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Lecture 5

 Machinery, other than the main propulsion unit, is usually


called 'auxiliary' even though without some auxiliaries the main
machinery would not operate for long.

The items considered are:


 air compressors,
 heat exchangers,

 oil/water separators,

 sewage treatment plants

 Incinerators.
Air compressor
 Compressed air has many uses on board ship, ranging from
diesel engine starting to the cleaning of machinery during
maintenance.

 The air pressures of 25 bar or more are usually provided in


multi-stage machines.

 Here the air is compressed in the first stage, cooled and


compressed to a higher pressure in the next stage, and so on.
The two-stage crank machine is probably the most common.
Uses of Air Compressors
 On board a ship, compressed air is used for several purposes.
 1. To start main propulsion engine
 2. To start Auxiliary diesel engine(power generation)
 3. To blow ship's whistle
 4. For Engine Room general service and cleaning.
 5. For the operation of pneumatic tools
 6. For deck services, to carry out chipping.
 7. For Automation & Instrumentation of various machineries,
 8. For fresh & sea water hydrophones,
 9. Fire alarms & operation of Quick closing Valves,
 10. For Soot Blowing Exhaust Gas Economizer
Construction of Air Compressors
 The basic construction of a reciprocating compressor is
similar to that of an internal combustion engine. It consists of
the familiar piston and cylinder arrangement, having inlet and
outlet valves for the entry of normal air and the exit of
compressed air respectively.

 The other component is present in the bigger engines such


as the connecting rod and the crankshaft are also their in the
reciprocating compressor. The more the power required from
the compressor, the greater the number of cylinders in it.
Types of Air Compressors

There are mainly four types of compressors:

 Centrifugal compressor
 Rotary vane compressor

 Rotary screw compressor

 Reciprocating air compressor

However, on ship reciprocating air compressor is


widely used.
Air Compressor on Ship board
 Normally, air compressors on board ships are:
 main air compressor
 topping up compressor
 deck air compressor
 Emergency air compressor
Main air compressor
 It is used for supplying high pressurized air for starting of main
and auxiliary engines. The pressurized air generated by the air
compressor is stored in air storage bottle. These are high
capacity compressors and the air pressure that is required from
these compressors to start the main engine is 30 bars.
 Control air is also supplied from air bottle through a pressure
reducing valve and a control air filter. Normally they are twice in
number and can be more than that for redundancy.

Topping up compressor
 takes up the lead to cover up for the leakage in the system. This
means that as soon as the air pressure in the system goes below a
particular level, the topping up compressor replenished the
system with pressurized air
Deck air compressor
 Deck air compressor is used for deck use and as service air
compressor and might have a separate service air bottle for the
same. These are lower capacity pressure compressors as
pressure required for service air is in between the range of 6 to
8 bar.

Emergency air compressor


 Emergency air compressor is used for starting auxiliary engine
at the time of an emergency or when the main air compressor
has failed for filling up the main air receiver. This type of
compressor can be motor driven or engine driven. If motor
driven, it should be supplied from emergency source of power.
End of Lectures