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# Metrology

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Methods of Measuring Effective Diameter or Pitch Diameter of Screw Thread

 Micrometer method
 One wire, two wire or three wire ( or rod) method

Effective Diameter
One Wire Method

 One wire is placed between two threads at one side and on the other side the anvil of the measuring micrometer
contacts the crests
 First the micrometer reading is noted on a standard gauge whose dimension is nearly same as to be obtained by this
method.
 Actual measurement over wire on one side and threads on other side
= Size of gauge ± difference in two micrometer readings
Two Wire Method
 Two wires or rods of identical diameter are placed between the flanks of the threads and the distance over the outside
of these wires are measured.
Then the effective diameter , E = T+P
Where T = Dimension under the wires = M – 2d
M = Dimension over the wires
d = Diameter of each wire
P = Difference between the effective diameter and diameter under the wires
P is a value which depends on diameter of wire, pitch and angle of screw thread

## P = 0.866p – d ( for metric thread)

Expression for the value of P in terms of p (pitch), d (diameter)

## BC lies on the effective diameter. So, BC = 1/2 pitch =1/2 p,

OP = d/2 Cosec (x/2), AQ = PQ – AP
Where, PQ = QC Cot (x/2) = p/4 Cot (x/2)
Now AP = OP – OA = d/2 Cosec (x/2) – d/2 = d/2[Cosec (x/2) – 1]
AQ = PQ – AP = p/4 Cot (x/2) - d/2[Cosec (x/2) – 1]
And AQ is half the value of P
P value = 2AQ

## P = p/2 Cot (x/2) - d[Cosec (x/2) – 1]

Three Wire Method
 This method is more accurate than two wire method as it ensures alignment of micrometer faces parallel to the thread axis

 Here, three wires of exactly known diameter are used, one on one side and the two on the other side. The wires may be
held in hand or hung from a stand so as to ensure freedom to the wires to adjust themselves under micrometer pressure.

## M = Diameter over the wires

E = Effective diameter
d = Diameter of wires
h = Height of wire center above pitch line
D = Major diameter of the thread
Three Wire Method
From the triangle ABD, AD = AB Cosec ɵ/2 = d/2 Cosec ɵ/2

H = DE Cot ɵ/2 = p/2 Cot ɵ/2 and CD = H/2 = p/4 Cot ɵ/2

## Further h = (AD – CD) = [d/2 Cosec ɵ/2] – [p/4 Cot ɵ/2]

Distance over the wires,
M = E + 2h + 2r = = E + 2 [r Cosec ɵ/2 - p/4 Cot ɵ/2] + 2r

## = E + d [1+ Cosec ɵ/2] – p/2 cot ɵ/2

ɵ = 55°, depth of thread = 0.64p, so that E = D – 0.64p and Cosec ɵ/2 = 2.1657, Cot ɵ/2= 1.921
M = E + d [1+ Cosec ɵ/2] – p/2 cot ɵ/2 = D – 0.64p + d ( 1+2.1657) – p/2 (1.921)
= D + 3.1657d – 1.6005p, Where D = Outside diameter

## So, E = D – 0.6495p, ɵ = 60°, Cosec ɵ/2 = 2, Cot ɵ/2= 1.732

M = D - 0.6495p + d ( 1+2) – p/2 ( 1.732)
= D + 3d – ( 0.6495 + 0.866) p
= D + 3d – 1.5155p

Value of M can be measured practically and then compared with the theoretical values with the help of formulae
derived above . After finding correct value of M and knowing d, E can be found out.
Expression for Best Size Wire

The best size wire is one, in which case the wire makes contact with the thread flank, i.e, the contact points of the
wires should be, on the pitch line or effective diameter.

## From the figure, OB is perpendicular to flank position of the thread at

pitch line.

In triangle OAB, Sin BOA = AB/OB or, Sin (90- ɵ/2) = AB/OB

## OB = AB/ (Cos ɵ/2) = AB Sec ɵ/2

But OB = Radius of wire = 1/2 × Diameter of best size wire (db)
i,e; db = 2 × OB = 2 × AB Sec ɵ/2
Since AB lies on the pitch line, AB = p/4 , ( Where, p = pitch of thread)

## db = 2p/4 Sec ɵ/2 = p/2 Sec ɵ/2

Corrections Applied in the Measurement of Effective Diameter by the
Method of Wire

(1)Rake correction
(2) Compression correction