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VENTILATION - the provision of fresh air to a room, building, etc.

ENVIRONMENT - the surroundings or conditions in which
a person, animal, or plant lives or operates.

TEMPERATURE -the degree or intensity of heat present in a
substance or object, especially as expressed according to
a comparative scale and shown by a thermometer or
perceived by touch.

HUMIDITY- a quantity representing the amount of water
vapor in the atmosphere or a gas.
•Ventilation is important for the control of dust,
fumes, gases, aerosols, climate and thermal
comfort factors. Exposure to different types of dust
can result in fibrosis of the lung, allergic reactions
and asthma attacks. Various vapours, gases and
aerosols have the ability to cause respiratory and
skin damage. Extremes of heat can reduce
concentration and motivation and cause a number
of heat-related illnesses. Extremes of heat can
also reduce tolerance to chemical and noise
exposure, and increase the risk of heart attacks.
The skin and temperature control
Core body temperature is normally 37°C no matter what the
temperature of the surroundings or the activity level of the
individual. It is controlled by a negative feedback system.
The hypothalamus is the temperature-regulating centre of the
brain. It contains receptors which are sensitive to the
temperature of the blood flowing through the brain.
Temperature sensitive receptors in the skin also feed back
information to the hypothalamus about the temperature of the
skin surface.
Changes in core body temperature cause the hypothalamus to
send nerve impulses to the sweat glands, muscles and blood
vessels to raise or lower the temperature. If the core
temperature goes up the body loses heat to bring it down
again. If the core temperature goes down the body will
conserve and even generate heat to bring it up again.
If the body is too cold...
...the hairs are raised by small muscles to trap a layer of
air near the skin giving the appearance of goose
bumps. Air is an insulator so this helps to keep heat in.
Shivering starts, when the muscles contract fast and
involuntarily. This produces more heat and, during
shivering, there is usually an increase in the rate of
respiration, which also warms the surrounding tissues.