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Ite 048 - Method of Proofs

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Methods of Proofs

Part 1

MATHEMATICAL FACTS

Before we continue, you must be familiar with a

few basic mathematical facts.

PREDICATE LOGIC

The “Quantifiers” and are known as

predicate quantifiers. means for all and

means there exists.

Example 1: If we have one computer that all

students must share, we say:

one computer students.

Example 2: If each student has a separate

computer, we would say:

students one computer.

Note: The two example may both appear to be

saying that “there exists” only one computer;

however, example 2 is actually saying

mathematically that every student has a

‘unique’ computer.

ODD AND EVEN NUMBERS

Any odd integer can be expressed as n 2 p 1

Any even integer can be expressed as n 2 p

ABSOLUTE VALUE

The absolute value of a number x, denoted | x |,

is x when x is positive or zero and is x when x

is negative.

| 4 | ( 4) 4 and | 4 | 4

DIVISIBILITY

If a divides b, we write a | b

TYPES OF NUMBERS

Prime numbers: Prime numbers are numbers

that are divisible by 1 and the

number itself, i.e. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11,

13, 17, 19, 23, . . .

Integers: Any of the numbers

. . ., 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, . . .

Natural numbers: The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, . . .

Whole numbers: The numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .

expressed as an integer or

as a quotient of integers.

as an integer or quotient of

integers.

number.

RECURRENCE RELATION

A recurrence relation is an equation that

defines the ith value in a sequence of numbers in

terms of the preceding i 1 values.

Example 5: 0! 1 and n! (n 1)! n is a recurrence

relation, i.e. the factorial relation.

Exercise 1: Find the first six terms of the sequence

satisfying the recurrence relation:

x1 2 x2 1 xn 2 3xn 2 xn1

LOGIC

The inverse of p q is ~ p ~ q

The converse of p q is q p

The contrapositive of p q is ~ q ~ p

Note: p q ~ q ~ p

Exercise 5: State the inverse, the converse, and the

2

contrapositive of: If x is odd, then x is

odd.

2

inverse: If x is even, then x is even.

converse: If x 2 is odd, then x is odd.

2

contrapositive: If x is even, then x is even.

Exercise 6: State the inverse, the converse, and the

contrapositive of: He’s 60, if he’s a

day.

inverse: He’s not 60, if he’s not a day.

converse: If he’s a day, he’s 60.

contrapositive: If he’s not a day, he’s not 60

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