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BKT:

A P O R TA L F O R C L I M AT E C H A N G E A N D A I R Q U A L I T Y
MONITORING IN INDONESIA

H A R TA N T O
Station Manager

GLOBAL ATMOSPHERE WATCH


BUKIT KOTOTABANG

Int’l Workshop on GAW Activity | Jakarta, Aug 7-8, 2018


OUTLINE
 Brief History
 Core Business
 Operational Activity
 Public Dissemination
 Challenges

Bukit Kototabang 35 Meters Above Ground Level


Global Atmosphere Watch in Bukit Kototabang: A Brief History
Early - mid 1990s – Exploration of possible location for a GAW observatory in Indonesia
1995 – Began area and facility construction at Bukit Kototabang (Agam, W. Sumatra);
First continuous measurement (solar irradiance) was conducted
1996 – Dec 7, GAW Bukit Kototabang (BKT) was officially operated as Global GAW Station, under the auspices of
BMG (later known as BMKG) as a supporting station; Surface
ozone measurement was started;
2000 – Carbon monoxide was continuously monitored
2004 – GAW BKT gained full status as a BMG operational station (Indonesian: Stasiun Pemantau Atmosfer Global Bukit
Kototabang);
Aerosol PM10 was first measured; Collaborated with Environment Canada for the Persistent Organic
Pollutants (POPs) Passive Sampler Network; Joined the NOAA GHG Flask Sampling Network
2008 – Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and
sulfur dioxide (SO2) were added; CO2 and CH4 measurements were temporarily terminated since 2014
2012 – Collaborated with PSI and MeteoSwiss in CATCOS for aerosol optical and mass observations
2013 – Continuous nitrous oxide (N2O) measurement was started
2015 – Joined the NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) for aerosol optical depth (AOD)
2018-onwards – Future additional measurements, research collaborations, and human resources
development
GAW BKT: A tropical Global GAW station

 Operated at Bukit Kototabang, Agam, West Sumatera at least 17 kilometres from Bukittinggi - nearest city, 865 meters above sea level
 Located in National Strategic Area Government Regulation No. 26 / 2007
 It is situated in the atmospherically dynamic Maritime Continent
 Together with Mount Kenya (Kenya), it is located within the equatorial zone. However, different from Kenya, Bukit Kototabang provides the
influence of tropical rainforest to the ambient measurement
 Relatively pristine condition to ensure minimum anthropogenic attribution, but within proximity to airport and cities to be logistically
supported
GAW BKT Core Business

Greenhouse gases 1
(CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6)

2 Reactive gases
(O3, CO, SO2, NO2)
Solar irradiance 3

4 Wet deposition
Aerosol mass and
5
optical properties
6 Basic meteorology
Continuing development
Continuing development

Basic Carbon
meteorology monoxide POP

‘95 1 2 3 ‘00 4 5 ‘05 6 7 8 ‘10


Solar Passive gas Surface Aerosol PM10 GHG
irradiance ozone (flask sampling) 9 Nitrogen oxides

10 Sulfur dioxide

Rainwater pH
11 and conductivity

Aerosol 12 Pyrgeometer
optical depth Black carbon

WHAT NEXT ? ‘18 16 15 14 13 ‘15


Total UV and Nitrous oxide
UV-B irradiance
GAW BKT to World Data Centers

• World Data Center Green House


Gasses (WDCGG) – Japan
• World Data Center Arosol
• https://ds.data.jma.go.jp/ (WDCA) - Kjeller, Norway
gmd/wdcgg/ GREEN • http://ebas.nilu.no/
HOUSE AEROSOL
GASSES

SOLAR REACTIVE
• World Data Center Ractive Gases
• World Data Radiation Center IRRADIANCE GASES (WDCRG) – Kjeller, Norway
(WDRC) – Russia
•https://www.gaw-
• http://wrdc.mgo.rssi.ru/ wdcrg.org/
Operational Activity

