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1111070__ __________
 Hydrology
 Hydrological cycle
 Evaporation
 Condensation
 Precipitation
 Infiltration
 Runoff
 Permeability
 Groundwater
 Water storage structure
Water Crisis
 Over the last century
 Human population has increased 3x
 Global water withdrawal has increased 7x
 Per capita water withdrawal has increased 4x
• About one-sixth of the world’s people don’t have easy access to safe
• Now, if the amount of water on the Earth is constant over a period of
time, then why are we facing a water crisis?
 Polluted sources of water
 Demand > availability
 More water is extracted from the Earth than that replenished
Hydrological cycle is another name of water

 water evaporate from the earth's surface by

using sun's heat energy .

The water vapour eventually condenses,

forming tiny droplets in clouds.
When the clouds meet cool air
over land, precipitation triggers.
Some of the precipitation soaks
into the ground.
Some of the underground water is
trapped between rock or clay layers
this is called groundwater.
Hydrological cycle involves following

Groundwater Transport

Evaporation occurs when the physical state of
water is changed from a liquid state to a gaseous
amount of natural evaporation depends on solar
radiation , air temperature, vapour pressure, wind
and atmospheric pressure.
 Evaporated moisture is lifted into the
atmosphere from the ocean, land
surfaces, and water bodies as water
vapour. Some vapour always exists in
the atmosphere
Water inside of plants is
transferred to the atmosphere as
water vapour through leave
Condensation is the process in which water vapour
changes it's physical state from a vapour to a liquid.
 The most active particles that form clouds are sea salts.
Condensation is brought about by cooling of the
air or by increasing the amount of vapour in
the air to its saturation point.
When water vapour condenses back into a liquid state,
large amount of heat is released.

Infiltration is the process by which

water on the ground surface enters
the soil.
The Infiltration rate decreases as the
soil becomes saturated

Percolation is the movement of water

though the soil, and it's layers, by
gravity and capillary forces.
Surface Runoff
 Surface Runoff is the flow of Water from Rain,
Snow melt or other sources that flows over the
Land Surface.
 Runoff is the part of Rainfall left on the surface
of Earth after all losses took place.
Runoff =Rainfall-Losses

 Runoff Water does not get absorbed into the

Soil or rise back into the Atmosphere as Water

 Runoff is the major component of Water Cycle.

 Intensity of rainfall
Runoff is directly related to intensity of Rainfall.
If the intensity of Rainfall is more ,then
corresponding Runoff will be more and if the
intensity of Rainfall is low ,then corresponding
Runoff will also be low.
 Duration of rainfall
It is directly related to volume of Runoff because
Infiltration rate of Soil decreases with duration of

 Soil characteristic
If the catchment area consisting of Rocky and
Clayey Soil, then the Runoff will be more. and if
area having Sandy soil then the Runoff will be low
as the loss of Infiltration is more.
 Shape and Size
If the area is large and fan shaped then the runoff
will be more and if the area is small and fern
shaped then the runoff will be low.

 Geological condition
If the catchment area consists of cracks etc, then
water losses will be more and the runoff will be
 Soil moisture
Magnitude of runoff depends upon the initial
moisture present in soil at the time of rainfall, if
the rainfall accurse after log duration then
infiltration rate is more ,hence it contributes less

 Soil type
Infiltration rate vary with type of soil, so runoff is
great affected by soil type.
 Weather condition
If the Temperature in the catchment area is high,
then the Evaporation loss will be more and hence
Runoff will be less.

 Other climate factors

Factors such as Temperature Wind Velocity,
Relative Humidity, Annual Rainfall etc affects the
Water losses from Watershed area.
 Rational method
Runoff is computing by the expression,
where, Q=runoff
K=coefficient of runoff
i=rainfall intensity in cm/hr
A=catchment area in hectares
Urban Area 0.40-0.80

Cultivated Area 0.30-0.70

Pasture 0.10-0.40

Forest Area 0.10-0.40

 Ingli’s formula
For ghat area(where P>200cm)
R = 0.85P - 30.5

For non-ghat area(where P<200cm)


R=runoff in cm
P=rainfall in cm
Soil Permeability
Why is it important to
determine soil permeability?
Soil permeability is the property of the
soil to transmit water and air .
The more permeable the soil, the greater
the seepage. Some soil is so permeable
and seepage so great that it is not
possible to build a pond without special
construction techniques.
Use of Permeability
• Knowledge of the permeability
properties of soil is necessary to:
• Estimating the quantity of
underground seepage.
• Solving problems involving
pumping seepage water from
construction excavation;
• Stability analyses of earth
structures and earth retaining
walls subjected to seepage forces.
Deep drainage refers to water that moves
below the root zone of plants and
recharges groundwater.

