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Presentation Title

LEXICAL
SEMANTICS

TENSE & ADJECTIVE


ASPECT MEANINGS

VERB & NOUN


SITUATION VOCABULARY

FIGURATIVE
LANGUAGE
WHAT IS LANGUAGE?
1. The method of human communication,
either spoken or written, consisting of the
use of words in a structured and
conventional way.
2. A system of communication used by a
particular country or community.
3. The style of a piece of writing or speech.

https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/language
UTTERANCE
• An UTTERANCE is any stretch of talk, by
one person, before and after which there is
silence on the part of that person.
• An utterance is the USE by a particular
speaker, on a particular occasion, of a
piece of language, such as a sequence of
sentences, or a single phrase, or even a
single word.

(Hurford et. al, 2007: p 15-16)


SENTENCE
• A SENTENCE is a grammatically complete
string of words expressing a complete
thought (Hurford et al, 2007: p.19).
SEMANTICS vs PRAGMATICS
• Semantics and Pragmatics are branches
of Linguistics. Semantics deals with the
study of meaning of word without the
context. On the other hand, Pragmatics
understands the language meaning but
keeping the context in mind.
• Semantics deals with the sudy of what
signs denote. On the other hand,
Pragmatics deals with the relation of signs
to their users and interpreters.
• Pragmatics makes uses of three major
communication skills like using language,
changing language and following rules.

http://www.differencebetween.info/difference-between-
semantics-and-pragmatics
Adjective meanings
 Adjective meanings generally discuss about the words
meaning which concentrates on various kinds of
meaning relationship between adjectives, mainly
relationships of similarity and oppositeness.
 The sense relation that relevant to adjectives point out
that word senses affect the entailments that a sentence
carries.
Entailment
 Entailment is the principle that under certain
conditions the truth of one statement ensures
the truth of a second statement.
 Daniel (1990) stated the two types of
entailment: truth conditional and
illocutionary entailments
Examples:
I beg you to help me
Please, help me! (truth conditional)
You can help me. (illocutionary entailment)
Synonym
• Keidler descibed a synonym is a word having
the same or nearly the same meaning as
another word or a phrase.
• When a single word are replaced by a
synonym, the literal meaning of the sentence
is not changed. It is shown below:
o My mother’s name is Jane.
o Mum’s names is Jane.
o Mom’s family name is Jane.
Antonym
• Griffiths explained that the term of
antonymy is employed to mean any kind of
oppositeness. Antonyms is the sense
relation that exists between words which
are opposite in meaning.
Types of antonym
• Gradable antonym
• Complementary antonym
• Rational antonym
• Multiple antonym
Gradable antonym
Gradable antonymy is used to measure and
compare something with something else. It
deals with the level of words, it means that
there is something in between.
Example:
Today is not hot = today is not cold = today
is warm.
Complementary Antonym
It shows If something is A, then it is not B.
Exampe:
If something is on, then it is not off.
• on – off
• alive – dead
• male - female
Rational antonym
• It is dealing with the pairs of words that are
reversal of a relationship of words.
Examples:
• buy - sell
• lend - borrow
• give - receive
• husband - wife
• parent - child
• teacher – pupil

X buys something from Y means the same as Y sells


something to X.
Multiple Antonym
• Multiple antonymy is a word which has
more than one opposition.
Example:
the antonym of happy can be sad, angry,
disappointed
Noun Vocabulary
• As we know that nouns vocabulary becoming
the major subject to be discussed dealing
with semantics.

• The meaning of noun vocabularies will be


described in order to know about the sense
relation among the vocabularies.

• In semantic term, noun vocabulary outline


about the hyponymy, incompability, count
noun and mass noun.
Hyponymy
• Hyponym is a term used to design a particular
member of a broader class.

Example:
• daisy and rose are hyponyms of flower.
• orange, apple, pear, banana, plum, pineapple
are the hyponyms of fruit.
• At 1 p.m. Peter and May reached the Peak. From
the Peak, the buildings are very small, they look
like matchboxes. The Peak is four hundred meters
above the sea level. Peter and Mary could see the
outlying islands, such as Cheung Chau and
Lantau.
Hypernym
• It shows the relationship of hyponym.
• The semantic field of a hypernym, also
known as a superordinate, is broader
than that of a hyponym.
Count noun and Mass noun
• Count noun can be quantified as nouns
that can be counted while mass nouns are
quantified by the word much, which means
uncountable nouns.
• Mass nouns can be quantified with
numbers and plural suffixes or the word
many. Count Noun Mass Noun
This is a loaf. This is a bread.
This is a coin. This is money
How many loaves are there? How many breads are there?
Figurative Language
• Figurative language and
A.
Text linguistics
• Literal and Figurative
B.
Usage
• Irony
• Kinds of Figurative • Metonymy
C. • Metaphor
Language • Simile
There is no clear line between
figurative and literal language
because a great deal of human
communication is approximate, and
linguistic concepts are generally fuzzy
Figurative (cf. Goatly 1997:14).

