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You are on page 1of 53

By Harold Kolimbiris

CHAPTER-1

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

OVERVIEW

GEOMETRIC OPTICS

PHYSICAL OPTICS

ABSORPSION

SCATTERING

STOKES PHOTON

DISPERSION

WAVE POLARIZATION

ELEMENTS OF QUANTUM OPTICS

INTRODUCTION

In a communications system, the volume, speed, and clarity of

information processed are key parameters that determine its

performance level.

Research and development has concentrated its effort on

increasing the volume and improving the quality of information

processed through the system.

Until recently, the primary means of transmission were the

electromagnetic waves.

However, the increasing demand for a high volume of processed

information, has generated the need for a corresponding increase

in carrier frequencies and bandwidths.

2018-11-18

INTRODUCTION Cont.

Carrier frequencies present certain limitations in higher ranges.

These limitations generated the incentive to search for new ways to

increase the carrier frequencies thus improving the information

carrying bandwidth

Optical fibers fibers are the most suitable media, because they

present theoretically unlimited possibilities.

A great interest in optical communications was triggered in the

1960s with the development of optical sources. These sources

were capable of generating frequencies of about

with an corresponding increase in the information capacity by

100,000%

5 10 34 Hz

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

OVERVIEW

transmission is the light. Therefore the nature and behaviour of light

must be examined.

The study of light is commonly referred to as optics and is divided

into three main categories: geometric optics, physical optics and

quantum optics.

Geometric optics treat light as it were composed of individual light

rays.

Physical optics treats light as a wave phenomenon

Quantum optics treats light as quanta.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

REFLECTED AND REFRACTED RAYS

establishing the basis for

geometric optics are those of

reflection and refraction.

When an optical ray impedes

upon a transparent surface n1

rays: the reflected ray and the 3 n2

refracted ray.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

formulated the law of refraction sin 1 n

stating that “ the refractive ray 2 = k (constant)

lies on the same plane as that sin 3 n1

of the incident ray and the ratio

of the sin to the sin maintains a

1 3

n1 sin 1 n2 sin 3

constant value.

Where,

n =Refractive index of

1

medium-1

n =Refractive index of

2

medium-2

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

REFLECTED AND REFRACTED RAYS

acceptable approximation

3 n1

can be established

The angle between the

incident ray and the

refracted ray is referred

to as the angle of 1 3

deviation

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

OPTICAL PATH

the product of the distance

(d) traveled by a ray through

a medium and the refractive

d =(d)(n

index of that medium

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

Physical optics deals with the nature of light. That is, it deals

with the interaction of light waves with matter (emission and

absorption).

The wave theory of light will be used here to interpret the interaction of

a wave with another wave.

fields in the form of four sets of equations. These equations were the

starting point for the investigation of the wave nature of light

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

PHYSICAL OPTICS(2)

Maxwells equations Fist set

The first set of equations

states that an electric field 1 E x H z H y

generates a magnetic field. c t y z

This is also known as

Ampere’s law . 1 E y H x H z

c t z x

1 E z H y H x

c t x y

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

PHYSICAL OPTICS(3)

Maxwells equations Second set

Maxwells second set of

equations deals with

Faraday’s law of induced 1 E x H z H y

electromotive force. c t y z

1 E y H x H z

c t z x

1 E z H y H x

c t x y

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

PHYSICAL OPTICS(4)

Maxwells equations Third equation

Third equation expresses the

E x E y E z

idea that no free electric charges 0

x y z

are present in a vacuum .

This concept is substantiated by Fourth equation

the fourth equation expressing

the impossibility of a free H x H y H z

magnetic pole. 0

x y z

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

PHYSICAL OPTICS(5)

Wave motion

Y- DIRECTION

to the magnetic field and both

Hy

direction of propagation.

X- DIRECTION

traveling in the x direction and

vibrating in the x yplane can be

expressed by

y f (x)

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

PHYSICAL OPTICS(6)

The velocity of light

Because optical waves of defined frequency will travel through a

medium with a finite velocity, electromagnetic waves (light waves)

travel through space with the same velocity for all frequencies.

at 300,000km/s.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

Phase velocity Assuming t kx =constant then,

dx

The velocity with which a wave crest u =

dt k

moves along the x -axis is called the wave

velocity or phase velocity. Because 2f

= 2

The phase velocity of a traveling wave and k

through the x direction is derived as follows

2f

2f

then u

2

f

=

depends on the physical properties of the

medium and the frequency of the wave Therefore, u f

traveling through the medium.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

PHYSICAL OPTICS(8)

2

Wave intensity 1 dy 1

E m m 2 a 2

2 dt 2

Waves are transporters of energy. The

amount of energy flowing through a unit

area per unit time is referred to as the

“intensity” of the wave.

