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Unit VI
Emerging Opportunities

Alumni Associations
 1st association a nurse joins upon graduation
 Fosters loyalty among its members
 Provides graduates of institutions with opportunities for :
 Keeping abreast of school activities, program/s, problems to assist
the school in developing sound lines
 Becoming interested, well informed active members of their
 Keeping school friendships alive
 Assisting members in job placement
 Assisting in securing funds/money for procurement of loans or
 Recognizing alumni through an achievement award program
 Becoming part of an organization through w/c their alma mater
continues to be of service to them after graduation through
cooperative programs of continuing education
 Helping to interpret the program of the school to recruitable
Philippine Nurses Association
 Was organized on October 22, 1922 upon the
initiation of Mrs. Anastacia Giron Tupas
 First president was Mrs. Rosario Delgado
 Formerly known as Filipino Nurses Association, and
its journal, the Filipino Nurse
 PNA yearly recognizes outstanding nurses in the
fields of nursing administration, nursing education
and community health nursing
 First male president, Dean Marco Antonio Sto.
Tomas, elected 1991
 Present PNA president, Mrs. Teresita I. Barcelo
Purpose of Association

 To attain optimal level of professional standards

 To work for the welfare of member nurses
 To respond to the changing health needs of the
Philippine society
 To establish linkages with the government,
national and international agencies in the
attainment of national health goals and welfare
of member nurses
National League of Philippine
Government Nurses (NLPGN)
 A duly incorporated organization of the professional
nurses employed by the government of the
 Formerly known as Department of Health National
League of Nurses (DHNLN)
 Founder: Annie Sand – Nursing Consultant of the
DOH on January 16, 1961
 Annie Sand Leadership Award is given to an
outstanding nurse or retiree who has contributed to
the improvement of nurses and nursing in the
government agencies
Objectives of the Association

 To promote and maintain the highest standards of

nursing in government
 To address problems concerning nurses and nursing
participation in formulation of all policies,
guidelines, programs and laws affecting nurses and
nursing practice in the Philippines
 To continuously upgrade professional competence
through research, training and scholarship grants
both foreign and local and dissemination of
information through nursing publications
Objectives of the Association

 To collaborate with government, non government

and other allied professional groups for the
promotion of health services
 To foster national and international goodwill
among nurses and harness all energies towards the
attainment of common goals
 To help advance the science and art of nursing in
the Philippines to meet the needs of a changing
 To recognize the exemplary performance and
accomplishments of members
Categories of Membership
 REGULAR MEMBER– nurses employed in the
government service and retirees who have
rendered a minimum of 5 years in any government
 LIFE MEMBER – nurses who have been regular for
at least 3 consecutive years and who have paid the
required life membership fee
 HONORARY MEMBER – are persons, who because
of their outstanding service to the cause of nurses
and nursing, are elected to such honorary
membership by the Board but have no voting
Benefits of Being a Member
1. May attend updates, seminar, conventions
organized by the organization and earn CEU for
license renewal
2. May be represented to the proper authorities on
matters concerning nursing practice
3. May be recognized for exemplary performance
with such awards as the Annie Sand Leadership
Awards and other
4. May be given assistance-in cash or in kind-when
sick or when she becomes victim of calamities and
national disasters
5. May receive a copy of the Newsletter, the NLPGN’s
official publication
Benefits of Being a Member
6. Member’s family will receive 3,000.00 for regular
members and 5,000 for life members as death
7. May vote and be voted upon
8. May avail of a copy of its 2 published books at a
discounted price
9. May be helped in the renewal of his/her PRC
license upon request
10. May avail of post graduate scholarships offered
by the DOH through the recommendation of the
Association of Nursing Service
Administrators of the Philippines
 Founded in 1963 but was reorganized 10 years later in 1973
 Composed of nursing service administrators both in
government and private agencies
 Initiated the development of Standards of Nursing Service
and Nursing Practice in 1976
 The Standards of Nursing Service and Nursing Practice
were published as joint projects of the PNA and ANSAP
 Additional nursing standards in critical care, community
health, operating room, psychiatric nursing practice were
 In partnership with B-Brawn Company, ANSAP recognizes
outstanding nursing administrators and nursing
practitioners yearly starting 2002
Association of Deans of Philippine
Colleges of Nursing (ADPCN)
 Established in April 1959 with Deans of the
Colleges of Nursing as its members
 Its main purpose is to promote, elevate, and
maintain standards of clinical instruction program
of nursing students and to improve nursing service
and facilities of the clinical field in hospitals and
public health agencies
 Association’s main interests are in the
improvement of clinical instruction programs and
the nursing service and the maintenance of a
standard of nursing school administration
Purpose of ADPCN

