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Resistors are the most common passive electronic
component(one that does not require to operate). They
are used to control voltages and current. While a resistor
is a very basic component ,there
are many ways to manufacture
them . Each style has its own ways
that make it desirable in certain
types of applications. Choosing the right type of resistor is
Important to making high-performance or precision
circuits work well. This bonus section covers the resistor
types and helps with picking the right one for your project.

All resistors are basically just a piece of

conducting material with a specific value of resistance. For
that piece of conducting material to be made into a
practical resistor, a pair of electrodes and leads are
attached so current can flow. The resistor is then coated
with an insulating material to protect the conducting
material form the surrounding environment and vice
versa. There are several different resistor construction
methods and body styles (or packages) that are designed
for a certain range of applied voltage, power dissipation,
or other considerations. The construction of the resistor
can affect its performance at high frequencies where it
may act like a small inductor or capacitor has been added,
called parasitic inductance or capacitance.
Capacitor has ability to store charge and release them
at a later time . Capacitance is the measure of the amount of
charge that a capacitor can store
for a given applied voltage. The
unit of capacitance is farad . The
capacitor used in the circuits are

In the circuit the electrolytic capacitor is used as a bypass

capacitor. Any noise variation in the circuit is removed by the

In electricity, a battery is a device of one or more electro
chemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical
Since the invention of the first battery (or “voltaic pile”)
in 1800 by Alessandro Volta and especially since the technically
improved Daniel celli n 1836, batteries have
become a common power source of many
household and industrial applications.

Two 9 volt batteries have been used in the

following project.
A transistor is a semiconductor used to amplify and
switch electrical signals and electrical power . It is composed of
semiconductor material with at least three terminals for
connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to
one pair of the terminals changes the current flowing through
another set of terminals . Because the controlled (output) power
can be higher than the controlled(input) power , a transistor can
amplify a signal. Today some, transistors are packaged individually,
but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. Four
BC-547 transistors have been used in the following project.

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an

electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically,
but other operating principles are also used. Relays are used
where it is necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal,
or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.
Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early
computer to perform logical operations.

A type of relay that can handle the high power required to

directly control an electric motor or other loads is called a
contactor. Solid-state relays control power circuits with no
moving parts, instead using a semiconductor device to perform
switching. Relays with calibrated operating characteristics and
sometimes multiple operating coils are used to protect
electrical circuits from overload or faults; in modern electric
power systems these functions are performed by digital
instruments still called “protective relays”.

Relay used in the following project is 5 volt SPST Relay.

Two led bulbs along with a 12 volt 10 watt bulb is used to
show the result.


1N4148 DIODE

This is a project on SOUND OPERATED SWITCH which can switch

on/off any electrical circuit by any form of sound like clap , cough
etc. The condensor microphone picks up the sound of your
claps, coughs. It produces a small electrical signal which is
amplified by the succeeding transistor stage. Two transistors
cross connected as a bi-stable multi vibrator change state at each
signal . One of these transistors drives a heavier transistor which
controls a lamp. This circuit can switch on and off a light, a fan or
a radio etc by the sound of a clap.

The circuit is constructed using basic electronic components like

resistors, transistors, relay, capacitors, led bulbs, diode. The
circuit turns “ON” light for the first clap . The light turns ON till
the next clap. The working of circuit is based on amplifying
nature of the transistor, switching nature of transistor, relay as an
electronic switch.

1. The primary application involves any elderly or immobile

2. We can turn something(e.g. a lamp) on and off from any
location in the room (e.g. while lying in the bed) simply by
clapping our hands.
3. Low cost and reliable circuit.
4. Complete elimination of man power.
5. Energy efficient.


1. Its is generally cumbersome to have to clap one’s hands to turn

something on or off and it is generally seen as amplifier for
most use cases to use a traditional light switch.
2. Unless we use a filter in the circuit , it is not that advantageous.
So that circuit activates only for clap of particular frequencies
and then it becomes accurate.

1. Clap activated switch device will serve well in phono-

controlled applications.
2. Clap switch is generally used for light, television, radio or
similar electronic devices that a person will want to turn
ON/OFF from bed.
3. The primary application involves an elderly or mobility-
impaired person.
4. This circuit functions on using the sound energy provided
by the clap, cough which is converted into electrical
energy by condensor microphone. Using this converted
electrical energy which is used to turn on relay(an
electronic switch).

The sound operated switch device works properly by responding

to both hand claps at about three to four foot and finger tap at
very close range, since both are low frequency sounds and
produce the same pulse wave features. The resulting device is
realizable, has good reliability and it’s relatively inexpensive.
Assemble the circuit on a general -purpose PCB and enclose it in a
suitable box. This circuit is very useful in field of electronic
circuits. By using some modifications its area of application can be
extended in various fields. It can be used to raise alarm in security
system with a noise, and also used at the place where silence


1. We can increase the range of this equipment by using better

2. We can use this as remote controller.
1. Help from

2. Help from

3. Help from

We constructed the circuit as per circuit diagram. And we
verified the sound operated switch circuit i.e when sound
(clap) occurs near by the circuit the led and bulb glows and for
the second sound (clap) it is in off condition.