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SENECA COLLEGE

School of Electronics &Computer Engineering

Fiber Optics Communications

By Harold Kolimbiris
CHAPTER-1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 INTRODUCTION
 OVERVIEW
 GEOMETRIC OPTICS
 PHYSICAL OPTICS
 ABSORPSION
 SCATTERING
 STOKES PHOTON
 DISPERSION
 WAVE POLARIZATION
 ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM OPTICS
INTRODUCTION
 In a communications system, the volume, speed, and clarity of
information processed are key parameters that determine its
performance level.
 Research and development has concentrated its effort on
increasing the volume and improving the quality of information
processed through the system.
 Until recently, the primary means of transmission were the
electromagnetic waves.
 However, the increasing demand for a high volume of processed
information, has generated the need for a corresponding increase
in carrier frequencies and bandwidths.

2018-11-18
INTRODUCTION Cont.
 Carrier frequencies present certain limitations in higher ranges.
These limitations generated the incentive to search for new ways to
increase the carrier frequencies thus improving the information
carrying bandwidth
 Optical fibers fibers are the most suitable media, because they
present theoretically unlimited possibilities.
 A great interest in optical communications was triggered in the
1960s with the development of optical sources. These sources
were capable of generating frequencies of about
with an corresponding increase in the information capacity by
100,000%
5  10 34 Hz
CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

OVERVIEW

 In optical communications systems the medium of information


transmission is the light. Therefore the nature and behaviour of light
must be examined.
 The study of light is commonly referred to as optics and is divided
into three main categories: geometric optics, physical optics and
quantum optics.
 Geometric optics treat light as it were composed of individual light
rays.
 Physical optics treats light as a wave phenomenon
 Quantum optics treats light as quanta.
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

GEOMETRIC OPTICS (1)


 REFLECTED AND REFRACTED RAYS

The fundamental laws


establishing the basis for
geometric optics are those of
reflection and refraction.
When an optical ray impedes
upon a transparent surface n1

that separates two media, the 1 2

optical ray is divided into two


rays: the reflected ray and the 3 n2

refracted ray.
CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

GEOMETRIC OPTICS (2)

REFLECTED AND REFRACTED RAYS

In 1621, Willebrord Snell


formulated the law of refraction sin 1 n
stating that “ the refractive ray  2 = k (constant)
lies on the same plane as that sin  3 n1
of the incident ray and the ratio
of the sin  to the sin  maintains a
1 3
n1 sin 1  n2 sin 3
constant value.
 Where,
 n =Refractive index of
1

medium-1
 n =Refractive index of
2

medium-2
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

GEOMETRIC OPTICS (3)


 REFLECTED AND REFRACTED RAYS

 For small angles, an 1 n2


acceptable approximation 
3 n1
can be established
 The angle between the
incident ray and the
refracted ray is referred
to as the angle of    1   3
deviation
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

GEOMETRIC OPTICS (4)


 OPTICAL PATH

 An optical path is defined as


the product of the distance
(d) traveled by a ray through
a medium and the refractive
d =(d)(n
index of that medium
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

PHYSICAL OPTICS (1)

 Physical optics deals with the nature of light. That is, it deals
with the interaction of light waves with matter (emission and
absorption).

 Light as an electromagnetic wave


The wave theory of light will be used here to interpret the interaction of
a wave with another wave.