 To participate in the formulation of legislations

affecting nursing education

 To make representations in discussions of

problems and solutions of the same to the
DOH, Evaluation Committee on Accreditation
of Training and the Student Affiliation, Budget
Office/Congress, as the case may be
Military Nurses Association of the
Philippines (MNAP)
 Officially organized on September 5, 1965 in V.
Luna Hospital AFP in Quezon City
 By a group of dynamic nurses and corps officers
both active, inactive and retired who felt the need
for putting up a medium wherein they can express
their ideals and aspirations to better serve their
 MNAP is doing its share in programs of national
interest like the family planning projects, nutrition
programs, environmental sanitation, and tree
planting, among others
 Official organ: Philippine Military Nursing Journal
Occupational Health Nurses
Association of the Philippines
 The Industrial Nursing Unit of the PNA was
organized on November 21, 1950 through the
initiative of Mrs. Magdalena Valenzuela of the
 For the purpose of promoting friendship and to
organize nurses in industrial and commercial
enterprises into an Industrial Nursing Unit
 September 20, 1969 this unit was renamed the
Occupational Health Nurses Association of the
Philippine Association of Public
Health Nursing Faculty
 This association was organized in September
 Dedicated to the maintenance of high
standards of objectives to standardize and
broaden instruction in Public Health Nursing
and to undertake that which will enhance
professional growth
Private Duty Nurses Association of
the Philippines
 Private duty nursing existed before as a section
of the PNA
 In 1975, the Philippine Hospital Association had
the agenda of its monthly meeting the
problems of the hospitals regarding private
duty nurses
 Problems: the need to increase the number of
PDN, provision of definite policies or guidelines
in employment, uniformity in rate of pay and
correct unprofessional practices
Private Duty Nurses
Association of the Philippines
 The need for an organized association for
private duty nurses emerged during the
conference with PNA Board member Mrs. Mary
Vita B. Jackson and ANSAP President Dr. Perla
B. Sanchez
 Mrs. Grace Oppus Villanueva, a private duty
nurse based in MMC was its founding president
Operating Room Nurses
Association of the Philippines
 Composed of professional nurses working in
the OR of different hospitals in the Philippines
 Committed to the improvement of OR
management techniques and facilities
 To ensure maximum service to all patients
 To promote the professional development,
personal growth and well being of its members
by keeping them abreast with the new and
sophisticated methods in the field of OR
Psychiatric Nursing Specialists
Foundation of the Philippines
 Views mental health and illness as states of
adaptation used by the individual in coping
with the circumstances in life
 PNSI subscribe to the belief that the
psychiatric nurse (a RN possessing at least a
Master’s degree in Psychiatric Nursing) can
interact with an individual, family and
community and assist them to use their own
resources to maintain mental illness occurs
Psychiatric Nursing Specialists
Foundation of the Philippines
 .to provide for therapeutic and supportive services
needed to help the client and his family in the
formers relearning to live in the community
 .to help client identify and develop potentials in his
efforts toward self-reliance and success
 .to undertake research studies
 .to offer educational programs in mental health-
psychiatric nursing
Services of the PNSI

 Nursing Supportive Care

 Child Day Care
 Adult Day Care
 Continuing Education
 Psychological Testing and Evaluation
 Nursing Researches
 Training and Extension Services
 Library
 Publications
The Catholic Nurses Guild

 The movement to organize the Guild began

sometime in 1956 at the instance of the
Apostolic Nuncio of the Philippines
 The organization of the Guild was
subsequently sanctioned by the Vatican
Secretariat State
 Headquarters: 9988 Gen Solano St San Miguel
 Publication: Catholic Nurses Guild Magazine
The Catholic Nurses Guild