If the wave flows with a constant phase

velocity there exists a defined energy

u

density per unit area .

the sum of both potential and kinetic energies

per unit volume is expressed by the equation,

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ABSORPTION (1)

The intensity and velocity of light waves traveling through matter

whether in a solid, liquid or gaseous state are altered to a degree

determined by the physical and molecular properties of the matter.

while the change in the wave velocity is caused by dispersion

beam traveling through matter.

by,

I o I in e ad

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

ABSORPTION (2)

Absorption coefficient

The absorption coefficient is a measure of the relative decrease in

intensity per unit length of the light beam

intensities is expressed by I o I in e aa as d

Where,

as =Absorption coefficient due to scattering

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING(1)

Scattering is the phenomenon whereby the frequency, direction

or polarization of an incident wave changes with a random

change in the energy distribution.

molecular structure of the matter through which it travels.

wave with a charged particle results in particle motion.

natural frequency of the particle, resonance will occur.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (2)

If the frequency of the incident wave is close but not equal to the

particle natural vibrating frequency, optical energy will be lost to

scattering.

Rayleigh scattering

When optical waves travel through a medium, they normally follow a

forward path. However, a small part of the optical energy is scattered

by the media refractive index inhomogeneities.

the material structure’s inhomogeneities

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (3)

Small refractive index fluctuations caused by the material non-

uniformity scatter light in all directions without altering the frequency.

Isin

Isin

Io

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (4)

between the intensity of the scattered wave and

wavelength as given by the expression

1

Where, I sw

=Intensity of the scattered wave

4

I sw

=Wavelength of the incident wave

proportional to 1 / 4 of the incident wave

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (5)

Raman scattering

When optical energy is scattered from a molecule, the majority of the

photons are elastically scattered. That is, they have the same

frequency and wavelength as the incident photons.

lower frequencies than those of the incident photons. This process

leading to inelastic scattering is referred to as the “Raman effect”.

vibrational state from a higher to a lower excitation level.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (6)

frame of seconds. The energy levels of

SCATTER

Raman scattering are illustrated in fig-4

ENERGY

The energy difference between the FINAL LEVEL

molecule are expressed by INITIAL LEVEL

Where,

v =Vibrational energy level difference

fig-4

inc =Wavelength of the incident photon

v

inc. sct.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (7)

If an acoustic wave travels through a transparent material, it will induce

refractive index variations, resulting in the scattering of a small portion

of the incident wave.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (8)

When a light wave travels through an electrostrictive material, it will

interact with the acoustic noise generated by the molecular thermal

noise.

backscattered as Stokes light, and travel in the opposite direction to

the incident wave .

further Brillouin scattering

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (9)

when two optical waves of different frequencies are allowed to travel in

an optical fiber in opposite directions. Fig-5

16

T3 > T2 > T1

14 T3

12

T2

RELATIVE INTENSITY

10

T1

8

FREQUENCY ( ) (GHz)

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

SCATTERING (10)

Relationship between scattering and refractive index

A direct consequence of scattering is the change of the velocity of light

in the medium

energy and the resulting light waves interfere directly with the original

wave, altering its phase and velocity.

When photons of the incident light interacts with the vibrational and

rotational energy in the molecules composing the matter, a new

photon of light will be released with energy less than the energy of

that of the original photon.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

STOKES PHOTON

previously exited, the new photon will have more energy than the

incident photon.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

DISPERSION(1)

medium of refractive index n, in relation to its wavelength

expressed as the ratio of the velocity of light in free space () to the

refractive index of the medium through which it travels , the velocity

of light in any medium with a higher refractive index will be smaller.

i) Angular and ii) Normal

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

DISPERSION(2)

Angular dispersion

When an optical beam travels through a prism, the angle of emergence

can be measured for various wavelengths.

The rate of change of the emerging angle to the rate of change of the

wavelength is referred to as the angular dispersion of the prism and is

expressed by

d d dn

d dn d

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

DISPERSION(3)

Normal dispersion

The second part on the right hand

side of the equation is indicative of 1.7

the relationship between the

refractive index n and wavelength 1.6

LIGHT FLINT GLASS

CRYSTAL QUARTZ

BOROSILICATE GLASS

FLUORITE

1.4

WAVELENGTH ( ) (A )

obtained as illustrated in the

following figure

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

DISPERSION(4)

These curves reflect normal dispersion. They exhibit a common shape

but different dispersion values. Normal dispersion is characterized by

the following:

the optical beam in a non-linear fashion.

wavelength, the dispersion curves exhibit steeper characteristics .

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

Electromagnetic waves are

three-dimensional waves. That

is, the electric field and

magnetic field vectors are

perpendicular to each other

and both perpendicular to the

direction of propagation.

