- Design considerations.
- Factor of safety.
- Power screws.
- Design of detachable joints ( threaded joints, keys and splines).
- Design of permanent joints (welding, riveting, adhesion, interference fitting).
- Theories of failure.
- Column design.
- Fatigue.
- Mechanical springs.
- Pressure vessels.
- Rotating disks.

© All Rights Reserved

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- Design considerations.
- Factor of safety.
- Power screws.
- Design of detachable joints ( threaded joints, keys and splines).
- Design of permanent joints (welding, riveting, adhesion, interference fitting).
- Theories of failure.
- Column design.
- Fatigue.
- Mechanical springs.
- Pressure vessels.
- Rotating disks.

© All Rights Reserved

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Shigley

Machine Design by E. M. Badawy

Machine Design by V. L. Maleev & J. B.

Hartman

Design of Machine Elements by V. M. Faires

Design of Machine Elements by M. F. Spotts

Machine Design Theory & Practice by

A. D. Deutshmen and others

Machine Design by R. S. Khurmi

- Design considerations.

- Factor of safety.

- Power screws.

- Design of detachable joints ( threaded joints, keys

and splines).

- Design of permanent joints (welding, riveting,

adhesion, interference fitting).

- Theories of failure.

- Column design.

- Fatigue.

- Mechanical springs.

- Pressure vessels.

- Rotating disks.

Prerequisite: ME 211

1 Functionality 14 Noise

2 Strength/stress 15 Styling

3 Deflection/stiffness 16 Shape

4 Wear 17 Size

5 Corrosion 18 Control

6 Safety 19 Thermal properties

7 Reliability 20 Surface

8 Manufacturability 21 Lubrication

9 Utility 22 Marketability

10 Cost 23 Maintenance

11 Friction 24 Volume

12 Weight 25 Liability

13 Life recovery 26 Remanufacturing

• Aluminium Association (AA)

• American Gear Manufacturers Association

(AGMA)

• American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)

• American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)

• American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

• ASM International

• American Society of Mechanical Engineers

(ASME)

• American Society of Testing and Materials

(ASTM)

• American Welding Society (AWS)

• American Bearing Manufacturers Association

(ABMA)

• British Standards Institution (BSI)

• Industrial Fasteners Institute (IFI)

• Institution of Mechanical Engineers (I. Mech. E.)

• International Bureau of Weights and Measures

(BIPM)

• International Standards Organization (ISO)

• National Institute for Standards and Technology

(NIST)

• Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)

Stress and Strength

Stress σ or τ : Calculated from load and dimensions

Strength Su or Ss : Material property

Strength Su

• Design Factor nd

Stress

• Dimensions = Function of(Load & Stress)

= Fun. of(Load, design factor & Strength)

Actual Stress = function of( Load & Actual Area)

Strength Su

Factor of Safety n

Actual _ Stress a

EXAMPLE

A rod with a cross-sectional area of A, loaded in tension

with an axial force of P 8.9 kN undergoes a stress of σ =

P/A. Using a material strength of 165 MPa and a design factor

of 3.0, determine the minimum diameter of a solid circular rod.

Using Standard sizes select a preferred standard diameter

and determine the rod’s factor of safety.

Standard rod diameter in millimeters:

0.05, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12, 0.16, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.40, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80, 0.90,

1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.8, 2.0, 2.2, 2.5, 2.8, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5,

7.0, 8.0, 9.0, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, 32, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 80,

100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 250, 300

Solution

• In the symbolic units equation for Newton’s

second law, F= ma or F = M L T-2

• F stands for force, M for mass, L for length, and T

for time.

• F =ML/T2 =(kilogram)(meter)/(second)2

• F= kg · m/s2 = N

• W =m g (W is the weight)

• W = (1 kg)(9.81 m/s2) = 9.81N

• Stress = F/Area = N/m2=Passcal

• giga G 1 000 000 000 =109

• mega M 1 000 000 =106

• kilo k 1 000 =103

• hecto h 100 =102

• deka da 10 =101

• deci d 0.1 =10−1

• Centi c 0.01 =10−2

• milli m 0.001 =10−3

• micro μ 0.000 001 =10−6

name symbol 10n Decimal English word Since

yotta Y 1024 1000000000000000000000000 septillion 1991

zetta Z 1021 1000000000000000000000 sextillion 1991

exa E 1018 1000000000000000000 quintillion 1975

peta P 1015 1000000000000000 quadrillion 1975

tera T 1012 1000000000000 trillion 1960

giga G 109 1000000000 billion 1960

mega M 106 1000000 million 1960

kilo k 103 1000 thousand 1795

hecto h 102 100 hundred 1795

deca da 101 10 ten 1795

1 1 one –

deci d 10−1 0.1 tenth 1795

centi c 10−2 0.01 hundredth 1795

milli m 10−3 0.001 thousandth 1795

micro μ 10−6 0.000001 millionth 1960

nano n 10−9 0.000000001 billionth 1960

pico p 10−12 0.000000000001 trillionth 1960

femto f 10−15 0.000000000000001 quadrillionth 1964

atto a 10−18 0.000000000000000001 quintillionth 1964

zepto z 10−21 0.000000000000000000001 sextillionth 1991

yocto y 10−24 0.000000000000000000000001 septillionth 1991

Calculations and Significant

Figures

The accuracy of a real number depends on the number of

significant figures describing the number. Usually, but not

always, three or four significant figures are necessary for

engineering accuracy. Unless otherwise stated, no less than

three significant figures should be used in your calculations. The

number of significant figures is usually inferred by the

number of figures given (except for leading zeros). For

example, 706, 3.14, and 0.002 19 are assumed to be numbers

with three significant figures.

Lecture 2

Thread Standards and Definitions

Pitch is the distance between adjacent thread forms measured parallel to the

thread axis

The major diameter d is the largest diameter of a screw thread.

The minor (or root) diameter dr is the smallest diameter of a screw

thread.

The pitch diameter dp is a theoretical diameter between the major and

minor diameters.