Maxwell describes the relationship between electric and magnetic


fields in the form of four sets of equations. These equations were the
starting point for the investigation of the wave nature of light
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

PHYSICAL OPTICS(2)
Maxwells equations Fist set
 The first set of equations
states that an electric field 1 E x H z H y
 
generates a magnetic field. c t y z
This is also known as
Ampere’s law . 1 E y H x H z
 
c t z x

1 E z H y H x
 
c t x y
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

PHYSICAL OPTICS(3)
 Maxwells equations Second set
Maxwells second set of
equations deals with
Faraday’s law of induced 1 E x H z H y
 
electromotive force. c t y z

1 E y H x H z
 
c t z x

1 E z H y H x
 
c t x y
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

PHYSICAL OPTICS(4)
 Maxwells equations Third equation
 Third equation expresses the
E x E y E z
idea that no free electric charges   0
x y z
are present in a vacuum .
 This concept is substantiated by Fourth equation
the fourth equation expressing
the impossibility of a free H x H y H z
magnetic pole.   0
x y z
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

PHYSICAL OPTICS(5)
 Wave motion
Y- DIRECTION

 the electric field is perpendicular


to the magnetic field and both
Hy

are perpendicular to the Z- DIRECTION

direction of propagation.
X- DIRECTION

 A two-dimensional transverse wave


traveling in the x  direction and
vibrating in the x  yplane can be
expressed by
y  f (x)
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

PHYSICAL OPTICS(6)
 The velocity of light
 Because optical waves of defined frequency will travel through a
medium with a finite velocity, electromagnetic waves (light waves)
travel through space with the same velocity for all frequencies.

 In all practical calculations, the velocity of light will be considered


at 300,000km/s.
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

PHYSICAL OPTICS (7)


 Phase velocity Assuming t  kx =constant then,
dx 
 The velocity with which a wave crest u =
dt k
moves along the x -axis is called the wave
velocity or phase velocity. Because   2f
= 2
 The phase velocity of a traveling wave and k
through the x direction is derived as follows 
2f
2f
then u
2
f
=

 However, the ratio  for a specific wave is



depends on the physical properties of the
medium and the frequency of the wave Therefore, u  f
traveling through the medium.
CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

PHYSICAL OPTICS(8)

2
 Wave intensity 1  dy  1
E  m   m 2 a 2
2  dt  2
 Waves are transporters of energy. The
amount of energy flowing through a unit
area per unit time is referred to as the
“intensity” of the wave.
 If the wave flows with a constant phase
velocity there exists a defined energy
u
density per unit area .
 the sum of both potential and kinetic energies
per unit volume is expressed by the equation,
CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ABSORPTION (1)
 The intensity and velocity of light waves traveling through matter
whether in a solid, liquid or gaseous state are altered to a degree
determined by the physical and molecular properties of the matter.

 The decrease in intensity is caused by absorption and scattering


while the change in the wave velocity is caused by dispersion

 Loss of intensity is defined as the decay of the intensity of the incident


beam traveling through matter.

 The relationship between input and output intensities is expressed


by,
I o  I in e  ad
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ABSORPTION (2)
 Absorption coefficient
 The absorption coefficient is a measure of the relative decrease in
intensity per unit length of the light beam

 A more accurate representation between input and output


intensities is expressed by I o  I in e  aa  as d
 Where,

a a =Absorption coefficient due to thermal motion


as =Absorption coefficient due to scattering
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING(1)
 Scattering is the phenomenon whereby the frequency, direction
or polarization of an incident wave changes with a random
change in the energy distribution.

 This occurs when the wave is interacting with the atomic or


molecular structure of the matter through which it travels.

 The interaction of the electric field component (E) of an incident


wave with a charged particle results in particle motion.

 If the frequency of the incident wave is close to that of the


natural frequency of the particle, resonance will occur.
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (2)
 If the frequency of the incident wave is close but not equal to the
particle natural vibrating frequency, optical energy will be lost to
scattering.

 Rayleigh scattering
When optical waves travel through a medium, they normally follow a
forward path. However, a small part of the optical energy is scattered
by the media refractive index inhomogeneities.

 Rayleigh scattering is referred to as the scattering of light caused by


the material structure’s inhomogeneities
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (3)
 Small refractive index fluctuations caused by the material non-
uniformity scatter light in all directions without altering the frequency.