 .promote spiritual welfare of the nurses and
to aid them in promoting the spiritual
welfare of those under their care
 .scientific progress following Christian
 .study and coordinate governmental
legislation affecting hospitals and colleges of
nursing and public health
Integrated Registered Nurses
of the Philippines (IRNUP)
 Integration is a means of bringing together all
individual RN’s in the country under one
corporate body, parallel to the integration of
the Philippine Bar.
 The IRNUP has direct relationship with the PRC-
BON since the latter, by virtue of RA 7164
 IRNUP serves as the official national and
regional coordinator for nurses and nursing
 IRNUP was created Dec 28, 1995 at the Lung
Center of the Philippines

composed of national nursing associations

all over the world
all nurses collaborate in strengthening
nursing service, nursing education and
professional ethics
sharing of common interest by working
growth of the individual and
development of his capacities-
physical, mental, emotional,
social and spiritual.
Characteristics of a profession

 Altruism- work for the good of society

 Autonomy- self- determination
 Authority- based on knowledge
Accountability- answerable for their conduct
and responsible for their practice.
 Code of Ethics- relevance to social values
 Distinct identity
1. Automation
2. Independent Practice
3. Specialization
4. Primary Care Nursing
5. Team teaching

1. Hospital or Institutional Nursing

- First level position - staff nurse
2. Community Health Nursing or Public Health
3. Private Duty or Special Duty Nursing
4. Industrial or Occupational Health Nursing
5. Nursing Education
6. Military Nursing
7. School Nursing

8. Entrepreneur- care centers, nursing homes,

review centers
9. Independent Nursing Practice
Institutional Nursing

 Institutional nursing practice refers to a

nursing employment in a health care setting
(in-patient or out-patient)
 Providing nursing care to the individual,
family or community
 Often work under direct supervision of a
superior which may be a nurse or a doctor
and as a member of multidisciplinary team
Institutional Nursing

 Staff nurses, clinic nurses

 Nurses working in nursing homes, rehabilitation
nurses and other extended health care facilities
Public Health Nurse /Community
Health Nurse
 Community health nursing is defined as
“synthesis of nursing theory and public health
practice applied to promoting and preserving
the health of populations”
 Population: individuals, groups, family and
 Community health settings: ambulatory
health clinics, home health care, pre natal and
well baby clinics, rural health units and city
health offices

 Improve the over all health of the community

 Health promotion
 Health maintenance
 Health education
 Management
 Continuity and coordination of care

Are the chief concerns of community health nurse

Role and Functions


•identifies, needs priorities and problems of

Planner individuals, families and community
/Programmer •Formulate nursing component of health plans. In
doctor less area, she/he is responsible for the
formulation of the municipal health plan
•Interprets and implements nursing plan, program
policies, memoranda and circulars for the concerned
•Provides technical assistance to rural health
midwives in health matters like target setting, etc

Provider of •Provides direct nursing care to

Nursing Care the sick, disabled in the home,
clinic, school or place of work
•Develops the family’s capability
to take care of the sick, disabled
or dependent member
•Provides continuity of patient

Roles and Functions of Community Health Nurse / Public Health Nurse


•Formulates individual, family, group and

Manager/ community centered care plan
Supervisor •Interprets and implements program policies,
memoranda, circulars
•Organizes work force, resources, equipments and
supplies and delivery of health care at local levels
•Requisitions, allocates, distributes materials
(medicine and medical supplies, records and reports
•Provides technical and administrative support to
•Conducts regular supervisory visits and meetings to
different RHM and gives feedback on
accomplishments/ performance

Roles and Functions of Community Health Nurse or Public Health Nurse


Community •Responsible for motivating and

enhancing community participation in
Organizer terms of planning , organizing and
implementing and evaluating health
•Initiates and participates in community
development activities

Roles and Functions of Community Health Nurse/ Public Health Nurse


Coordinator of •Coordinates with individuals, families

and groups for health and related
Services health services provided by various
members of health team and other
Government Organizations(GO) and
Non Government Organizations (NGO)
•Coordinates nursing program with
other health programs as
environmental sanitation, health
education, dental health and mental