The lead l, not shown, is the distance the nut moves parallel to the screw

axis when the nut is given one turn. For a single thread, as in Fig., the lead is

the same as the pitch.

A multiple-threaded product is one having two or more threads cut beside

each other (imagine two or more strings wound side by side around a pencil).

Standardized products such as screws, bolts, and nuts all have single threads; a

double-threaded screw has a lead equal to twice the pitch, a triple-threaded screw

has a lead equal to 3 times the pitch, and so on.

All threads are made according to the right-hand rule unless otherwise noted.

The American National (Unified) thread standard has thread angle 60◦ and the

crests of the thread may be either flat or rounded.

The equations and data used to develop this table

have been obtained from ANSI B1.1-1974 and

B18.3.1-1978. The minor diameter was found

from the equation dr=d-1.226p, and the pitch

diameter from dp=d-0.649 p. The mean of the pitch

diameter and the minor diameter was used to

compute the tensile-stress area.

For Square threads

a -The system is in equilibrium under the

action of the forces F, fN, N and PR hence,

for raising the load, we have

load, we have

From drawing : tan λ = l/πdm

Where :

l= lead of thread

f = the coefficient of friction

dm = mean diameter

where TR is the torque required for overcome thread friction and

to raise the load. TL is the torque required to overcome a part

of the friction in lowering the load. It may turn out if the

lead is large or the friction is low, that the load will lower

itself by causing the screw to spin without any external

effort. In such cases, the torque TL will be negative or zero.

When a positive torque is obtained from this equation, the

screw is said to be self-locking. Thus the condition for self-

locking is π f dm > l or f > tan λ

This relation states that self-locking is obtained whenever

the coefficient of thread friction is equal to or greater than

the tangent of the thread lead angle.

Screw efficiency

If we let f = 0 we obtain T0 = Fl/2π The efficiency is therefore

e =T0 / TR =Fl / 2πTR

Acme threads

The normal thread load is inclined to the

axis because of the thread angle 2α and

the lead angle λ. Since lead angles are

small, this inclination can be neglected

and only the effect of the thread angle

considered. The effect of the angle α is to

increase the frictional force by the

wedging action of the threads. Therefore

the frictional terms must be divided by

cos α.

Collar friction

. If fc is the coefficient of collar friction

and dc is the mean collar diameter the

torque required to turn the collar is

Tc = F fc dc / 2

Stresses in power screws

Screw Body:

τ is the shear stress in torsion

σ is the axial stress in the body

2

max 2

2

Threads:

σB is the bearing stress where nt is

the number of engaged threads

σb is the bending stress at the root

of the thread

τ is the transverse shear stress τ

Differential Screws

If P1 =P2 no motion between A and B

Equivalent Pitch = P1 –P2

Torque Diagram

Lecture 3

Screw Fasteners

Joints—Member Stiffness

There may be more than two members included in the

grip of the fastener. All together these act like

compressive springs in series, and hence the total

spring rate of the members is

(spring rate , k = force /deflection)

If one of the members is a soft gasket, its stiffness relative

to the other members is usually so small that for all

practical purposes the others can be neglected and

only the gasket stiffness used.

The Figure show the pressure distribution at the member

interface. The results show that the pressure stays high

out to about 1.5 bolt radii. Thus the use of the

pressure-cone method for stiffness calculations with

fixed cone angle α .

With α = 30◦, this becomes:

If the members of the joint have the same Young’s

modulus E with symmetrical shape back to back, then

they act as two identical springs in series. Using the grip

as l = 2t and D as the diameter of the washer face =1.5d ,

we find the spring rate of the members

km’ = 1/(1/k1 + 1/k3 )

kb =F/ δb =Ab Eb /l (if threaded part is small)

kg=Ag Eg /tg .. Ag=π (Dg2-d2)/4 .. Dg=1.5d+l tan(α)

Bolt load

Consider:-

Fa = applied external tensile load per bolt

Fi = preload (clamping force applied by tightening the nut before Fa is applied)

Pb = portion of Fa taken by bolt

Pm = portion of Fa taken by members

Ft = Pb + Fi = total resultant bolt load & Fm = Pm − Fi = resultant load on members

δa = Pb /kb =Pm /km & Pm = Pb . km/kb ........ Since Fa = Pb + Pm , we have

Pb =Fa . kb /(kb + km) = C Fa and Pm = Fa − Pb = (1 − C)Fa

where C =kb/(kb + km) ,is called the stiffness constant of the joint.

The resultant bolt load is

Ft = Pb + Fi = C Fa + Fi and Fm = Pm − Fi = (1 − C)Fa − Fi Fm < 0

Bolt Torque

dc = (d + 1.5d)/2 = 1.25d

T = K Fi d

Bolt Preload

Fp = Ap Sp

Here Sp is the proof strength obtained from Tables, or from an approximate value

Sp =0.85Sy . Be very careful not to use a soft material in a threaded fastener.

Strength requirements

Stress in bolt = σb =Ft /Ar = (C Fa + Fi ) / Ar

For factor of safety f.s.

Proof strength Sp = f.s. (C Fa + Fi ) / Ar

f.s.= Sp Ar / (C Fa + Fi )

Gasketed Joints

The gasket must prevent liquid or gas at pressure P from leakage. If a full gasket

is present in the joint, the gasket pressure Pg is found by dividing the force in the

member by the gasket area per bolt. Thus, for N bolts,

Pg = −Fm /(Afg / N) = - Fm N / Afg

From previous relations

Pg = [Fi − Fa (1 − C)] N / Afg > P (= 2P to 4P)

In full-gasketed joints uniformity of pressure on the gasket is important. To

maintain uniformity of pressure, adjacent bolts should not be placed more than

six nominal diameters apart on the bolt circle. To maintain wrench clearance,

bolts should be placed at least three diameters apart. A rough rule for bolt

spacing around a bolt circle is

3.d ≤ πDb/N ≤ 6.d

where Db is the diameter of the bolt circle and N is the number of bolts.