 Rayleigh scattering is illustrated in following figure

Isin

Isin
Io
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (4)

 Rayleigh established the mathematical relationship


between the intensity of the scattered wave and
wavelength as given by the expression
1
 Where, I sw 
 =Intensity of the scattered wave
4
I sw
  =Wavelength of the incident wave

 That is, the intensity of the scattered wave is


proportional to 1 / 4  of the incident wave
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (5)

 Raman scattering
 When optical energy is scattered from a molecule, the majority of the
photons are elastically scattered. That is, they have the same
frequency and wavelength as the incident photons.

 However, some photons (one in every ten million) are scattered at


lower frequencies than those of the incident photons. This process
leading to inelastic scattering is referred to as the “Raman effect”.

 Quantum mechanics, interprets it as a change of a molecule’s


vibrational state from a higher to a lower excitation level.
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (6)

 Raman scattering occurs within the time


frame of seconds. The energy levels of

SCATTER
Raman scattering are illustrated in fig-4

ENERGY
 The energy difference between the FINAL LEVEL

initial and final vibrational levels of the


molecule are expressed by INITIAL LEVEL

 Where,
 v =Vibrational energy level difference
fig-4
 inc =Wavelength of the incident photon

 sct =Wavelength of the scattered photon 1 1


v 
inc.  sct.
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (7)

 Brillouin scattering (spontaneous)


 If an acoustic wave travels through a transparent material, it will induce
refractive index variations, resulting in the scattering of a small portion
of the incident wave.

 This scattered wave has a frequency, which is slightly shifted.

 This phenomenon is referred to as spontaneous Brillouin scattering.


CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (8)

 Brillouin scattering (Stimulated)


 When a light wave travels through an electrostrictive material, it will
interact with the acoustic noise generated by the molecular thermal
noise.

 Through this interaction, a portion of the optical wave will be


backscattered as Stokes light, and travel in the opposite direction to
the incident wave .

 This Stokes light will generate an acoustical wave which stimulates


further Brillouin scattering
CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (9)

 Stimulated Brillouin scattering can be effectively observed by watching


when two optical waves of different frequencies are allowed to travel in
an optical fiber in opposite directions. Fig-5
16
T3 > T2 > T1

14 T3

12
T2
RELATIVE INTENSITY

10

T1
8

11 11.36 11.40 11.50 11.53 11.60 11,65

FREQUENCY ( ) (GHz)
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (10)
 Relationship between scattering and refractive index
 A direct consequence of scattering is the change of the velocity of light
in the medium

 The molecules composing the matter scatter some of the optical


energy and the resulting light waves interfere directly with the original
wave, altering its phase and velocity.

 Stokes, Anti-Stokes photon


 When photons of the incident light interacts with the vibrational and
rotational energy in the molecules composing the matter, a new
photon of light will be released with energy less than the energy of
that of the original photon.
CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

STOKES PHOTON

 However, if the molecules interacting with the incident photons are


previously exited, the new photon will have more energy than the
incident photon.
CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

DISPERSION(1)

 Dispersion refers to the behavior of light traveling through a


medium of refractive index n, in relation to its wavelength 

 Since the velocity of light in a medium other than free space is


expressed as the ratio of the velocity of light in free space () to the
refractive index of the medium through which it travels , the velocity
of light in any medium with a higher refractive index will be smaller.

 There exist two types of dispersion. These are:


i) Angular and ii) Normal
CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

DISPERSION(2)
 Angular dispersion
 When an optical beam travels through a prism, the angle of emergence
can be measured for various wavelengths.

