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GOOD MO R NI NG

RULES AND REGULATIONS


Listen to the one speaking
Exhibit decorum
Always be participative in all class activities
Recite if necessary and respect each other’s opinion
No use of gadgets are allowed unless told to do so
Directions: Fill in the open-ended statements below with information
about what you already know, what you can do with the information,
what you understand, and what you want to know about the course.
What I know about…

What I can do in relation to…

What I understand about…

What I want to know about…


Literature
“Literature traces the past, mimics
the present, and sometimes, it also
predicts the future.”
DEFINITION OF LITERATURE
-from the Latin term litera which means letter
-any printed matter written within a book, a
magazine or a pamphlet
-a faithful reproduction of man’s manifold
experiences blended into one harmonious
expression
“Literature expresses the feelings of people to
society, to the government, to his surroundings,
to his fellowmen and to his divine creator.”
-Brother Azurin
“Literature is anything that is printed, as long as it is related to the
ideas and feelings of people, whether it is true or just a product of one’s
imagination.”
-Webster

“True literature is a piece of written work which is undying. It


expresses the feelings and emotions of people in response to his
everyday efforts to live, to be happy in his environment, and, after
struggles, to reach his creator.”
Panitikang Pilipino by Atienza, Ramos, Salazar and Nazal
Why do we need to study
World Literature?
GENERAL TYPES OF LITERATURE
ELEMENTS OF POETRY
•Figurative language
•Sound
•Imagery
•Form
•Speaker
FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
-any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of
words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights
into an idea or a subject
Simile
-comparison of two things using the words “like or “as”
Example:
–Her smile was as cold as ice.
–The cat was as limp as a wet rag.
–His smile is like a ray of sunshine.
Metaphor
-comparison of two things essentially different but with some
commonalities; does not use “like” or “as”
Example:
-His smile is a ray of sunshine.
-He has the heart of a lion.
-You are the sun in my sky.
-You are the light in my life.
Personification
-giving personal attribute to inanimate things or objects
Example: The leaves are whispering with one another.
Metonymy
-the use of word for another which suggests it
Example: Ten thousand swords leaped from the chariot
Synecdoche
-the use of a part to suggest the whole
Example: The factory needs five thousand hands.
Hyperbole
-use of great exaggeration for effect
Example: I’ve been waiting for eternity.
Apostrophe
-the dead is addressed as if they are living, the absent as if they are present
Example: Shakespeare, thou should be living and helping me now
Irony
-the opposite of what the statement actually means
Example: Johnny, it’s nice of you talking while I’m lecturing! I like that!
Antithesis
-a contrast of words or ideas
Example: They promised freedom and provided slavery.
Paradox
- a statement that appears at first to be untrue but at the second thought
becomes significant and correct
Example: The child is the father of a man.
Allusion
-a reference to some familiar facts, people, or events in history and literature
Example: I wash my hands of the matter.
Oxymoron
-the opposite words are placed one after the other
Example: The clever idiot lives in a huge shanty
SOUND IN POETRY
Nasal
- produces a sound that suggests humming like m, ng, n
Fricatives
- something lingering, continuous, flows like f, s, o, z, z, s,
SOUND IN POETRY
Assonance
- repetition of the same vowel sound
Example: The rain in Spain stays mainly in the plain.
Alliteration
- repetition of initial consonant sounds
Example: A fly and a flea in a flue.
SOUND IN POETRY
Onomatopoeia
-blending of sounds of words with their sense in order to
produce an effect
Example: The frogs croak and the bees buzz
FOOT IN POETRY
- a unit consists of accented syllable and one or more unaccented syllables
1. Iamb – unaccented followed by accented syllable
2. Anapest -2 unaccented followed by 1 accented syllable
3. Trochee- accented followed by unaccented syllable
4. Dactyl- accented followed by 2 unaccented syllables
5. Spondee- consists of 2 accented syllables
METRICS OF THE LINE
-a line of verse consist of one or more feet
a.Monometer --- one foot
b.Dimeter --- two feet
c.Trimeter --- three feet
d.Tetrameter --- four feet
METRICS OF THE LINE
-a line of verse consist of one or more feet
E. Pentameter --- five feet
F. Hexameter --- six feet
G. Heptameter --- seven feet
H. Octameter --- eight feet
IMAGERY
VISUAL IMAGERY
“The deep blue hues of twilight were reflected in
the still water; the slight glint of moonlight
peeked through the clouds just enough to make
out the silhouette of a passing ship.”
AUDITORY
“The rooster crowed at early dawn, a sign that it was
time to start the day. John woke up, listening to the
quiet murmurs of his children in the kitchen below; the
clang of pots and pans signaled that breakfast was
almost ready”.
OLFACTORY
“The sweet scent of maple wafted through the room,
causing Stephanie to stop what she was doing and
sniff the air. A second waft of scent carried the
underlying smoky scent of bacon; a scent only bacon
straight off the grill could have”.
GUSTATORY
“Jason took one look at the cupcake in front of him and
couldn’t wait another second – he stuffed it right into his
mouth. The rich, sweet, sugary taste of chocolate ran over his
taste buds as he chewed and swallowed the whole dessert in
less than ten seconds”.
TACTILE
“Sarah placed her bare hand on the cold snow. It was
wet at first, then the frigid cold set in like a thousand
needles, all pricking her palm at once”.
PROSE