Bolted Joints with Eccentric Loading

From geometry

1 2 3 Pi .lb

i

h1 h2 h3 Ab .E

For the same bolt length and diameter

P1 P2 P3

M o 0

h1 h2 h3

F . L P1 .h1 .n1 P2 .h2 .n2 P3 .h3 .n3

h22 h23

F . L P1 .h1 .n1 P1 . .n2 P1 . .n3

h1 h1

F . L.h1 hi

P1 Pi F . L.

n1 . h12 n2 . h22 n3 . h23 k

1

j j

h 2 .n

j 1

Shear Joints with Eccentric Loading

The rotational pivot point lies at the centroid

of the cross-sectional area pattern of the pins,

rivets, or bolts. Using statics, we learn that the

centroid G is located by the coordinates x and y,

where xi and yi are the distances to the ith area

center:

Primary shear

Fi′ = F.Ai / Σ Aj ...... Fi′ = F.di 2/ Σ dj 2

If di is the same

F′ = F/n

where n refers to the number of bolts

in the group and the force F′ is

called the direct load, or primary shear

Secondary shear

For the same bolt area

Fi′′α Δi and Δi = θi.hi

θ1 = θ 2= θ 3=…..=constant

Fi′′=S.hi

ΣMc =0

F.L= F1′′.h1+ F2′′.h2+........

F.L=S.h12 +S.h22 + S.h32 …

F.L=S. Σ hi2

S=F.L/ Σ hi2 "

h i

'

F . Ai

F i

F .L.

n F i n

Fi′′=F.L . hi / Σ hi2

h Ai

2

i

1 1

Where the diameters of the bolts are assumed equal. If not, then one replaces

F′′ with the shear stresses τ ′′ = 4F′′/πd2 for each bolt.

τ i′′α Δi

Fi′′α Δi di2 ….. Fi′′=S . hi . di2

F.L=S. Σ (hi .di)2 ….. S=F.L/ Σ (hi .di)2

F

h

t

From Fig. (a) and (b) if

b = Σ Li F

1-The stress in plates du to bending :

σ = M.y/I = F.h.t/(2.b.t3 /12)

σ = 6.F.h/(b.t2 )

2 – From Fig. (c) Shear stress in rivet

τ = F/A = F/ (Ab .n)

3 - From Fig. (d) : Tension in plates c

σ = F/A = F/(t.Σ Li )= F/b.t

4 - From Fig. (e) : Bearing stress

σb = F/(t.d.n)

5 - From Fig. (f ) :

τ = F/(2.t.c)

Lap joint:

Single, double or triple riveted joints

d = 1.2 t , p > 3 d , pr = 0.6 p

t = plate thickness , d = rivet diameter

Butt joint

t1 = 0.7 t , p > 3 d , pr = 0.6 p , d = 1.2 t

Keys and pins are used on shafts to secure rotating elements, such as gears, pulleys,

or other wheels. Keys are used to enable the transmission of torque from the shaft to

the shaft-supported element. Pins are used for axial positioning and for the transfer

of small torque or thrust or both

(a) Gib-head key;

Key design

F F .d / 2 2.T

all

b.L b.L.d / 2 b.L.d

F 4.T

br

L.h / 2 h.L.d

b d / 4 L 1.5.d h d / 6

T br

D d .L. N . D d

2 4

Butt or groove welds:

(a) Square butt-welded on both sides

(b) Single V with 60° bevel and root

opening of 2 mm

(c) Double V with 60° bevel

(d) Single 45° bevel

Special groove welds:

(a) T joint for thick plates

(b) U and J welds for thick plates

(c) Corner weld (may also have inside weld for greater strength but should

be used for light loads)

(d) Edge weld for sheet metal and light loads.

Butt joint. F

a- Tensile force: h.l

F

b- Shear force: h.l

My M .6

c- Bending moment: I h 2 .l

Fillet welds:

a- Load perpendicular to the welding line

(Symmetrical case).

No bending moment

Throat t = 0.707 h

(Symmetrical case).

Primary shear τ’ :

A = throat area of all the weld.

F = shear force.

Secondary shear τ” :

M = the applied torque

r = the distance from the centroid of

the weld group to the point in the

weld of interest (farthest distance)

J = the second polar moment of area

of the weld group about the centroid

of the group.

J = 0.707 h Ju

Ju = unit second polar moment of area

φ = angle between τ’ and τ”

Primary shear τ’ :

A = throat area of all the weld.

F = shear force.

Secondary shear τ” :

M = the applied moment.=FL

c = the distance from the neutral axes of the weld group to the point in the

weld of interest (farthest distance).=d/2

I = the second moment of area = 0.707 h Iu

Iu = the unit second moment of area (from table)=d3 /6

Mc Md / 2 1.414 M * 3

"

3

I 0.707hd / 6 hd 2

'2 "2

Ductile materials (yield criteria)

• Maximum shear stress (MSS)

• Distortion energy (DE)

• Ductile Coulomb-Mohr (DCM)

• Maximum normal stress (MNS)

• Brittle Coulomb-Mohr (BCM)

• Modified Mohr (MM)

Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory for Ductile Material

The maximum-shear-stress theory predicts that yielding begins whenever the

maximum shear stress in any element equals or exceeds the maximum shear

stress in a tension test specimen of the same material when that specimen

begins to yield.

For simple tensile stress, σ = P/A, and the maximum shear stress occurs on a

surface 45° from the tensile surface with a magnitude of τmax = σ/2. So the

maximum shear stress at yield is τmax = Sy/2. For a general state of stress, three

principal stresses can be determined and ordered such that σ1 ≥ σ2 ≥ σ3. The

maximum shear stress is then τmax = (σ1 − σ3)/2. Thus, for a general state of

stress, the maximum-shear-stress theory predicts yielding when:

τmax = (σ1 − σ3 )/2 ≥ Sy / 2 or σ1 − σ3 ≥ Sy

Note that this implies that the yield strength in shear is given by Ssy = 0.5Sy

For factor of safety, n.

