN or MSISDN number of the calling party. The restriction service enables calling parties to restrict the presentation of their number on the MSs of called parties
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Value Added Services
• Mobile Messaging • Mobile internet • Mobile intelligent Network Services

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Some Applications
•Internet e.g. WAP •E-mail •Messaging Services e.g. MMS •Telemetery •M-Commerce •Location Based Service •Games
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Wireless World - there’s something for everyone
Young people Middle aged Sports Other news Financial/ Stock news Banking data Customer data Company data Mobile internet MTV Jokes

Grocery Prepaid, messaging Gambling

Anybody else

Financial community/tra der

Traveling sales/business man
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Wireless World bring in New Services
Unified Messaging

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Mobile Banking Mobile Trading Bluetooth:

Mobile Positioning

Location based

Multimedia Messaging

Mobile E-mail:

Corporate Lan Access Mobile Shopping

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Mobile Applications

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Mobile Messaging
 SMS  EMS  MMS  Instant Messaging  Streaming

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Short Message Services (SMS)
The service allows simple text message consisting of a maximum of 160 alphanumeric characters to be sent to or from an MS. If the MS is switched off, or has left the coverage area, the message is stores in a Short Message Service Center (SMS-C). When the mobile is switched on again or has re-entered the network coverage area, the subscriber is informed that there is a message.

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Enhanced Messaging System (EMS)

EMS can support relatively simple pictures,sounds and animation.

• EMS messages that are sent to devices that do not support it will be displayed as SMS transmissions. • It is a 3GPP standard.

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MULTIMEDIA MESSAGE SERVICE (MMS)

• MMS means a multimedia presentation which consists of music, voice, image, text, video and graphics all synchronized across a common timeline. • “Synchronized Power Point Presentations”.

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MULTIMEDIA MESSAGE SERVICE (MMS)

• MMS-enabled mobile phones enable subscribers to compose and send messages with one or more multimedia parts. Mobile phones with built-in or attached cameras, or with built-in MP3 players are very likely to also have an MMS messaging client -- a software program that interacts with the mobile subscriber to compose, address, send, receive, and view MMS messages.

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Multimedia Messaging - Any combination of media types
ndma Hi Gra !

Music

Images

itting Babys w? ro tomor

Video and Audio

Graphics

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rich content to encourage usage
Cartoons, Dating, Pop stars, Sports stars, Pets, Special occasions, Hobbies, Sports results, TV programmes, News, Weather, Holidays, Timetables, Family...

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SMS & MMS
SMS
Text Based Messaging Proprietary Standard Store & Forward system Uses signaling links

MMS
rich content including text, graphic, photos etc. Based upon 3 GPP & WAP standards. Store & Forward system MMS uses main data channel.

** 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) **
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Instant Messaging
It enables to communicate with another individual in real time, analogous to a telephone conversation but using text based communication instead of voice-based communication.

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Streaming
• It enables real time or on demand distribution of audio, video and multimedia on the internet. • It is simultaneous transfer of digital media (video,voice and data) so that it is received as a continuous real-time stream.

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Applications Evolution – user perspective
Movies Videoclips Photos Pictures

Streaming

Text

MMS

EMS SMS
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Where do we fit in ???

• Ringtones and Images over SMS, EMS and MMS • Games over SMS for single, multi player and as a team • Gaming servers handling SMS, WAP and Java games • MMS applications for Imaging and Melodies
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Content & Application

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n: Cartoon of the day, Tarot cards, Cocktail recipes, Alcometer, Daily Horoscope Personality Test,

mes: Hangman, Puzzles & Riddles, Cute’n’clever, Lifestyler, Friends PopStar, PopQuiz, Jewel & Rubin, Amour

oto & Film: PhotoGallery, Mobile Greeting Card, My SoapOpera,

at & date: Mobile Chat, Love Horoscope, Love Matcher

usic: Karaoke, Fan Packages, Hit Lists, Music News

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The Greeting Card solution:
• Send Messages to your friends, family and loved ones: - Via the web to the mobile phone • Ease of use– self instructing -Drag ‘n’ drop • Animations, Sounds, Pictures & Text

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MESSAGING TYPE STREAMING

CONTENT CARRIED
REAL TIME DISTRIBUTION OF AUDIO, VIDEO AND MULTIMEDIA

INSTANT MESSAGING
REAL TIME TEXT BASED COMMUNICATION

MMS

PICTURES, SOUNDS AND ANIMATIONS

EMS

RELATIVELY SIMPLE PICTURES, SOUNDS AND ANIMATIONS

SMS

SIMPLE TEXT

WIRELESS MESSAGING LADDER

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Location Based Applications

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Location Based Services

Positioning application Where am I Yellow Pages Tracking Fleet management Brand Finder Geo Coding, Content, Application Integration Positioning methods: – Cell/Sector , Time of Arrival -- Network Based AGPS – Terminal Based EOTD

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Traffic Information
APPLICATION OVERVIEW

This service both collects and distributes traffic information. Traffic information is very important need for city dwellers. Systems can estimate traffic information by sampling mobiles in automobiles on freeways anonymously to determine average velocity of vehicles. If this is not possible in locataion more static information can be collected from city authorities. All this information is mapped and sent to mobile users who request it. • Stickiness : Daily traffic info. pushed during rush hours via SMS/MMS • Most people need to know the current traffic sitution on their route. • Hosting: Operator / ISP • WAP/Web/MMS/SMS: yes/yes/yes/yes • Devices supported: - All devices • Commerically used worldwide

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Positioning based information, advertisements...
Telecom & backhand IT infrastructure makes it possible!

All Trademarks and Registered Trademarks are of respective holders

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Vertical applications Its all about Imagination……...

Operations
• Dispatch operations interconnected:

Automation

• Vending machines • Lottery – Taxi – Field services machines – Parcel services • Automatic ticket • Emergency machines services

M2M – Services
• Alarm & supervision • Point of sales • Telemetry • Financial services

M2M – Vehicle
• Vehicle tracking • Electronic maps • Traffic telematics • Car tolls
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Machine to Machine communication (M2M) Some key technologies for M2M • Bluetooth • GSM/GPRS • GSM/SMS • WiFi

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New appl icati ons
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Help! I’m almost out of coke bottles……. I don’t need wires to connect anymore

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Who are your customers?

age/status? attitude? culture? interests? financial situation? location? time? behaviour/mood?

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Thanks
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