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# TOPIC 1.

RESPONSE OF CIVIL
ENGINEERING
PROJECT
FORCE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING PROJECT

Learning Outcomes
A) Identify the system response:
● Sway
● Deflection and
● Vibration

● Buckling
● Torsion
● Shortening
● Elongation,
● Shearing and
● Bending
System Response

i. Sway
ii. Deflection
iii. Vibration
(i) Sway
Definition :

##  move back and forth, swing ,lean in a

certain direction; be inclined toward.

##  to move or swing to and from,

as something fixed at one end or resting
on a support.
Example of sway :
Impact of wind load
Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapse
(ii) Deflection

Definition :

##  is a term that is used to describe the

degree to which a structural element
is displaced under a load.

##  Deviation, diversion, turning aside

(ii) Deflection

Deflection of Beams

## • Excessive deflections are unacceptable in building

construction; can cause cracking of plaster in ceilings
and can result in jamming of doors and windows.
• Most building codes limit the amount of allowable
deflection as a proportion of the member's length,
i.e. 1/180, 1/240 or 1/360 of the length.
Example of deflection :
(ii) Vibration

Definition :
 mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium
point. The oscillations may be periodic such
as the motion of a pendulum or random such
as the movement of a tire on a gravel road.

##  More often, vibration is undesirable, wasting

energy and creating unwanted sound – noise.
(ii) Vibration

##  Such vibrations can be caused by imbalances in the

rotating parts, uneven friction, the meshing of gear
teeth, etc. Careful designs usually minimize
unwanted vibrations.
(ii) Vibration
Types of vibration

• Free vibration
- occurs when a mechanical system is set off
with an initial input and then allowed to
vibrate freely.
- e.g ; pulling a child back on a swing and
then letting go or hitting a tuning fork and
letting it ring.
(ii) Vibration
Types of vibration

• Forced vibration
- occur when an alternating force or motion is
applied to a mechanical system.
- e.g ; vibration of a building during an earthquake.
- In forced vibration the frequency of the vibration
is the frequency of the force or motion applied,
with order of magnitude being dependent on the
actual mechanical system.
Component Response

 Buckling
 Torsion
 Shortening
 Elongation
 Shearing
 Bending
(1) BUCKLING
• Definition :

##  In engineering, buckling is a failure mode characterized by a

sudden failure of a structural member subjected to high
compressive stresses,
 where the actual compressive stresses at failure are smaller
than the ultimate compressive stresses that the material is
capable of withstanding.
 This mode of failure is also described as failure due to elastic
instability.
Column buckling Buckling test
(2) TORSION
• Definition :
twisting, winding, bending, distortion,
contortion

## In solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an

object due to an applied torque. In circular
sections, the resultant shearing stress is
perpendicular to the radius.
Torsion in beam

Torsion
(3) SHORTENING
• Definition :
make shorter, abbreviate, cut, truncate;
become shorter
Cause of shortening
(i) elastic stresses
(ii) shrinkage
(iii) creep
Example of shortening

## The shortening of the column if its initial height is 5m.

and Force 2000kN
(4) ELONGATION
• Definition :
lengthening, extension, making longer
an addition to the length of something
When a material is tested for tensile strength
it elongates a certain amount before fracture
takes place. The function of this test is to
measure the ductility of steel.
(5) SHEARING
Definition :
• is defined as a stress which is applied parallel
or tangential to a face of a material, as
opposed to a normal stress which is applied
perpendicularly
• Shear stress is the outcome of sliding one
part over the other in opposite directions.
The rivets and bolts of an aircraft experience
both shear and tension stresses
The formula to calculate average shear stress is:

where
τ = the shear stress;
F = the force applied;
A = the cross sectional area.
Example of shearing

## Failure of short column by oblique shear

(6) BENDING
Definition :
• crouching, stooping; curving, twisting;
contortion, distortion.
• In engineering mechanics, bending (also
known as flexure) characterizes the behavior
of a slender structural element subjected to
an external load applied perpendicularly to
an axis of the element.
Bending in beam

100
lb

Bending