τmax = Sy / (2 n) or σ1 − σ3 = Sy / n

Plane stress problems are very common where one of the principal stresses is

zero, and the other two, σA and σB, are determined. Assuming that σA ≥ σB, there

are three cases to consider in plane stress:

Case 1: σA ≥ σB ≥ 0 . Then , σ1 = σA and σ3 = 0. ,

then begins to yield if σA ≥ Sy and the factor of safety n = Sy / σA

Case 2: σA ≥ 0 ≥ σB . Then , σ1 = σA and σ3 = σB ,

then begins to yield if σA − σB ≥ Sy and the factor of safety n = Sy / (σA - σB )

then begins to yield if σB ≤ −Sy and the factor of safety n = -Sy / σB

Case of Pure Shear σA = - σB = τmax = Sy/2.

Ssy = 0.5 Sy

σ1 = σ2 = σ3 = -P .... τmax = 0 …. Py →

No failure n=

The distortion-energy theory predicts that yielding occurs when the distortion strain

energy per unit volume reaches or exceeds the distortion strain energy per unit volume

for yield in simple tension or compression of the same material.

The total strain energy per unit volume U=½ 1 1 + ½ 2 2 + ½ 3 3

and 1 = 1 / E – μ (2 + 3 )/ E then

U= (12 + 22 + 32 -2μ(12 + 23 + 31))/(2E) ……(1)

This energy can be divided to two type

a) Ud Distorting energy which give zero volume change and only change the angles

b) Uv Non distorting energy from hydrostatic stress (for volume change only)

For type (a) ∆V= 0 …… ℓ3 - ℓ3 (1+ 1d) (1+ 2d) (1+ 3d) = 0 (ℓ= element length)

Neglect 1d 2d and similar terms we get :

1d + 2d + 3d = 0 …….. 1d + 2d + 3d = 0

For type (b) if the hydrostatic stress = P

1 = P + 1d …… 2 = P + 2d …… 3 = P + 3d then

P = (1 + 2 + 3)/3

The energy stored by the stress P, from equation (1) :

Uv=3P2 (1-2μ)/2E = (1-2μ) (1 + 2 + 3 )2/6E

Ud = Utotal - Uv

From equation (1)

Ud = (12 + 22 + 32 )/2E - μ(12 + 23 + 31)/E - (1-2μ) (1 + 2 + 3 )2/6E

Ud = (1+ μ ) ( (1 - 2 )2 + (2 - 3 )2 + (3 - 1 )2 )/6E

in simple tension test: 1 = Sy …. 2 = 0 …… 3 = 0

Udy = (1+ μ ) 2 Sy2 /6E

So for the general state of stress yield is predicted if Ud equals or exceeds

Udy . This gives the limiting safe stress ’ < Sy

‘ = [12 - 12 +22 ] ½

This equation is a rotated ellipse in the σ1, σ2 plane

Using xyz components of three-dimensional stress, the von Mises stress can be

written as:

Factor of safety n = Sy / σ′

The shear yield strength:

Consider a two dimension case of pure shear stress τxy , σx =0 , σy =0

by analysis σ1 = τxy and σ2 = -τxy then σ′= (3 τxy2 )½

τxy = 0.577 σ′ or Ssy = 0.577 Sy

Not all materials have compressive strengths equal to their corresponding

tensile values ( Sc > St )

The Coulomb-Mohr theory or the internal-friction theory, assumes that

the boundary B1B2B3 in Fig. is straight. With this assumption only the

tensile and compressive strengths are necessary, consider the conventional

ordering of the principal stresses such that σ1 ≥ σ2 ≥ σ3, the largest circle

connects σ1 and σ3. The centre of this circle is C2 , C1 and C3 are the pure

tension and compression circles. Triangles OBiCi are similar, therefore

Case 1: σA ≥ σB ≥ 0. For this case, σ1 = σA and σ3 = 0.

The failure condition is σA ≥ St and the factor of safety n = St / σA

Case 2: σA ≥ 0 ≥ σB . Here, σ1 = σA and σ3 = σB .

The failure condition becomes or

The failure condition gives σB ≤ −Sc and the factor of safety n = -Sc / σB

Case 4: For pure shear τ, σ1 = − σ3 = τ .

The torsional yield strength occurs when

τmax = Ssy . Substituting σ1 = − σ3 = Ssy and

simplifying gives

The maximum-normal-stress (MNS) theory

states that failure occurs whenever one of the

three principal stresses equals or exceeds the

strength. The principal stresses for a general

stress state are σ1 ≥ σ2 ≥ σ3. This theory then

predicts that failure occurs whenever σ1 ≥ Sut

or σ3 ≤ −Suc where Sut and Suc are the

ultimate tensile and compressive strengths,

respectively, given as positive quantities.

Case 1: σA ≥ σB ≥ 0 then n = Sut /σA

Case 2: σA ≥ 0 ≥ σB &

then n = Sut /σA

Case 3: σA ≥ 0 ≥ σB &

then n = -Suc /σB

For a brittle material the strength parameter is the ultimate strength

instead of the yield strength:

Brittle-Coulomb-Mohr

Case 1: σA ≥ σB ≥ 0. For this case, σ1 = σA and σ3 = 0.

The failure condition is σA ≥ Sut and the factor of safety n = Sut / σA

The failure condition gives σB ≤ −Suc and the factor of safety n = -Suc / σB

Modified Mohr

Case 1: σA ≥ σB ≥ 0 then n = Sut /σA

Case 2: σA ≥ 0 ≥ σB &

then n = Sut /σA

Case 3: σA ≥ 0 ≥ σB &

then

At x

Mx = - P.y

d2y M Py

2 EI EI

dx

P

if

2

EI

d2y

2y 0

General solution dx 2

y = A sin (α x) + B cos (α x)

The boundary conditions :

at x = 0 , y = 0 then B = 0

at x = l , y = 0 then

A sin (α l) = 0

Either A = 0 or α l = 0 , π , 2 π , …., n π

α = 0 , π/l , 2 π/l , …., n π/l

P = EI α2 = 0 , π2EI/l2 , 4 π2EI/l2, …., n2 π2EI/l2

the critical load is the smallest one

Buckling mode

y = A sin (π x/l)

Pcr = π2EI/l2

which is called the Euler column formula which can be extended to apply

to other end-conditions by writing

l

Pcr = C π2EI/l2 leq

C

Using the relation I = Ak2, where A is the area and k the radius of gyration,

enables us to rearrange the last equation into the more convenient form

Pcr /A = C π2E/(l/k)2 = π2E/(leq/k)2

where l/k is called the slenderness ratio. I

k

The quantity Pcr /A is the critical unit load. A

The factor C is called the end-condition constant, and it may have any

one of the theoretical values 1/4 , 1, 2, and 4

The parabolic or J. B. Johnson formula

The general form of the parabolic formula is

by fitting a parabola tangent to the Euler curve.