ELEMENTS OF FICTION
PLOT CHARACTERIZATION
THEME SETTING
POINT OF VIEW
STYLE
Plot- the sequence of events or incidents of a
story
Theme- the central and unifying concept of a
story
Setting- the story’s overall context- where, when,
and in what circumstances the action occurs
Characterization- is the art of representing human attitude or innate
characteristics as projected by the characters
Types of Characters
-Foil character- the personality is used to supplement the more prominent
character
-Flat character- personality traits are lightly sketched
-Round character- appears almost life-like
-Static character- does not change in the course of action
-developing character- undergoes changes upon the influence of some events
Point of View- is simply who is telling the story

Style- the manner in which the author uses words,


constructs sentences, incorporates non-literal
expressions, and handles rhythm, timing, and tone
Representative Texts and
Authors from Different
Regions
Region 1 ( ILOCOS)
Representative Literary texts:
Riddles
Folksongs
-Ti Ayat Ti Maysa Nga Ubing, Pamulinawen
Biag ni Lam-ang by Pedro Bucaneg
How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife by Manuel E. Arguilla
Region 2 ( Cagayan Valley)
Representative Literary texts:
Lullabies ( Isinay Baliwayway)
Ibanag Proverbs
Poetry
-Bonsai by Edith Tiempo
Region ( CAR )
Representative Literary texts:
Prose
-The Great Flood (The Tinggians)
-The Wedding Dance by Amador T. Daguio
Region 3 ( Central Luzon )
Representative Literary texts:
Songs
-Kumdiman (Song of Love), Leron Leron Sinta, Atin Cu
Pung Singsing
Poetry
-Florante at Laura
Region ( NCR )
Representative Literary texts:
Prose
-May Day Eve by Nick Joaquin
-Footnote to Youth by Jose Garcia-Villa
Region ( CALABARZON and MIMAROPA )
Representative Literary texts:
Songs
-Philippine National Anthem By Jose Palma
Prose
-Macario’s Noche Buena by Tracila Malabanan Katigbak
-My Brother’s Peculiar Chicken by Alejandro R. Roces
-Dead Stars by Paz Marquez Benitez
Bicol Region
Representative Literary texts:
Songs
-Sarong Banggi by Potenciano Gregorio
Prose
-Scent of Apples by Bienvenido Santos
Western Visayas
Representative Literary texts:
Prose
-Hinilawod (A Panay Epic)
Central Visayas
Representative Literary texts:
Prose
-the Story of the Chocolate Hills written in Badlit/ Bisaya
Baybayin
-Catalina of Dumaguete
Eastern Visayas
Representative Literary texts:
Prose
-History of Basey: The Legend of Bungansakit
-the First Mermaid-The legend of Kataw
Zamboanga Peninsula
Representative Literary texts:
Prose
-Sarimanok
-The Legend of the Lizard
Northern Mindanao
Representative Literary texts:
Prose
-The Legend of Maria Cristina Falls
Southern Mindanao
Representative Literary texts:
Prose
-The Legend of the Durian Fruit
SOCCSKSARGEN
Representative Literary texts:
Prose
-Indarapatra and Sulayman: the Fight Among Giants
ARMM
Representative Literary texts:
Prose
-The Virgin by Kerima Polotan-Tuvera
-The Chieftest Mourner by Aida Rivera Ford