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Power System Control

ET2105 Electrical Power System Essentials


Prof. Lou van der Sluis

Electrical Power System Essentials


Introduction (1)

• The customer expects electrical power at constant frequency


and voltage

• The system load changes continuously

• Electricity can not be stored in large quantities

• Maintaining the balance between generation and consumption

Electrical Power System Essentials


Introduction (2)
• The active power balance is controlled by generators

• Another method is load shedding

• The reactive power balance is controlled by generators


and static components

• The synchronous generator plays an important role

Electrical Power System Essentials


Increase of Active Power Consumption

f1 = 50 Hz (3000 RPM)

• Kinetic energy in the rotating parts of the generator and turbine are 200 MJ

• Suddenly a 10 MW load is connected. What happens to the frequency?


• In 1 second the load consumes 10 MJ more active power P
• The frequency will drop to 48.7 Hz

Electrical Power System Essentials


Increase of Reactive Power Consumption (1)

10 kV system:
P = 2 MW; cos φ = 0.9
Xgen = 3 Ω
This results in:
I = 128 A ∠-26°
Q = 969 kvar

• Suddenly the load consumes Q = 1.5 Mvar and P remains at 2 MW. What
happens?
• The power factor drops to 0.8
• The current becomes I = 146 ∠-37°
• The terminal voltage drops with 100 V

Electrical Power System Essentials


Increase of Reactive Power Consumption (2)

• P remains 2 MW
• Q increases from 969 kvar  1.5 Mvar
• I increases from 128 A ∠-26°  147 A ∠-37°
• V drops with 100 V

Electrical Power System Essentials


Increase of Reactive Power Consumption (3)

S = P + jQ = VI *

V1 �d1 - V2 �d 2
I=
Z �r

V1 �( -d1 ) - V2 �( -d 2 )
I* =
Z �- r

Electrical Power System Essentials


Increase of Reactive Power Consumption (4)

S = P + jQ = V2I *

V1 V2 V1 V2
P = Re ( S ) = sin(d1 - d 2 ) = (d1 - d 2 )
X X
2
V1 V2 V2 V2
Q = Im ( S ) = cos(d1 - d 2 ) - = ( V1 - V2 )
X X X
• Conclusion:
• The voltage depends on the reactive power
• The angle of transmission depends on the active power

Electrical Power System Essentials


Some Important Conclusions

• The frequency is a common parameter throughout the system

• The voltage is controlled locally

• The control mechanism for P (rotor angle) and Q (voltage amplitude) operate
more or less separately

Electrical Power System Essentials


The Primary Control
• Speed governor control of a generating unit:

• Speed governor characteristics:

Electrical Power System Essentials


The Secondary Control or
Load Frequency Control
Power exchange between three control areas

a) The original (scheduled) situation


b) Incremental generation after losing 400 MW of generation in control area B

Electrical Power System Essentials


Voltage Control and Reactive Power (1)
Automatic voltage control

Electrical Power System Essentials


Voltage Control and Reactive Power (2)
Tap-changing transformer

Electrical Power System Essentials


Voltage Control and Reactive Power (3)
Capacitor banks

Courtesy of TenneT TSO B.V.

Electrical Power System Essentials


Reactive Power Injection
Static Var Compensator (SVC)

Current through a Thyristor Controlled Reactor

Electrical Power System Essentials


Controlling Active Power Flows
The Phase Shifter

Phasor diagram of the phase shifter

Electrical Power System Essentials


Controlling Reactive Power Flows (1)
A transmission line with a series capacitor

Electrical Power System Essentials


Controlling Reactive Power Flows (2)
Thyristor-controlled series capacitor

TCSC reactance as a function of the Thyristor firing angle

Electrical Power System Essentials