If l/k = 0 then a = Sy

At point T the two curves are tangent and

have the same x & y , then point T is

x1 = (2 π2 CE / Sy ) 1/2 and y1 = Sy /2

Working formula for structural steel columns

The common structural steel St37 has Su = 370 MPa & Sy = 240 MPa &

E = 210 Gpa … if the end-condition constant = C … then

x1 = (l/k)1 = (2 π2 CE / Sy)1/2 =131 C1/2

if l’/k > 131 then use Euler equation and l

if l’/k < 131 then use Johnson curve l '

C

Ex. If the factor of safety is 1.5, Find the working stress for the given conditions

1- Both ends are pivoted

2- One end is pivoted and the other is fixed

3- Both ends are pivoted with laterally support in x-x plan as shown

1- l = 150 cm ….. C = 1 …. A =12 cm2 Ixx = 3 . 43 / 12 = 16 cm4

Iyy = 4 . 33 /12 = 9 cm4

kx = (Ixx/A)1/2 = 1.15 cm

ky = (Iyy/A)1/2 = 0.866 cm

From the curve, the smallest load has the largest (l/k) which obtained from ky

l/k =150/0.866=174 > 131

Then use Euler equation

cr = π2 CE/(l/k)2 = π2 . 1. 210. 103 /(174)2 = 69 MPa

w = cr /1.5 = 46.5 MPa

Then use Johnson

w = 137/1.5 = 91 MPa

lyy = 150/2 =75cm …… lyy/ky = 75/0.866 = 86.8

lxx = 150 cm …………. lxx /kx = 150 / 1.15 = 130 use the largest of x-x

(you can use any method ) for Euler cr = Sy/2 = 120 MPa …. w = 80 MPa

Fatigue Failure

Stress-time relations:

σmax = maximum stress

σm = midrange component

σr = range of stress

σa = amplitude component

R= the stress ratio

A = the amplitude ratio

Fatigue-Life

The fatigue life is the number of stress cycles to failure

An S-N diagram is the fatigue strength, life diagram plotted from the results of completely

reversed axial fatigue tests.

The Endurance Limit

In the case of the steels, a knee occurs in the graph, and beyond this

knee failure will not occur. The strength corresponding to the knee is

called the endurance limit S’e , or the fatigue limit. The nonferrous metals

and alloys, do not have an endurance limit. Figure shows scatter bands

indicating the S-N curves for most common aluminium alloys. Since

aluminium does not have an endurance limit, normally the fatigue

strength Sf is reported at a specific number of cycles, normally N = 5(108)

cycles of reversed stress.

S-N bands for representative

aluminium alloys

The graph appears to suggest that the endurance limit ranges from about 40 to 60

percent of the tensile strength for steels up to about 1450 Mpa (210 kpsi). Beginning at

about Sut = 1450 MPa, the scatter appears to increase, but the trend seems to level off,

as suggested by the dashed horizontal line at S’e = 700 MPa (105 kpsi).

Ratios of S’e /Sut of 0.60, 0.50, and 0.40 are shown by the solid and dashed lines

S′e = 0.5Sut if

Sut ≤ 1400MPa

(200 kpsi)

S′e = 700 MPa

(100 kpsi) if

Sut > 1400 Mpa

(200 kpsi)

Fatigue fracture surface of a 200-mm Fatigue fracture surface of an AISI

diameter piston rod of an alloy steel. 8640 pin. Sharp corners of the

This is an example of a fatigue fracture mismatched grease holes provided

caused by pure tension, a crack may stress concentrations that initiated

initiate at a forging flake slightly below two fatigue cracks indicated by the

centre, grew outward symmetrically and arrows.

ultimately produced a brittle fracture

without warning

Endurance Limit Modifying Factors

Se = ka kb kc kd ke kf S′e

ka = surface condition modification factor

kb = size modification factor

kc = load modification factor

kd = temperature modification factor

ke = reliability factor

kf = miscellaneous-effects modification factor

S′e = rotary-beam test specimen endurance limit

Se = endurance limit at the critical location of a machine part in the geometry and

condition of use

When endurance tests of parts are not available estimations are made by

applying the earlier relations to the endurance limit (S′e = 0.5Sut ....) .

Surface Factor ka

ka = aSbut

Size Factor kb

For bending and torsion loading (d in millimetre), rotating bar

kb = 1.24 d−0.107 for 2.79 ≤ d ≤ 51 mm

kb = 1.51 d−0.157 for 51 < d ≤ 254 mm

For axial loading there is no size effect kb = 1

When a round bar in bending is not rotating, or when a noncircular cross

section is used employs an effective dimension de obtained by equating the

volume of material stressed at and above 95 percent of the maximum stress

to the same volume in the rotating-beam specimen

de = 0.37 d

A rectangular section of dimensions h × b has

de = 0.808 (hb)1/2

Loading Factor kc

kc = 1 for bending load

kc = 0.85 for axial load

kc = 0.59 for torsion load

Temperature Factor kd

kd = ST / SRT

Reliability Factor ke

SRT = tensile strength at room temperature

Miscellaneous-Effects Factor kf

The factor kf is proposed to account for the reduction in endurance limit due to

all other effects as Residual stresses, Corrosion, stress-concentration, .....