 The rate of change of the emerging angle to the rate of change of the
wavelength is referred to as the angular dispersion of the prism and is
expressed by

d d dn
 
d dn d
CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

DISPERSION(3)
 Normal dispersion
 The second part on the right hand
side of the equation is indicative of 1.7

the relationship between the
refractive index n and wavelength  1.6
LIGHT FLINT GLASS

CRYSTAL QUARTZ

BOROSILICATE GLASS

 When plotting the refractive index in 1.5

FLUORITE

relation to wavelength for prisms


1.4

composed of different refractive 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

WAVELENGTH ( ) (A )

indices, a set of curves can be


obtained as illustrated in the
following figure
CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

DISPERSION(4)
 These curves reflect normal dispersion. They exhibit a common shape
but different dispersion values. Normal dispersion is characterized by
the following:

 The refractive index increases with a decrease of the wavelength of


the optical beam in a non-linear fashion.

 For materials with higher index of refraction and at a constant


wavelength, the dispersion curves exhibit steeper characteristics .
CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

WAVE POLARIZATION (1)


 Electromagnetic waves are
three-dimensional waves. That
is, the electric field and
magnetic field vectors are
perpendicular to each other
and both perpendicular to the
direction of propagation.
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

UV BLUE GREEN RED IR

 Optical waves are WAVELENGTH (um)

-6 -5
i
-4 -3 -2 -1
VISIBLE

2 3 4 5 6
WAVELENGTH (um)

7
i
8
10 10 10 10 10 10 1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

electromagnetic waves
occupying a narrow band of
the electromagnetic spectrum YRAYS
THERMAL
INFRARED

MICROWAVE TV./RADIO
NEAR & MID
X - RAYS
INFRARED

ULTRAVIOLET
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

WAVE POLARIZATION(2)
 Usually such waves generated by natural or man-made sources are
referred to as unpolarized waves

 Unpolarized waves are those whose magnetic and electric field


components appear on a number of planes.

 However, in numerous applications, the electric field vector


component of the optical ray must occupy only one plane. In order
to achieve this, the three-dimensional electromagnetic wave must
be transformed into two-dimensional wave. This process is referred to
as polarization.
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

WAVE POLARIZATION(3)
 Polarization is accomplished through the interaction of an unpolarized wave
with matter. Therefore, polarization of light is referred to as the process
whereby the electric field vector component vibrates in a single plane
producing a sinewave laying on the plane of polarization.

 There exist three types of wave polarization.


 Plane
 Circular
 Elliptical
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

WAVE POLARIZATION(4)
 Plane polarization
 A plane polarized wave is defined as a wave whose the amplitude vector of
the electric field component always travels the same direction

Y Y

DIRECTION OF
PROPAGATION
X

X
H

POLARIZER
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

WAVE POLARIZATION(5)
 Elliptical polarization
 As mentioned in the previous section, if the vector magnitude of the electric
field component varies while rotating with time, the wave will be elliptically
polarized

Ex (ELECTRIC FIELD)

Ex (f1) VECTOR Ex (f2) VECTOR

Z- DIRECTION

Ex (f1) = Ex (f2) (ELLIPTICAL)

Hy (MAGNETIC-FIELD)
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

WAVE POLARIZATION(6)
 Circular polarization
 if the vector magnitude of the
electric field component is
constant while rotating with time,
the wave will be circularly
polarized Ex (ELECTRIC FIELD)

Ex (f1) VECTOR

Ex (f 2) VECTOR

Z- DIRECTION

 It can be stated that circular wave


polarization is a modified version Ex (f1) =Ex (f2) (CIRCULAR)

of elliptical polarization. Hy (MAGNETIC-FIELD)

 When two plane-polarized waves


are combined to form a new
polarized wave, and if the phase
difference between them is, then
the new wave is circularly
polarized.
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM OPTICS (1)


 In 1921, Albert Einstein was awarded the Nobel price in physics for his
contribution to quantum theory.

 In 1905, Einstein published a paper on photoelectric effect and from that


year on, he was the principal defender of the existence of light quanta or
photons in the scientific community.