language and
Text linguistics We employ figurative language for the
purpose of approximation and
compromising exactness in almost all
types of language and not only poetic
language.
Literal and
Figurative Usage
F I G U R AT I V E U S A G E LITERAL USAGE
• APPLIED TO SENTENCE
MEANING TO DISAMBIGUATE
• INSPIRATIONALLY FRESH, IT
• HOW IT DIFFERS FROM MUNDANE • ESTABLISH WHAT THE
LANGUAGE REFERRING EXPRESSIONS
• HOW IT IS SIGNALED AND REFER TO.
CONSTRUED. . • IF THE ONLY WORD
MEANINGS USED IN THE
EXPLICATOR ARE LITERAL
MEANINGS, THEN WE HAVE A
LITERAL INTERPRETATION.
Kinds of Figurative Language

Definition
• Saying what is contrary to what
is meant.

Irony Examples
• In 2004, Halle Berry won an Oscar
for acting but in 2005 she pluckily
attended an award ceremony to
receive a Razzie – a golden
raspberry – for “Worst Actress”, in a
different film. Collecting her Razzie,
she said, “Oh, this is wonderful.”
She also said “If you aren’t able to
be a good loser you’re not able to
be a good winner”.
Kinds of
Figurative
Language
Definition

• Metonymy is the figure of speech


which involves the replacement of
one word with another with which
Metonymy it is associated.

Examples

• “All hands on deck!”


• “When you’re working with bling-
blings, you’ve gotta wear bling-
blings.”
Kinds of
Figurative
Language
Definition

• Metaphor is a figure of speech that


implies comparison between two
unlike entities, as distinguished from
simile, an explicit comparison
Metaphor signaled by the words ‘like’ or ‘as’.

Examples

• He is a lion.
• “She is a Mary Robinson.”
• “He is a vast (metaphorically
speaking) databank of information.”
Kinds of
Figurative
Language Definition

• The sentence below exemplifies what


would traditionally be called a simile,
because it is figurative and hinges on the
word like. It is also a comparison between
two unlike things that uses like or as.

Simile Examples

• “The pursuit of absolute safety is like


trying to get the bubbles out of wallpaper.”
• She’s like my mother. (figurative or literal).
• She’s a mother to me. (figurative, a
standard metaphor).
• She’s similar to my mother. (literal)
Verbs and Situations

Examples: (verb meanings) Examples:


• Robby brought me the a.I offered a scone to her.
news b.This evidence confirms my
• Blinko was a famous clown hunch.
• Those cups are on the c.It confirms that spring has
shelf => The shelf supports come early.
those cups. d.That the daffodils are
• They made a fool of him => blooming confirms my hunch.
They fooled him. e.That the daffodils are
Verbs differ in whether they blooming confirms that spring
demand one, two or three has come early.
noun phrases: f.Offer him a scone.
• Billy lies. ( meaning that he
tells untruths; one noun
In (c-e) the same clause is not
phrase)
free-standing, but has been
• Benjamin Franklin told the embedded another clause as
truth. (two noun phrases) object of the verb confirm. In
• I offered her a scone. (d-e) we see a clause
(three noun phrases) embedded as the subject.
CAUSATIVES
(a situation is brought about – caused – by whatever the
subject noun phrase refers to, and the caused situation is
described by the embedded clause)
Causatives Entailments

The thought made her gleeful. She was gleeful.

The children got the kite to fly. The kite flew.

Bad weather forces us to cancel the picnic We are cancelling the picnic.

His inexperience is causing the decisions The decisions are going unactioned.

I had the students read this article. The students read this article.

The lock prevented him from opening the He did not open the door (that time).

door. (a negative causative)


‘X cause (‘clause’)’ ⇒ ‘clause’

• ‘Clause’ is the same proposition both times, even if the wording


changes from.
• The kite to fly => The kite flew.
• The embedded clause – is an argument of the causative verb.
• Semantically, causative verbs have a minimum of two arguments:
• one denoting the causer and one denoting the caused state or event.
• I’ll call the latter argument the embedded situation.
• The embedded situation itself contains arguments;
• For two of the examples discussed in the previous paragraphs they are the students, this
article and the kite.
Three kinds of one-clause causative with an entailment
Causatives Entailments

Different verbs (e.g. feed–eat)

She fed the baby some mashed banana. The baby ate some mashed banana.