Roles and Functions of Community Health Nurse/ Public Health Nurse


•Identifies and interprets training needs of the RHM’s,

Trainer/Health BHW’s and hilots
Educator •Formulate appropriate training program design for
RHM’s, BHW’s and hilots
Counselor •Provides and arranges learning experience for
RHM’s, affilitaes (nursing and midwife) and other
health workers
•Conducts training for RHM and hilot on health
promotion and disease prevention
•Conducts pre and post consultation for clinic patients
•Facilitates training for BHW
•Organizes orientation/training of concerned groups
including NGO’s
•Acts as a resource person on health and health
related services

Roles and Functions of Community Health Nurse/ Public Health Nurse


Health Monitor •Detects deviation from health of

individuals, families, groups of the
community through contacts/visits with
•Uses symptomatic and objective
observation and other forms of data
gathering like morbidity, registry,
questionnaire, checklist, and anecdo-
report/record to monitor growth and
development and health status of
individuals, families and communities

Roles and Functions of Community Health Nurse/ Public Health Nurse

•Provides good example /model of healthful living to
Role Model the public /community

•Motivates changes in health behavior of individuals,
Change Agent families, group and community including lifestyle in
order to promote and maintain health
•Participates/assists in the conduct of surveys studies
Researcher and researches on nursing and health related subjects
•Coordinates with GO and NGO in the
implementation of studies/research
•Prepares and submits required reports and records
Recorder/Reporter •Maintain adequate, accurate and complete
Statistician recording and reporting
•Reviews, validates, consolidates, analyzes and
interprets all records and reports
Roles and Functions of Community Health Nurse / Public Health Nurse
Occupational Health Nurse

 Occupational Health Nursing is concerned

with the health and safety of people at work,
their families, and the general community
 Occupational Health Nurses are RN’s who
observe and assess the worker’s health status
with respect to job tasks and hazards
 OHN’s primary responsibility: promotion and
preservation of the health working population
Skills of Occupational
Health Nurse


Skills of Occupational
Health Nurse


Roles of Occupational
Health Nurse





Priority areas that should
have OHN
 There are no nurses employed
 There are complaints of occupational
 There are cases of occupational disease
 Where assistance is necessary in the
establishment and maintenance of a clinic
with a full time nurse
(Nisce et al, 2000)
School Nurse

 Is a registered professional nurse working in

the school setting
 Focus:
 Strengthen and facilitate the educational process
by promoting normal development
 Promoting health and safety
 Intervening with actual and potential health
problems of the students
School Nurse

 Goals:
 Modification or removal of health related barriers
to learning by providing school nursing services that
focus on prevention of illness and disability
 Early detection and correction of health problems
 Promotion of optimum level of wellness
Qualities of a School Nurse
 Because of her unique role, the school nurse
 Expertise in pediatric, public health and mental
health nursing
 Competent in preventive health, health assessment
and referral procedures
 Knowledge of laws in education and health care that
impact children in school setting
 Self motivated
 Possess strong skills in decision making,
communication, individual and classroom education
 Child advocacy
Private Duty Nurse (PDN)

 Is a RN who contracts independently to

render full time comprehensive nursing care
to patients on a one on one ratio in the
hospital or in the patient’s home
 Expected to observe Code of Ethics for
Nurses, hospital policies which she is
connected or affiliated, wear the prescribe
uniform and always have the complete
Classifications of PDN

 General PDN
 BSN – RN
 Has at least 2 years of bedside professional nursing
 Certified I.V. nurse therapist by ANSAP
 Possess basic nursing skills expected from a general
nurse practitioner
Classifications of PDN

 PDN Specialist
 Has advance training and education enabling her
to perform more complex and wider independent
nursing functions which includes:
 Handling medical devices and nursing procedures that
require advance training such as HEMODIALYSIS and
 Interpretation of ECG, EEG, laboratory diagnostic
results, pulse oxymetry results
Qualifications of PDN
 Registered Nurse
 Possess the following documents: Professional
Tax Receipt (PTR), PRC ID, residence certificate
 Can provide full time nursing care
 2 years bedside nursing care
 Certified IV nurse therapist by ANSAP
 Acceptable to the Director of Nursing Service as
suitable for orientation to do private duty
 Preferably has undergone Critical Care nursing
Military Nurse

