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Chapter 1

Introduction to
Organizational Behavior

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 OB studies what people do in an
organization and how that
behavior affects the performance
of the organization.

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 Effective manager vs. successful manager

 Management duties
• What managers do

• Management roles

• Management skills

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Management functions
 Planning

 Organizing

 Leading

 Controlling

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Management functions
 Interpersonal roles

 Informational roles

 Decisional roles

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Management skills
 Technical skills

 Human skills

 Conceptual skills

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Goals of Organizational
Behavior

 Explain, predict, and


 control human behavior

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The field of OB seeks to replace
intuitive explanations with
systematic study

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What other knowledge
help us understand OB?

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Contributing Disciplines
Psychology seeks to Sociology studies
measure,explain, people in relation to their
and change fellow human beings
behavior

Social psychology
focuses on the
influence of people
on one another

Political science is the


Anthropology is the
study of the
study of societies
behavior of individuals
to learn about human
and groups within
beings and their activities
a political environment
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OB Model

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Dependent variable
 Things which will be affected by OB
• Productivity
• What factors influence the effectiveness and
efficiency of individuals
• Absenteeism
• Absenteeism is not all bad
• Having too high employee absent rate will affect
productivity
• Turnover
• Not all turnover is bad
• High turnover rate…in some degree affect
productivity, particularly 4 the hospitality inducstry

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• Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
• No one will want to pick up the slack
• No one would want to walk extra miles to achieve
the goals.
• Job satisfaction
• Unhappy employees…what else can you say?

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Organizational citizenship
 Discretionary behavior
 Not part of an employee's formal job
requirements
 Promotes the effective functioning of the
organization

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Examples of Organizational
Citizenship
 Helping others on one's work team
 Volunteering for extra job activities
 Avoiding unnecessary conflicts
 Making constructive statements about
one's work group and the overall
organization

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Independent variables
 Individual variables
• Age, gender, personality, emotion, values, attitude,
ability
• Perception, individual decision making, learning, and
motivation
 Group variables
• Norm, communication, leadership, power, politics
 Organization system variables
• Organizational culture, HR practices

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Challenges and
Opportunities for OB

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 Typical employee is getting older
 More women and minorities in the workplace
 Global competition is requiring employees to
become more flexible
 Historical loyalty-bonds that held many
employees to their employers are being
severed

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Responding to Globalization

 Increased Foreign Assignments


 Working with People from Different
Cultures
 Coping with Anti-Capitalism Backlash
 Overseeing Movement of Jobs to
Countries with Low-cost Labor

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Managing Diversity
Workforce diversity -
organizations are
becoming a more
heterogeneous mix of
people in terms of gender,
age, race, ethnicity, and
sexual orientation

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Diversity Implications
 Managers have to shift their philosophy
from treating everyone alike to
recognizing differences and responding
to those differences in ways that ensure
employee retention and greater
productivity.

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OB Insights
 Improving People Skills
 Improving Customer Service
 Empowering People
 Working in Networked Organizations
 Stimulating Innovation and Change

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OB Insights
 Coping with “Temporariness”
 Helping Employees Balance Work/Life
Conflicts
 Declining Employee Loyalty
 Improving Ethical Behavior

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