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Virtual Manufacturing

What is virtual manufacturing?

• Virtual manufacturing is a kind of knowledge


and computer-based manufacturing system
that integrates manufacturing activities with
models and simulation rather than objects
and real operation.
Need for VM
• It is the advancement of lean manufacturing
system where the money and time of operation
of the engineers is saved by testing them in the
virtual world before applying in the real time
operation.
• In this environment many oriented technology
support the activities of the development process
that can be used in a integrated way.
• They support the product at every stage of its
manufacturing process.
Technologies of VM
• It is new kind of manufacturing technology
that mainly consists of
Simulation technology
Virtual reality technology
Information technology
Simulation lab
• The initial purpose of VM was to achieve a better
comprehension of the use of higher interactivity
surfaces.
• This lead to the development of the virtual
prototype of the interlock of the CNC turning
machine which followed by the creation of
framework to allow a generation of concurrent
and distributed environment.
• The further development lead to the use of
neutral format files to provide data
interoperability in the VM environment
• In this lab, the integration of the project and
information occur.
• The process and the design of the product is
studied and the necessary changes are made
in them before they are manufactured
• It is used in various different fields to integrate
the process and the object and predict the
outcome.
• Depending upon the target, various simulation
methods are used to obtain the required
output.
Virtual reality technoloy
• The development of 2D to 3D is done by
virtual reality technology.
• The design and drawings that were made in
simulation lab is converted into 3D models
and the factors that affect the job when used
is real world is calculated.
• Inorder to create a modular system, “database
interface” has been created so that the virtual
layout builder can work without regards to the
internal structure of the information system.
• The virtual reality technology has grown from 3D
software to wearable glasses that provide
information about the system.
• It is used in different sectors where it helps the
individual to scan the area and the difference
from original can be visualized.
• It is used in various departments in an industry
from inventory management to factory floor
planning.
• The smart glasses that provide video, graphics
and text guide the workers in the step by step
manufacturing process.
• It is used to simplify and significantly shorten the
process.
Information technology
• They guide the information and the data that
has to be processed along the system.
• The data is being processed in Structured
Query Language( SQL ) sequence throughout
the process.
• Though, it uses various programming
techniques and languages to process the data,
the main processing is done using SQL
• The various stages in SQL include Parsing,
Optimization, Row source generation and
Execution.
• Parsing: the statement is broken into different
SQL structures and Parse call is given that prepare
the database for its statement of execution.
• During the parse call the database performs the
following check
Syntax check
Semantic check
Shared pool check
• In Optimization, the system performs Hard
Parse where multiple data files are executed
and they are being checked.
• Row source generator is a software that
receives the optimal generation plan from the
optimizer and produces an iterative execution
plan that is usable by the rest of the database
• During execution, the SQL engine executes
each row source tree produced by the row
source generator.
Virtual fusion
• The main disadvantage that is faced in virtual
manufacturing is that the validation methods
with the physical system lead to costly run-off
process or inefficient manual over rides.
• One of the approach to solve this is by
introducing a virtual component into the physical
environment.
• The virtual fusion is done by integrating the
virtual and physical components in a system into
a single entity.
• It forms a hybrid architecture for the part flow,
process, full system validation and analysis.
• Some of the advantages of virtual fusion
environment include:
1. Less waste
2. Improved system responsiveness
3. Reliable updates
• It is majorly followed in mass production and
industries where cost effectiveness play an
important role.
PLC
• In virtual environment, the most oftenly used
system controller is Programmable Logic
Controller (PLC)
• The fusion environment consist of system
controller, physical plant and a model of key
components within the physical plant, and a
virtual fusion filter that synchronizes and
filters the data from the physical plant model.
• The various process that is being followed in
PLC include,
1. Identify the process
2. Key components of the process
3. Essence for each process
4. Effect of the essence
• To achieve the aforementioned processes,
various sensors and actuators are used which
will be activated by the PLC based on the
needs.
Virtual fusion filter
• The goal of the filter can be divided into two
main tasks
1. Synchronize the input data from the physical
and virtual environments
2. Filter the data values to ensure that the input
signal to the system controller contains the
essential characteristics to trigger the next
process when the physical part is swapped
with its virtual counterpart.
• Data synchronization in the real time is
necessary to ensure that correct signal is sent
to the system controller at the correct time.
• Mismatch in timing between the real and
virtual world will result in incorrect behaviour.
• Once the synchronization has been confirmed,
the essence value from the virtual and
physical system are compared to identify the
discrepancies due to the introduction of
virtual part.
Modelling assumptions
• The simulation and physical essence and
effect parameters for the given model should
match.
• For a given input signal from the system
controller, the simulation and physical testbed
should execute the same process.
• A work part’s process sequence through the
system should be independent of whether the
part is physical or virtual.
• A virtual part must provide the necessary
essential characteristics that trigger all the
subsequent process.
• A virtual machine with a virtual process must
result in the necessary effects on the work
plant.
• Part handling devices are tracked separately
from the work part.
• Virtual parts are introduced in the virtual
environment prior to the physical system.
Major obstacles in development of VM
• The operational speed of the system:
The VM system is required to handle large
amount of work on complex mathematical
computation, graphical image processing, data
exchange and remote communications. These
include construction of 3D solid model, 3D
animation, virtual reality(VR), graphical image
processing, manufacturing resource planning etc.
The external interface and the speed of the I/O of
the computer have to be enhanced.
• Manufacturing know-how, modelling and
representation:
The successful development of VM
depends on present knowledge and capabilities
of applying modern mathematical tools to
describe and to present the knowledge in a
systematic manner. For example, the present
understanding on the selection of optimal
cutting conditions for metal removal process is
still far from perfect.
• Artificial intelligence (AI) for knowledge
acquisition:
Better learning and knowledge acquisition
capabilities of the RM facility to facilitate the
monitoring of the operational performance of the
RM system as well as to make better and more
accurate predictions and decisions.
• Unify the data standards:
though there are standards build by ISO
organisation, the data standards used by the
production facilities and software of different
manufacturers might be different.
Conclusion
• It appears that nowadays we manufacture for
both manufacturability and manufacturing
efficiency.
• Though there is lot of work to do, all pieces
are in place for virtual manufacturing to
become a standard tool for the design to
manufacturing process.
References
• Virtual manufacturing as a way for the factory of
future: Mariella Consoni Florenzano Souza,
Marcco Sacco, Arthur Jose Vieira Porto
• Virtual fusion: integrating virtual components
into a physical manufacturing system: Nicholas M
Putman, Francisco Maturana, Kira Barton, Dawan
M. Tilbury
• Philippe Dépincé, Damien Chablat, Peer-Oliver
Woelk, Virtual Manufacturing: Tools for improving
design and production, Technical Workshop on
Virtual Manufacturing, 2003.
Thank you!