Features of a well-drained soil

Water does not pond on the surface
No impeding layers such as a hard pan –
natural, or induced by cultivation or
Healthy plant roots that penetrate
deeply into the subsoil
Healthy plant growth with no bare soil
patches; absence of reeds or rushes
Darcy’s Law
•The coefficient of permeability, or hydraulic
conductivity, k, is a product of Darcy’s Law.
•In 1856, Darcy established an empirical
relationship for the flow of water through
porous media known as Darcy’s Law, which
states: v = v = -kior q = -kiA

q= flow rate (cm3/s)

k= coefficient of permeability (cm/s)
A= cross-sectional Area (cm2)
i= hydraulic gradient
Determining coefficients of permeability

Step1: Step2:
Rate becomes constants
for example
H = 1.15 m and D = 12 cm or 0.12 m

Coefficient of permeability K:

K= (D÷2) x In (h1÷ h2) / 2 (t2- t1)

What factor influence soil
water permeability

Soil texture & profile

Soil constraint
Organic Residue
Amount of intensity of rainfall event
How do I improve soil

 Modify soil structure to improve surface

 Raised beds and controlled traffic
 Manage irrigation scheduling
 Gypsum and other soil ameliorants
 Groundwater :- is water, which originates from the
infiltration of fluids through the soil profile and
accumulates below the earth's surface in a porous
 Porosity :-
the percentage of rock or sediment
that consists of voids or openings
 Permeability:-
the capacity of a rock to transmit
fluid through pores and fractures
 Aquifer:-
a body of saturated rock or sediment
through which water can move easily
 The Water Table :-
1.Subsurface zone in which all
rock openings are filled with
water is the phreatic, saturated

2.Top of the saturated zone is

the water table

3. Above the water table is an

unsaturated region called
thevadose zone
 Wells :-
• a deep hole, generally cylindrical,
that is dug of drilled into the ground
to penetrate an aquifer within the
saturated zone
 Springs :-
a place where water flows naturally
from rock or sediment onto the
ground surface
 pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers: chemicals that are
applied to agricultural crops that can find their way
into ground water when rain or irrigation water
leaches the poisons downward into the soil
 rain can also leach pollutants from city dumps into
ground-water supplies
 Heavy metals such as mercury, lead, chromium,
copper, and cadmium, together with household
chemicals and poisons, can all be concentrated in
ground-water supplies beneath dumps
Advantages OF Ground Water…..

 water for irrigation

 90 percent of fresh water in the United States

is found in groundwater

 available throughout the year

 a renewable resource
Disadvantages of ground water

 over-extraction can occur

 water chemistry can be high

 if polluted it is difficult to treat.

 Hydrological cycle
 Run off
 Ground water
 Permeability of soil
1. Environmental issues
2. Agriculture issues
3. Water cycle
4. Weather forecast
 Water is acknowledged as a major limiting factor in the
socio-economic development of a world with a rapidly
expanding population.
 The United Nations Millennium Declaration draws
attention to the importance of water and water related
activities in supporting development and eradicating
 Also emphasizes conservation to stop unsustainable
exploitation of water resources
 By developing water management strategies at the
regional, national and local levels which promote both
Awareness campaigns to reduce water use amongst all
consumers can play an important role in demand
Such campaigns need to focus on the urgency of
conserving water now to hopefully avert a crisis sometime
in the future.
Improved awareness should be tackled at all levels incl.
a role for communities and grassroots organizations.
The use of mass media is cost effective in most cities
as even the urban poor have access to such
communication tools
Religious and cultural preferences must also be
followed particularly where local community actions
related to integrated management of services. i.e. use of
sanitation facilities for washing/personal hygiene.
Water never leaves the Earth. It is constantly
being cycled through the atmosphere, ocean, and
land. This process, known as the water cycle, is
driven by energy from the sun. The water cycle is
crucial to the existence of life on our planet.