 In 1909 Einstein introduced the concept of wave-particle duality. In


accordance to this theory, light can be considered both a wave and a
discrete particle.
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM OPTICS (2)


 The Photoelectric effect
 In 1905, Albert Einstein referred to the photon concept in his attempt to
explain the “photoelectric effect”

 Through experimentation it was observed that photoelectron generation


was impossible if the wavelength of the impeding light was bellow a certain
level.

 This minimum wavelength was referred to as the “cut-off wavelength” c )

 This phenomenon could not be explained by wave theory,


CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM OPTICS (3)


 He postulated that the impeding photons have energy equal to the energy
between two adjacent electron orbital levels and that it is proportional to the
frequency of the impeding wave.

E  hv
 Where,
 h= Planck’s constant 6.628  10 38 J  s

 v =Wave frequency


CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM OPTICS (4)


 The Compton effect
 In 1923, Arthur Compton through an experiment-involving scattering of X-
Rays, illustrated the photon nature of light. In his honor, this effect has
since been referred to as “Compton scattering”.

hv'
ENERGY OF THE SCATTERED PHOTON

PHOTON (hv)
e
ENERGY OF THE INCIDENT
PHOTON

m oc 2 1
-1 ENERGY OF THE
(1 - v 2 ) 1/2 RECOIL ELECTRON
c2
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM OPTICS (5)


 Through this experiment, Compton concluded that the wavelength of
the scattered light is different from the wavelength of the incident light.

 This of course cannot be explained by wave theory .


 Therefore, the phenomenon of scattering of X-Rays can be
satisfactorily explained by wave-particle duality.

 The interaction of waves with matter is summarized under a specific


set of rules referred to as radiation laws. These laws are as follows:
 Planck’s radiation law
 Stefan-Boltzmann law
 Wien law
CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM OPTICS (6)


 Planck’s radiation law
 One of the principal laws governing the radiation from a black body is the
Planck law of radiation

 This law presents the intensity of radiation as a unit surface area emitted
from a black body when heated at a specific temperature as a function of
wavelength

 The energy distribution shows a maximum at a particular


wavelength and shifts to shorter wavelengths with an increase of
temperature with a corresponding increase of the area under the
curve. Fig-
CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM OPTICS (7)

 Fig- shows that the energy emitted at a particular wavelength


increases with temperature.
CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM OPTICS (8)


 Stefan-Boltzmann law
 Josef Stefan (1835-1893) and Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906) developed
the relationship governing the total energy (emitted by a black body at all
wavelengths.
 This relationship, referred to as the Stefan-Boltzmann law is expressed as
follows:
E   .T 4
 Where, E =Total radiated energy from a black body (energy under the
Planck curve)
  = Stefan Boltzmann constant 5.6705  10 erg.cm .K . sec
5 2 4 1

 T =Black body temperature


CHAPTER-1:
ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM OPTICS (9)


 One characteristic curve indicating
the radiated intensity of a black
body heated at 3179Kis illustrated
in Fig-
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM OPTICS (10)


 Wien displacement law
 William Wien, a German physicist who was awarded the Nobel price in
1911 for his work on radiation and optics, formulated the relationship
between the peak energy distribution at wavelength and the temperature of
black body radiation. The following formula expresses the Wien law.

3 10 7
max 
T
 Where,
  max =Wavelength at peak distribution radiation A
o

 T = Temperature of the black body in Kelvin


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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM OPTICS (10)


 The Wien law peak distribution radiation wavelength for three different
sources is illustrated in fig-
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM OPTICS (10)


 Wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle
 It is important to emphasize once more the dual character of light

 From the above discussion, it is evident from the results of such


experiments as the photoelectric effect that black body radiation
and scattering can be interpreted satisfactorily by assuming the
light is a particle, while diffraction and interference can be
interpreted by assuming that light is a wave.

 This led to the establishment of the dual character of light as a


wave and a particle.
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ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM OPTICS (11)


 There is a drawback to the assumption of the dual character of light. This
is referred to as the “uncertainty principle”.

 The principle of uncertainty plays an important role at the atomic level.