Stress Concentration and Notch Sensitivity

The factor Kf is commonly called a fatigue stress-concentration factor

Kf = 1 + q(Kt − 1) or Kf s = 1 + qshear(Kts − 1)

q = Notch sensitivity

Kt (or Kts ) = Stress concentration factor

Fatigue Failure Criteria for Fluctuating Stress

The modified Goodman diagram

The criterion equation for the Soderberg line is

Sa/Se +Sm/Sy = 1

Similarly, we find the modified Goodman relation to be

Sa/Se +Sm/Sut = 1

The Gerber failure criterion is written as

factor or factor of safety

Lecture 8

Mechanical Springs

Types of springs

Helical springs

Tension or compression

Torsion springs

Mechanical Springs

Stresses in Helical Springs

As shown in the figure, from

equilibrium the cut portion would

contain a direct shear force F and a

torsion T = FD/2.

τmax = T.r / J + F/A

Substitution of τmax = τ , T = FD/2,

r = d/2, J =πd4/32, and A = πd2/4 gives

(the preferred range of spring index is 4 ≤ C ≤ 12)

With this relations the sheer stress equation can be rearranged to give

The Curvature Effect

Suppose Ks is replaced by another K factor, which corrects for both curvature and direct

shear. Then this factor is given by either of Wahl factor KW or Bergsträsser factor KB ,

the results of these two equations differ by less than 1 percent

Using Castigliano’s theorem, the total strain energy for a helical spring is

composed of a torsional component and a shear component: if the wire

Modulus of rigidity G and length l = πDN where N = Na = number of active

coils then the strain energy is

0.05(p2-d2)/D where p is the pitch

The spring rate

Also called the scale of the spring, is k = F / y, and so

Formulas for the Dimensional Characteristics of Compression-Springs

Types of ends for compression springs: (a) both ends plain; (b) both ends squared; (c)

both ends squared and ground; (d) both ends plain and ground.

Plain and Squared or Squared

Term Plain Ground Closed and Ground

Total coils, N t Na Na +1 Na + 2 Na + 2

Free length, Lo pNa + d p(Na + 1) pNa + 3d pNa + 2d

Solid length, Ls d(Na + 1) d(Na + 1) d(Na + 3) d(Na + 2)

Pitch, p (Lo - d)/Na Lo/(Na +1) (Lo-3d)/Na (Lo-2d)/Na

Stability

Compression coil springs may buckle when the deflection becomes too large in

relatively long springs. The critical deflection is given by the equation

by the equation

Where α is the end-condition constant.

C′1 and C′2 are elastic constants defined by the equations

- Spring supported between flat parallel surfaces (fixed ends) ......... 0.5

- One end supported by flat surface perpendicular to spring

axis (fixed); other end pivoted (hinged) ............................................ 0.707

- Both ends pivoted (hinged) ................................................................. 1

- One end clamped; other end free ...................................................... 2

Absolute stability occurs when the term C′2 /λ2eff is greater than unity. This means

that the condition for absolute stability is that

If L>4D spring must be guided from inside or outside diameter

Spring Materials

A great variety of spring materials are available to the designer, including plain

carbon steels, alloy steels, and corrosion-resisting steels, as well as nonferrous

materials such as phosphor bronze, spring brass, beryllium copper, and various

nickel alloys. Prehardened wire should not be used if D/d < 4 or if d > 12mm.

Most commonly used steels are:

a- Music wire,0.80–0.95C

b- Oil-tempered wire, 0.60–0.70C

c- Hard-drawn wire, 0.60–0.70C

d- Chrome-vanadium

e- Chrome-silicon

The tensile strength versus wire diameter, for some materials, can be given by the

equation Sut =A/dm

where A and m are constants given in the following table

Then the distortion-energy theory can be employed to obtain the torsional yield

strength (Sys = 0.577Sy)

In general:

Sy=Kt.Sut and

Sys=Ks.Sut

Critical Frequency of Helical Springs

The harmonic, natural, frequencies for a spring placed between two flat and

parallel plates, in radians per second, are

g = acceleration due to gravity

W = weight of spring

γ = specific weight (N/m3)

For m=1

d G.g

(cycles / sec) .

.D2 .N 8.

Fatigue Loading of Helical Compression Springs

Zimmerli discovered that size, material, and tensile strength have no effect on the

endurance limits (infinite life only) of spring steels in sizes under 10 mm.

Unpeened and peended Surface treatment springs were tested, the corresponding

endurance strength components for infinite life were found to be :

For d<10mm

Sse=310 MPa for unpeened

Sse=465 MPa for peened

For d>10mm

Sse=200 - 300 MPa for heat formed

Ssu = 0.67Sut

force Fmax and minimum force Fmin then to calculate the

fatigue safety factor using Goodman line method:

be used instead, if desired.

Combination of springs

Series

Keq=P/ δ

P=P1=P2=P3

δ= δ1+ δ2+ δ3 =P1/K1+P2/K2+P3/K3

δ=P(1/K1+1/K2+1/K3)

1/Keq=1/K1+1/K2+1/K3

Parallel

Keq=P/ δ

δ= δ1= δ2= δ3

P=P1+P2+P3

Keq=P1/δ+P2/δ+P3/δ

Keq=K1+K2+K3

2 2 P1 22 12

U

1

p.d P

1 1 1

.d

1

.

2

1to2

P1 P2 22 12 P1 P2

U 1 2 . 2 2 . 2 1

1to2

if P1 0 1 0

P . . .d 3

U 2 2 2 we have P

2 8. K s . D

8. P . D 3 . N . . N . D 2

4

G .d K s .G .d

2 2

U . .d 2 . . D. N .V

4. K s .G 4

2 4. K s .G

2

In designing a spring with a hook end, bending and torsion in the hook must be

included in the analysis. The maximum tensile stress at A, due to bending and

axial loading, is given by

factor for curvature, given by

The maximum torsional stress at point B is given by

curvature, (K)B, is

When extension springs are made with coils in contact with one another, they are

said to be close-wound. Spring manufacturers prefer some initial tension in close-wound

springs in order to hold the free length more accurately. The corresponding load

deflection curve is shown in Figure, where y is the extension beyond the free length

and Fi is the initial tension in the spring that must

be exceeded before the spring deflects. The load-

deflection relation is then

F = Fi + k.y

where k is the spring rate.

