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Unit 1,2,3

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Mechanizing of Arithmetic

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Mechanical Computer

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The Five Generations of Computers

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First generation computers


(1940-1956)
• The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic
drums for memory.
• They were often enormous and taking up entire room.
• First generation computers relied on machine language.
• They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal
of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of
malfunctions.
• The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation
computing devices.

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First generation computers

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Second generation computers


(1956-1963)
• Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the
second generation of computers.
• Second-generation computers moved from
cryptic binary machine language to symbolic.
• High-level programming languages were also being
developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL
and FORTRAN.
• These were also the first computers that stored their
instructions in their memory.

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Second generation computers

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Third generation computers


(1964-1971)
• The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of
the third generation of computers.
• Transistors were miniaturized and placed on siliconchips,
called semiconductors.
• Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with
third generation computers through keyboards
and monitors and interfaced with an operating system.
• Allowed the device to run many different applications at one
time.

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Third generation computers

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Fourth generation computers


(1971-present)
• The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of
computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto
a single silicon chip.
• The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the
components of the computer.
• From the central processing unit and memory to input/output
controls—on a single chip.
• Fourth generation computers also saw the development
of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices.

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Fourth generation computers

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Fifth generation computers


(present and beyond)
• Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial
intelligence.
• Are still in development, though there are some applications,
such as voice recognition.
• The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping
to make artificial intelligence a reality.
• The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices
that respond to natural language input and are capable of
learning and self-organization.

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Fifth generation computers

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BASICS OF COMPUTER

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DEFINITION OF COMPUTER
• A device that computes,
especially a programmable
electronic machine that performs
high-speed mathematical or
logical operations or that
assembles, stores, correlates, or
otherwise processes information.

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GENERAL OPERATIONS

• Computers can perform four general


operations, which comprise the information
processing cycle:
1. Input.
2. Process.
3. Output.
4. Storage.
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DATA AND INFORMATION

• All computer processing requires data,


• Data is a collection of raw facts, figures and
symbols, such as numbers, words, images,
video and sound, given to the computer
during the input phase.
• Computers manipulate data to create
information.
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DATA AND INFORMATION

• Information is data that is organized,


meaningful, and useful.
• During the output phase, the information that
has been created is put into some form, such
as a printed report.

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COMPUTER CHARACTERISTICS

• High speed.
• Accuracy.
• Reliability.
• Mass storage of information.
• Communication with other computers
through network like internet.

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MAIN PARTS OF A COMPUTER

1. Computer Hardware

2. Computer Software

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WHAT IS COMPUTER HARDWARE?

• Computer Hardware is the physical part of the


computer system, the machinery and
equipment.
• Parts of the computer “you can touch”

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WHAT IS COMPUTER SOFTWARE?

• Computer Software are programs that tell the


computer what to do.
Examples
• Microsoft Word-word processing program
• Microsoft PowerPoint-presentation program
• Microsoft Excel-work book program used to
track, calculate, and analyze numeric data
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PRIMARY COMPONENTS

• Input devices.
• Output devices.
• Storage devices.
• Central Processing Unit.
• Memory.

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Input devices
Input device is a peripheral (piece of computer
hardware equipment) used to provide data and
control signals to an computer.

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CPU (Central Processing Unit )


• Interpret instructions to the computer,
performs the logical and arithmetic processing
operations, and cause the input and output
operations to occur.
• Performs all the calculations within the
computer.
• CPU speed measured in MHz.

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CPU’s Components

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Control Unit (CU)


• A control unit or CU is circuitry that directs
operations within a computer's processor.
• It lets the computer's logic unit, memory, as well as
both input and output devices know how to respond
to instructions received from a program.
• Examples of devices that utilize control units
include CPUs and GPUs.

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Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU)

• ALU performs basic arithmetic and logic


operations.
• Examples of arithmetic operations are
addition, subtraction, multiplication, and
division.
• Examples of logic operations are comparisons
of values such as NOT, AND, and OR.
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Memory
Two different categories
Primary memory
• also known as main storage or memory, is the area in a computer in which
data is stored for quick access by the computer's processor. Eg RAM or
ROM
• stores the data and keep it even when the electricity to the PC (Personal
Computer) is cut off whereas

Secondary memory
• is the memory used externally to the computer.
• losses its contents immediately after we turn off the pc Eg. Hard disk,
pendrive..

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Memory:
• RAM:
 Random Access Memory.
 Temporary memory.
 Electronic components that store data including
numbers, letters, graphics and sound.
 Information stored is lost when the computer is
turned off.
 Measured in Mbytes, i.e 512 Mbytes

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Memory

• ROM:
Read Only Memory.
Permanent memory.
Chip that has start-up directions for your
computer.
 Eg. Let think why the computer know what devices
to boot up first?
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CACHE MEMORY
When the processor needs to read from or write to a
location in main memory, it first checks whether a copy
of that data is in the cache. If so, the processor
immediately reads from or writes to the cache, which is
much faster than reading from or writing to main
memory.

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CACHE MEMORY

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Register Memory

• Registers are also temporary storage internal


to CPU, but for processing the data must be
shifted to registers from cache.

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Unit of Information

• Bytes
One character takes up about one Byte.
One byte is equal to eight bits.
Bits means binary digit.
Eg. 10101010101…

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Cont.

1 Bit = 0 or 1
8 Bits = 1 Bytes
1024 Bytes = 1 KB
1024 KB = 1 MB
1024 MB = 1 GB
1024 GB = 1 TB
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Output Devices
An output device is any device used to send
data from a computer to another device or user.

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Storage Devices
Storage device is a device for storing
information (data).

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HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE

• Hardware:
The term hardware refers to the physical
components of you computer such as the
computer screen, mouse, keyboard etc…
• Software:
Computer software is the key to productive
use of computers.
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SOFTWARE
• The computer hardware on its own has no
intelligence and therefore must be supplied with
instructions to perform any task.
• Software or programs, consist of step-by-step
instructions that tell the computer how to perform a
task.
• Software is divided into two main categories:
– System software and
– Application software.

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TYPES OF SOFTWARE

•Operating System Software.


•Application Software.

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OPERATING SYSTEM SOFTWARE


• It is a program that
controls the computer
and enables it to run
application software.
• It allows the computer to
manage its internal
resources.
• The software runs the
basic computer
operations – it tells the
hardware what to do,
how to do it, and when to
do it.

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OPERATING SYSTEM SOFTWARE


• Examples of Operating
system software:
 Windows XP
 Windows Vista
 Windows 7
 Windows 8/10

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APPLICATION SOFTWARE
Consists of programs that tell a computer
how to produce information.
Some of the more commonly used
packages are:
 Word processing.
 Electronic spreadsheet.
 Presentation.

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APPLICATION SOFTWARE

• This is software that help the user carry out


specific task such as word-processing,
spreadsheet, databases and presentation
software.
• Application fall under two styles
– Tailor-made: software designed for the particular
customer.
– Off-the-shelf: for use by the general public
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APPLICATION SOFTWARE
• MS Word ( Word Processing ):
 Word Processing software is used to create and print
documents
• Spreadsheet ( MS Excel )
 Electronic spreadsheet software allows the user to
add, subtract, and perform user-defined calculations
on rows and columns of numbers.
• Presentation ( MS Powerpoint )
 MS Powerpoint allows the user to create documents
called slides to be used in making the presentation. 47
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