 Provides all aspects of traditional nursing care

and practice in both peace and war-time
settings through various branches of the
military service : ARMY, NAVY, AIR FORCE
 To military personnel and their dependents
 A nurse who works in the military enters
active duty as an officer with a rank as 2nd
 Natural born citizen
 Pleasing personality and of good moral character
 Registered nurse
 Single or never been married
 Not more than 32 years of age at time of
 Minimum height of 62 inches for female; 64
inches for male (Regular Force, Nurse Corps)
 60 inches for female; 62 inches for male (Reserve
Force, Nurse Corps)
 Mentally/ physically fit for military service and
cleared by appropriate security agencies
Privileges and Benefits of
Military Nurse
1. High
salary rate and allowances according to
2nd Lieutenant receive the same BASE PAY as officers of equivalent
rank, incentive pay, subsistence allowance, quarters allowance,
clothing allowance and others when applicable
FLIGHT PAY for flight nurses which is 50% of base pay
HAZARD PAY (radiation hazard pay) which is 20% of base pay
COLD WEATHER CLOTHING ALLOWANCE for those assigned in cold
regions like PMA in Baguio, or areas abroad
OVERSEAS PAY when detailed to foreign countries on schooling or on

2. Glamour and prestige of the UNIFORM, RANK, and POSITION. All

junior officers and enlisted personnel will salute and accord them due
military courtesy
3. Hospitalization and free medical benefits for parents, dependents,
authorized relatives with specialists’ care
4. Military schooling and basic training at the ARMED FORCES
5. Opportunity to meet people who hold key positions in the AFP and
in the government
6. Opportunity to attend gala, social functions and parade

7. Opportunity to travel abroad

Nurse Educators
 Nurse educators are responsible for providing
quality educational experiences that prepare
future generations of nurses to provide quality
patient care, and at the same time ensuring
competence and advancement of practicing
 Their work involve: lesson planning, instructing,
evaluating learning, helping students to solve
learning problems and difficulties
 They design, implement, evaluate and revise
academic and continuing education programs
for nurses
Practice settings
 Colleges and universities
 Hospital based schools of nursing
 Online (internet) using distance learning technology
 Government agencies responsible in maintaining
nursing education standards such as CHED and PRC
 Seminar companies providing continuing education
 Review centers
 Staff development departments in patient-care
 Healthcare organizations
 Other institutions requiring expertise of a nurse
Independent Nurse
 Independent = self employed
 Provides professional nursing services to clients/patients
and their families
 Community based clinics /near hospital
 Offers services rather than expect clients to seek their
 Perform both independent and collaborative roles
 Scope of nursing practice: health care assessment,
formulating plans for health maintenance, prevention
strategies, continuation of supportive activities in critical
and complex health problems
 Make referrals and collaborate with physicians and
other discipline as needed
Nurses with Post Graduate
Education and Specialization
 Post Graduate Nursing Degrees:
 Master’s Degree: MAN, MSN – prepares nurses for more
independent role such as Independent Nurse
Practitioner, Nursing instructor and Nursing Supervisor
 Doctoral Degree: (PhD) prepares nurses to assume
leadership roles within the profession, conduct research
that impacts nursing practice and health care, and to
teach at colleges and universities . Doctorally-prepared
nurses serve as health system executives, nursing school
deans, nursing administrators, researchers and policy
analysts and formulator
Nurses with Post Graduate
Education and Specialization
 Post Doctoral Programs – provides advance
research training for nurses who hold doctoral
Expanded Role of Nurses
 1)nurse practitioners who deliver front-line primary and
acute care in community clinics, schools, hospitals, and other
settings, and perform such services as diagnosing and
treating common acute illnesses and injuries, providing
immunizations, conducting physical exams, and managing
high blood pressure, diabetes, and other chronic problems;
 2) certified nurse-midwives, who provide prenatal and
gynecological care to normal healthy women, deliver babies
in hospitals, private homes, and birthing centers, and
continue with follow-up postpartum care;
 3) clinical nurse specialists, who provide care in a range
of specialty areas, such as cardiac, oncology, neonatal,
pediatric, and obstetric/gynecological nursing; and
 4) certified registered nurse anesthetists, who
administer more than 65 percent of all anesthetics given to
patients each year and are the sole providers of anesthesia in
approximately one-third of U.S. hospitals.
What lies behind us and what lies
before us are tiny matters compared to
what lies within us

-Ralph Waldo Emerson