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# Power System Control

## ET2105 Electrical Power System Essentials

Prof. Lou van der Sluis

Introduction (1)

and voltage

## Electrical Power System Essentials

Introduction (2)
• The active power balance is controlled by generators

## • The reactive power balance is controlled by generators

and static components

## Electrical Power System Essentials

Increase of Active Power Consumption

f1 = 50 Hz (3000 RPM)

• Kinetic energy in the rotating parts of the generator and turbine are 200 MJ

## • Suddenly a 10 MW load is connected. What happens to the frequency?

• In 1 second the load consumes 10 MJ more active power P
• The frequency will drop to 48.7 Hz

## Electrical Power System Essentials

Increase of Reactive Power Consumption (1)

10 kV system:
P = 2 MW; cos φ = 0.9
Xgen = 3 Ω
This results in:
I = 128 A ∠-26°
Q = 969 kvar

• Suddenly the load consumes Q = 1.5 Mvar and P remains at 2 MW. What
happens?
• The power factor drops to 0.8
• The current becomes I = 146 ∠-37°
• The terminal voltage drops with 100 V

## Electrical Power System Essentials

Increase of Reactive Power Consumption (2)

• P remains 2 MW
• Q increases from 969 kvar  1.5 Mvar
• I increases from 128 A ∠-26°  147 A ∠-37°
• V drops with 100 V

## Electrical Power System Essentials

Increase of Reactive Power Consumption (3)

S = P + jQ = VI *

V1 �d1 - V2 �d 2
I=
Z �r

V1 �( -d1 ) - V2 �( -d 2 )
I* =
Z �- r

## Electrical Power System Essentials

Increase of Reactive Power Consumption (4)

S = P + jQ = V2I *

V1 V2 V1 V2
P = Re ( S ) = sin(d1 - d 2 ) = (d1 - d 2 )
X X
2
V1 V2 V2 V2
Q = Im ( S ) = cos(d1 - d 2 ) - = ( V1 - V2 )
X X X
• Conclusion:
• The voltage depends on the reactive power
• The angle of transmission depends on the active power

## Electrical Power System Essentials

Some Important Conclusions

## • The voltage is controlled locally

• The control mechanism for P (rotor angle) and Q (voltage amplitude) operate
more or less separately

## Electrical Power System Essentials

The Primary Control
• Speed governor control of a generating unit:

## Electrical Power System Essentials

The Secondary Control or
Power exchange between three control areas

## a) The original (scheduled) situation

b) Incremental generation after losing 400 MW of generation in control area B

## Electrical Power System Essentials

Voltage Control and Reactive Power (1)
Automatic voltage control

## Electrical Power System Essentials

Voltage Control and Reactive Power (2)
Tap-changing transformer

## Electrical Power System Essentials

Voltage Control and Reactive Power (3)
Capacitor banks

## Electrical Power System Essentials

Reactive Power Injection
Static Var Compensator (SVC)

## Electrical Power System Essentials

Controlling Active Power Flows
The Phase Shifter

## Electrical Power System Essentials

Controlling Reactive Power Flows (1)
A transmission line with a series capacitor

## Electrical Power System Essentials

Controlling Reactive Power Flows (2)
Thyristor-controlled series capacitor