Greenhouse gas CO2 mixing ratios


Flasks sampling
NITROGEN DIOXIDE–NO2

SULFUR DIOXIDE– SO2


SURFACE OZONE

AEROSOL PM.10
CARBON MONOXIDE

METHANE (CH4)
Air quality affected by biomass burning : as observed at BKT

Air mass moves easterly, transporting


pollutants from the eastern part of
O3

MASSIVE BIOMASS BURNING


Sumatra to BKT

CO

Australian Monsoon is
characterized by transporting PM10
pollutants from southern
Sumatra to BKT

ebc

Both monsoons are responsible for degraded air quality during biomass burning episodes
GHG and biomass burning

CO2 mixing ratios at BKT Red lines indicate


massive biomass
burning observed in
Sumatra, during
which elevated CO2
mixing ratios were
measured
Contribution

 Data: WDCGG for Surface Ozone and CO, WRDC for Solar Radiation, NCDC for
Rain Water Chemistry
 Research Place / Laboratory / Scientific Excursion: Scientists, Lecturers,
Teachers, Students
 Workshops/Seminars: Local universities and government
 Publications/Dissemination : Bulletin, Magazine, Website, Media Social,
Android Aplication
 International and National Affiliations: EMPA, NOAA, NREL, Env. Canada,
CMAR CSIRO, PSI, JAMSTEC, Kyoto University, LAPAN, BPPT, LIPI, PUSARPEDAL, BATAN,
Bandung Institute of Technology, Andalas University, Padang State University, Riau
University, Sriwijaya University
Data availability

YEARS
NO ISTRUMENT REMARK
96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1 Solar Irradiance Available
2 Basic Meteorology Available
3 Passive gas Available
4 Surface Ozon Available
5 Carbon Monoxide Available
6 Greenhouse Gasses (Flask Sampling) Available
7 Persistent Organic Pollutants Available
8 Aerosol PM10 Available
9 Rainwater pH and Conductivity Available
10 Sulfur dioxide Available
11 Nitrogen Oxide Available
12 Aerosol Optical depth Available
13 UV-B irradiance Available
14 Scattering Coefficient Available
15 Black Carbon Available
16 Nitrous Oxide Available
Information Dissemination to Public

GAW Public Information with


Local Language (Minangkabau)
Information Dissemination to Public
http://gaw.kototabang.bmkg.go.id

TV/Newspaper Interviews

Twitter: @GAW_BKT Radio Interviews


Information Dissemination to Public

PM10 Observation on City


Student/Lecturer Visit

Research Visit Student/Lecturer Visit

Research Visit
Research Visit National Disaster Exhibition Participant
Instrument Maintenance for Quality Data Insurance
Human Resources Capability

ONLINE DISCUSION
MONTHLY MEETING FOR DATA QC GAW SORONG AND GAW PALU SHORT COURSE MAINTENANCE
Human Resources Capability

GAWTEC #02 GAWTEC #03 GAWTEC #04 GAWTEC #06 GAWTEC #07 GAWTEC #08

GAWTEC #09 GAWTEC #11 GAWTEC #13 GAWTEC #16 GAWTEC #18
GAWTEC #17

GAWTEC #19 GAWTEC #21 GAWTEC #24 GAWTEC #26 GAWTEC #31 GAWTEC #33
Challenges

 Landuse and landscape change surrounding the


station
 Intermittent electrical failure
 High Speed Connection Communication needed
 Upgrading measurement and instrumentation
 Human resources
 Supporting System for Industry 4.0
GAWku gawkototabang BMKG Bukit Kototabang BMKG Bukit Kototabang

Media GAW BKT


THANK YOU
G L O B A L AT M O S P H E R E WATC H
B U K I T KO T O TA B A N G
Office : Jl. Raya Bukittinggi-Medan km. 17, Palupuh, Agam, West Sumatra
Guest House/residence : Komplek Perumahan Dinas dan Wisma BMKG Pasadama, Koto Malintang, Tilatang Kamang, Agam, West Sumatra
Mail : PO BOX 11 Bukittinggi, West Sumatera 26100
Phone : (+62) 752 7446089, Fax : (+62) 752 7446449 Email : stagaw.kototabang@bmkg.go.id