0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

-6 -5

i

-4 -3 -2 -1

VISIBLE

2 3 4 5 6

WAVELENGTH (um)

7

i

8

10 10 10 10 10 10 1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

electromagnetic waves

occupying a narrow band of

the electromagnetic spectrum YRAYS

THERMAL

INFRARED

MICROWAVE TV./RADIO

NEAR & MID

X - RAYS

INFRARED

ULTRAVIOLET

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

WAVE POLARIZATION(2)

Usually such waves generated by natural or man-made sources are

referred to as unpolarized waves

components appear on a number of planes.

component of the optical ray must occupy only one plane. In order

to achieve this, the three-dimensional electromagnetic wave must

be transformed into two-dimensional wave. This process is referred to

as polarization.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

WAVE POLARIZATION(3)

Polarization is accomplished through the interaction of an unpolarized wave

with matter. Therefore, polarization of light is referred to as the process

whereby the electric field vector component vibrates in a single plane

producing a sinewave laying on the plane of polarization.

Plane

Circular

Elliptical

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

WAVE POLARIZATION(4)

Plane polarization

A plane polarized wave is defined as a wave whose the amplitude vector of

the electric field component always travels the same direction

Y Y

DIRECTION OF

PROPAGATION

X

X

H

POLARIZER

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

WAVE POLARIZATION(5)

Elliptical polarization

As mentioned in the previous section, if the vector magnitude of the electric

field component varies while rotating with time, the wave will be elliptically

polarized

Ex (ELECTRIC FIELD)

Z- DIRECTION

Hy (MAGNETIC-FIELD)

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

WAVE POLARIZATION(6)

Circular polarization

if the vector magnitude of the

electric field component is

constant while rotating with time,

the wave will be circularly

polarized Ex (ELECTRIC FIELD)

Ex (f1) VECTOR

Ex (f 2) VECTOR

Z- DIRECTION

polarization is a modified version Ex (f1) =Ex (f2) (CIRCULAR)

are combined to form a new

polarized wave, and if the phase

difference between them is, then

the new wave is circularly

polarized.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

In 1921, Albert Einstein was awarded the Nobel price in physics for his

contribution to quantum theory.

year on, he was the principal defender of the existence of light quanta or

photons in the scientific community.

accordance to this theory, light can be considered both a wave and a

discrete particle.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

The Photoelectric effect

In 1905, Albert Einstein referred to the photon concept in his attempt to

explain the “photoelectric effect”

was impossible if the wavelength of the impeding light was bellow a certain

level.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

He postulated that the impeding photons have energy equal to the energy

between two adjacent electron orbital levels and that it is proportional to the

frequency of the impeding wave.

E hv

Where,

h= Planck’s constant 6.628 10 38 J s

v =Wave frequency

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

The Compton effect

In 1923, Arthur Compton through an experiment-involving scattering of X-

Rays, illustrated the photon nature of light. In his honor, this effect has

since been referred to as “Compton scattering”.

hv'

ENERGY OF THE SCATTERED PHOTON

PHOTON (hv)

e

ENERGY OF THE INCIDENT

PHOTON

m oc 2 1

-1 ENERGY OF THE

(1 - v 2 ) 1/2 RECOIL ELECTRON

c2

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

Through this experiment, Compton concluded that the wavelength of

the scattered light is different from the wavelength of the incident light.

Therefore, the phenomenon of scattering of X-Rays can be

satisfactorily explained by wave-particle duality.

set of rules referred to as radiation laws. These laws are as follows:

Planck’s radiation law

Stefan-Boltzmann law

Wien law

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

Planck’s radiation law

One of the principal laws governing the radiation from a black body is the

Planck law of radiation

This law presents the intensity of radiation as a unit surface area emitted

from a black body when heated at a specific temperature as a function of

wavelength

wavelength and shifts to shorter wavelengths with an increase of

temperature with a corresponding increase of the area under the

curve. Fig-

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

increases with temperature.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

Stefan-Boltzmann law

Josef Stefan (1835-1893) and Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906) developed

the relationship governing the total energy (emitted by a black body at all

wavelengths.

This relationship, referred to as the Stefan-Boltzmann law is expressed as

follows:

E .T 4

Where, E =Total radiated energy from a black body (energy under the

Planck curve)

= Stefan Boltzmann constant 5.6705 10 erg.cm .K . sec

5 2 4 1

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

One characteristic curve indicating

the radiated intensity of a black

body heated at 3179Kis illustrated

in Fig-

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

Wien displacement law

William Wien, a German physicist who was awarded the Nobel price in

1911 for his work on radiation and optics, formulated the relationship

between the peak energy distribution at wavelength and the temperature of

black body radiation. The following formula expresses the Wien law.

3 10 7

max

T

Where,

max =Wavelength at peak distribution radiation A

o

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

The Wien law peak distribution radiation wavelength for three different

sources is illustrated in fig-

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

Wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle

It is important to emphasize once more the dual character of light

experiments as the photoelectric effect that black body radiation

and scattering can be interpreted satisfactorily by assuming the

light is a particle, while diffraction and interference can be

interpreted by assuming that light is a wave.

wave and a particle.

CHAPTER-1:

ELEMENTS OF OPTICS AND QUANTUM PHYSICS

There is a drawback to the assumption of the dual character of light. This

is referred to as the “uncertainty principle”.

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