The initial tension in an extension

spring is created in the winding

process by twisting the wire as it is

wound onto the mandrel. When the

spring is completed and removed from

the mandrel, the initial tension is

locked in because the spring cannot

get any shorter. The amount of initial

tension that a spring maker can

routinely incorporate is as shown in

the Figure. Where the uncorrected

torsional stress is given by

The ends of the spring ultimately

connect a force at a distance from the

coil axis to apply a torque. Helical coil

torsion springs are usually used with

a rod or arbor for reactive support to

maintain alignment, and to provide

buckling resistance if necessary.

The wire in a torsion spring is in

bending. The springs are designed to

wind tighter in service. As the applied

torque increases, the inside diameter

of the coil decreases. Care must be

taken so that the coils do not interfere

with the pin, rod, or arbor. The

bending mode in the coil might seem

to invite square- or rectangular-

crosssection .

The number of body turns Nb is the number of

turns in the free spring body by count. The

body-turn count is related to the initial

position angle β by

Nb = integer +β/360◦ = integer + Np

where Np is the number of partial turns

Bending Stress

The bending stress can be obtained from curved-beam theory expressed in the

form

σ = K . Mc / I

where K is a stress-correction factor. The value of K depends on the shape of the wire

cross section and whether the stress sought is at the inner or outer fibre. Wahl

analytically determined the values of K to be, for round wire,

where C is the spring index and the subscripts i and o refer to the inner and outer

fibres, respectively. In view of the fact that Ko is always less than unity, we shall

use Ki to estimate the stresses. When the bending moment is M = Fl and the section

modulus I/c = d3/32, we express the bending equation as

σ = Ki .32.F.l /πd3

which gives the bending stress for a round-wire torsion spring.

Deflection and Spring Rate

For torsion springs, angular deflection can be expressed in radians, or in

revolutions (turns). The spring rate k is expressed in units of torque/radians

(Nmm/rad) and moment is proportional to angle θ expressed in radians. The

spring rate, if linear, can be expressed as

k = M1 / θ1 = M2 / θ2 = (M2 − M1) / (θ2 − θ1)

where the moment M can be expressed as Fl.

The strain energy in bending is

The total angular deflection in radians is obtained by adding the effect of the end

deflection of a cantilever for each end of lengths l1, l2:

The spring rate

The spring rate k in torque per radian is

Change of diameter

Torsion springs are frequently used over a round bar or pin. When the load is

applied to a torsion spring, the spring winds up, causing a decrease in the

inside diameter of the coil body. It is necessary to ensure that the inside

diameter of the coil never becomes equal to or less than the diameter of the pin,

in which case loss of spring function would result. The helix diameter of the coil

DT becomes

where T is the angular deflection of the body of the coil in number of turns, given by

T = θ / (2 π)

Leaf springs (laminated springs)

a – Uniform width

Cantilever

6. P . L

b .t 2

4. P . L3

E .b.t 3

Beam

3. P . L

2.b.t 2

P . L3

4. E .b.t 3

b – Uniform strength

Cantilever

x L

constant

bx b

6. P . x 6. P . L

x

b x .t 2 b .t 2

6. P . L3

E .b.t 3

Beam

3. P . L

x

2.b.t 2

3. P . L3

8. E .b.t 3

Lecture 9

Stresses in thick walled cylinders:

Cylindrical pressure vessels, hydraulic cylinders, gun barrels, and pipes

carrying fluids at high pressures develop both radial and tangential

stresses with values that depend upon the radius of the element under

consideration. In determining the radial stress σr and the tangential

stress σt .

Consider the element shown in Figure in a pressure cylinder loaded

with internal and external pressure Pi &Po

The element force balance will be

a) Fr = 0 in the radial direction for unit length

d d r

r .r .d 2. t .dr . ( r .dr )( r dr )d 0

2 dr

d r

t r r. 0 (1)

dr

b) Strain

du

r ( 2)

dr

t 2. .( r u) 2. .r u

t ( 3)

Lt 2. .r r

E

r ( r . t )

1 2

from 2, 3

E du u

r ( . ) (4)

1 2 dr r

d r E d 2u u du

( . . ) (4)

dr 1 dr

2 2

r 2 r dr

E

t ( . r )

2 t

1

from 2,3

E u du

t ( . ) (5)

1 2 r dr

from 4,5 in 1

d 2u 1 du u

. 0 (6)

2 r dr r 2

dr

Equation “6” is a second degree differential equation has a general

solution:

C2

u C1 .r

r

du C

C1 2 (7 )

dr r2

from 4,5

E C2 C2

r C

2 1

( C1

2

)

1 r 2

r

E (1 ) B

r 2 1

C (1 ) C 2 2

A (8)

1 r r2

E C2 C2

t C

2 1

( C1

2

)

1 r 2

r

E (1 ) B

t C (1 ) C 2

2 1 2

A (9)

1 r r2

A & B from boundary conditions:

At r = a (inner radius) …… r = -Pi & at r = b (outer radius) …… r = -Po

- Pi = A – B/a2 ……… - Po = A – B/b2

Solving for A & B:

Pi .a 2 Po .b 2 2 ( Pi Po )

2

A B b .a .