The bank has lowered its interest rate. The bank’s interest rate dropped.

Drought killed the lawn. The lawn died.

Morphologically related verbs and adjectives (e.g. enrich–rich)

Nitrogen spills have enriched the soil here. The soil is rich here.

The graphic artist enlarged the logo. The logo became larger.

His job deafened Dougie. Dougie became deaf (to an extent)

Same verb form used causatively and non-causatively (e.g. walk–walk)

The guide walks tourists through eco park. The Tourists walk through the eco park.

The gardener grew several vines Several vines grew.

He chipped one of his teeth. One of his teeth chipped.


Intransitive
clauses
• Unergative
verb
Tourists walk
through the
ecopark

• Unaccusative
verbs
He spilt the
coffee
Situation Types

She got her ankle sprained.


(achievement).
She had a sprained ankle. (state)
She had physiotherapy. (activity)
She got better. (accomplishment)
Tense
Tense is deictic. It locates events in relation
to the time of utterance:
present (unmarked or with an -s suffix),
suffixed past and the variously
marked future. Time adverbials help reveal
the mapping between tense
forms and time.
Present tense

• She moves the chair


• He drives for goal. (said by a sports
commentator)
• At sea level, water boils at 100ºC.
• I mean he kicks them out in two weeks.
Past Tense
• We ate at 7 o’clock this morning.
• They were watching TV when suddenly a
runaway truck crashes through their living
room wall
Tense and Adverbial
Past time Present time Future time
then now then
Last year At present Next year
yesterday nowadays tomorrow
today, this week, this in forty-five minutes from
year now
Tense and Adverbial
• Mark Lawson is here in forty-five minutes.
(BBC Radio 4 continuity announcer,
saying who can be heard three-quarters of
an hour later.)
• She lectures in Milton Keynes tomorrow.
• He’s visiting Scotland next year.
Aspect
Aspect is about the time profile of events.
The grammatically marked
forms in English are: progressive (ongoing without attention
to ending) and perfect (we are in the aftermath of the event
– or, for past perfect, we are talking about a time in the
aftermath). Habitual aspect is not grammatically marked in
English, but is readily available and, when one is trying to
make sense of tense and aspect, is an essential
interpretation to distinguish
Habituality and simple aspect

• She loves music nowadays. (state)


• He drinks decaffeinated coffee nowadays.
(activity)
A range of sentences which all have habitual as a possible
interpretation

Past time Present time Future time


She loved music. She loves music. . She will love music.
The clown popped the The clown pops the The clown will pop the
balloon. balloon. balloon.
Progressive Aspect
• When the team reached the site at five-
thirty in the morning, one
or two family members would be waiting
for them.
• Hurry, the bus is leaving.
Perfect Aspect
• I had just prepared my assignment
• I have just prepared my assignment.
• I will have just prepared my assignment.
Modality
• Epistemic modality

• Deontic modality
Epistemic Modality
Epistemic Modality
Possibility It might rain tonight.
They may just want to ask us some
questions.
Probability They should be here by 3.00
Prediction They will be here at 6.00 pm.
Ability Mariela can sing the alto part to the
Hallelujah chorus.
Contingent/cond I could make spaghetti if you make
itional a salad
Assumption They must be worried about you.
Deontic Modality
Deontic modality
Permission You can go now.
Suggestion You might just send her a card

Slight obligation I should eat more green


vegetables
Stringer obligation They ought to be politer to her
family

Insistence They have to submit the


application by next Tuesday.
Must, should, can’t and similar expressions encode modality.
Markers of modality are interpreted either in relation to the
demands and preferences of people, or in relation to evidence.
With interpretations of the first kind (called deontic), You must …
communicates that the speaker demands that you …; You can’t
… that the speaker disallows it, and so on. Interpreted in a
context where the issue is the sender’s degree of certainty about
inferences from evidence (epistemic modality), It must …conveys
strong conviction about the likelihood of something being true,It
should … that the proposition is expected to be true if things
unfold in an average sort of way, and so on. Necessity and
possibility are fundamental concepts in modality, and elucidating
them involved consideration of quantifiers, such as all and some
(the second topic of the chapter), because – for example – what
is necessarily true pertains all the time; and what holds some of
the time is possible. The chapter also covered relative scope: the
interactions between modality markers, negation and quantifiers
when more than one of them is involved in the meaning of a
proposition.