2 2 2 2

b a b a

b 2 .a 2

Pi .a 2 Po .b 2 2

.( Pi Po )

t r

b2 a 2

2 2 b 2 .a 2

Pi .a Po .b 2

.( Pi Po )

r r

b2 a 2

b 2 .a 2

Pi .a 2 Po .b 2 2

.( Pi Po )

or t or r r

b2 a 2

Case of internal pressure only:

Po = 0

Pi .a 2 b2

r 2 2

.(1

2

)

(b a ) r

Pi .a 2 b2

t 2 2

.(1

2

)

(b a ) r

Pi .(b 2 a 2 )

t max 2 2

at r a

(b a )

( t r ) b2

max Pi .(

2 2

) at r a

2 b a

b – a = t (thickness)

b2 – a2 = (a + b).(a – b) 2 a . t & b2 + a2 2 a2

t = Pi . a/t

Case of external pressure only:

Pi = 0

Po .b 2 a2

r 2 2

.(1

2

)

b a r

Po .b 2 a2

t 2 2

.(1

2

)

b a r

Po .2.b 2

t max 2 2

at r a

b a

Case of Solid shaft:

a=0

r = t = - Po

Deformation

If r and t are known:

r t

r .

E E

t r

t .

E E

u r increase in radius

2. .( r u) 2. .r u

t

2. .r r

r

u t .r .( t . r )

E

Stresses produced by Shrink-Fits

Using Superposition method for both cylinders

t = t (created from shrink fit) + t (created from internal pressure)

U i (cyl 1 b c ) U o (cyl 2 a b)

b b

.( t 1 . r ) .( t 2 . r )

E1 b c E2 ab

b c 2 b2 b b2 a 2

Psh . . 2 2 1 Psh . . 2

E1 c b E 2 b 2 a 2

b2 a 2

2

2 2

b a

b c 2 b2 b b2 a 2

Psh . . 2 2 1 Psh . .

2 2

2

E1 c b E 2 b a

if E & are the same for cyl . 1 & 2

E (b 2 a 2 ).( c 2 b 2 )

Psh .

b 2.b 2 .(c 2 a 2 )

for solid shaft a 0

E . (c 2 b 2 )

Psh .

b 2.c 2

Maximum torque that can be transmitted by shrink-fit connection

T = f . Psh .π . d2 . L /2

f = coefficient of friction

L = length of contact area

d = shaft diameter

Force required to assemble the two members

F = f . Psh .π . d . L

Design considerations:

If shaft radius has maximum tolerance + s1 and minimum + s2 , and the

maximum disc tolerance +d1 and minimum +d2

Where s1 > s2 > d1 > d2

maximum interference δmax = maximum shaft radius – minimum disc radius

δmax = (b + s1) – (b + d2) = s1 – d2

where b = nominal radius of the assembly

Minimum interference δmin = (b + s2) – (b + d1) = s2 – d1

The joint must transmit torque in case of minimum interference, and to

have safe stress in case of maximum interference.

E . min (c 2 b 2 )

Pshmin .

b 2.c 2

T = f . Psh min .π . 2 . b2 . L

E . max (c 2 b 2 )

Pshmax .

b 2.c 2

c2

max Psh max .( 2 2

)

c b

E . max

max

2.b

Lecture 10

γ = weight / unit volume

∆m = ∆V γ/g ……. For unit thickness

∆m = r dφ . dr . γ/g

The element force balance will be

Fr = 0 in the radial direction for unit length

d d r

r .r .d 2. t .dr . ( r .dr )( r dr )d .r .d .dr . 2 .r 0

2 dr g

d r 2 2

t r r. . .r 0 (1' )

dr g

We can have the same relations 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 and substitute in 1’ we get:

d 2u 1 du u . 2

. (1 2 ). .r 2 0 ( 2' )

dr 2 r dr r 2 g.E

Equation (2' ) is a second degree differenti al equation has a general solution :

1 2 . 2 2 C2

u ( ). .r C1 .r ( 3' )

8 g.E r

substitut eq. 3' in eq. 4 & 5

B

r A k .r 2 (4' )

r2

B 1 3.

t A .k .r 2 (5' )

r2 3

3 . 2

where k ( ).

8 g

Case of Disc with a hole

At r = a (inner radius) …… r = 0 & at r = b (outer radius) …… r = 0

0 = A – B/a2 – k.a2 ……… 0= A – B/b2 -k.b2

Solving for A & B:

A = k ( a2 + b2 ) ……… & …… B = k ( a2 . B2 )

a 2 .b 2

r k .(a 2 b 2 r2)

r2

2 2 2

2 a .b 1 3. 2

t k .a b 2 . r

r 3

r max k .(b a )2 at r a .b

1 2

t max 2.k .b 2 .a at r a

3

Case of Solid Disc without hole

At r = 0 from symmetry …… r = t

A – B/r2 – k.r2 = A + B/r2 – k.r2 .(1+3.μ)/(3+ μ )

2.B = k . r4 . [(1+3.μ)/(3+ μ ) -1 ] = 0 …… B = 0

at r = b (outer radius) …… r = 0……… 0= A – B/b2 -k.b2

A = k .b2

r k .(b 2 r 2 )

2 1 3. 2

t k .b . r

3

t max r max k .b 2 at r 0

1 2

t min 2.k . .b at r b

3

tH =tangential stress in disc with small hole (a 0)

tS = tangential stress in solid disc without hole

Shaft is assembled by Shrink Fit with a rotating disc

If the speed is relatively high the two parts may separates, in this case the radial

stress at the separated surfaces will equal to zero, the disc radial deformation at

inner radius Ud and shaft radius enlargement Us are given by:

td a .2.k 2 1 2

U d a . td a . .(b .a )

E E 3

ts a .2.k 1 2

U s a . ts a . .( .a )

E E 3

Consider that the interference at zero speed is δo and will reduce to δω at ω

δω = δo – (Ud – Us) = δo – 2.k.a.b2/E

Where k is function of ω. The shrink-fit pressure can be calculated in this

case to transmit the torque at speed ω

E . (b 2 a 2 ) E 2.k ( b 2

a 2

)

P sh . .( o .a .b 2 ).

a 2 a E 2

2.b 2.b

the maximum shear stress at 0 .... k 0

b2 E

max P0 sh . . o

2

b a2 2.a

2 2

2.k ( b a )

Torque 2. . f . L.a 2 . Psh . f . L.a . E .( o .a .b 2 ).

E b2

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