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DOROTHEA OREM Self Care Deficit Theory

DOROTHEA OREM
Born July 15, 1915 in Baltimore
Providence Hospital School of Nursing
 Diploma program- 1934

Catholic University of America


 B.S. in Nursing Education- 1939
 M.S. in Nursing Education- 1945
Honorary Doctorates
 Science: Georgetown and Incarnate World
College
 Humane Letters: Illinois Wesleyan University
 Honoris Causae: University of Missouri

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QUICK CLIP
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FB8Pq2TGzm8&feature=youtu.be
PERSON

People should be self-reliant, and responsible for their care, as well as


others in their family who need care.

People are distinct individuals.

A person's knowledge of potential health problems is needed for


promoting self-care behaviors.

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PERSON

The needs that all people have fall within the universal self-care
requisites. These include things like air, water, food, activity and rest,
and hazard prevention.

Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory is that all patients want to


care for themselves, and they are able to recover more quickly and
holistically by performing their own self-care as much as they're able.

Her Theory is used in rehabilitation and primary care or other settings


in which patients are encouraged to be independent
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ENVIRONMENT

Does the patient have access to these resources after discharge?

 Enthronement factors

 Enthronement elements

 Conditions

 Developed environment

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HEALTH
Patient health deviation r/t self care

Used in situations when the patient has and illness or injury

Having the ability to adapt to oneself as being in a certain health state and

appropriately reacting to the condition

Knowing when to intervene with help from medical professionals and accurately

implementing said medical interventions

Theory cons: Health is perceived as a field that is constantly changes and

progresses towards new ideas


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HEALTH
Air Maintenance of a developmental
environment
Food and water
Maintenance of health status
Elimination
Awareness and management of
Activity/ Rest the disease process
Solitude/ Interaction Adherence to the medical regimen
Prevention of hazards and Modify self image
developmental threats
Adjust life style to accommodate
Promotion of normalcy health status changes

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HEALTH

“In some situations, patients are encouraged to be more independent.


This can be especially true in rehabilitation settings, in which patients
are transitioning out of being cared for by physicians and nurses and
back home to exclusive self-care. In these cases, the Self-Care Deficit
Nursing Theory can be applied to help patients be more independent
and prepare to be released from the healthcare facility where they
are being cared for.”

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NURSING
Theory of Self-Care
 “People should be self-reliant and responsible for their care.”

 “Nursing is a form of action. Interaction between two or more


people.”

 “Developing self-care requisites is an important component of


primary care prevention and ill health.”

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NURSING
 To be able to prevent illnesses/injuries and maintain wellness, the patient and/or
the care team need to devise a plan of care with goals and outcomes that are
attainable and measurable. “Orem identifies these requisites, also called ADLs,
as…
 “the maintenance of sufficient intake of air, food, and water
 provision of care associated with the elimination process
 a balance between activities and rest, as well as between solitude and social
interaction
 the prevention of hazards to human life and well-being
 the promotion of human functioning”
 Orem also developed requisites for during times of illness/injury and those include:
 “Seeking and securing appropriate medical assistance”
 Being aware of and attending to the effects and results of pathologic conditions
 Effectively carrying out medically prescribed measures
 Modifying self-concepts to accept oneself as being in a particular state of health
and in specific forms of health care
 Learning to live with the effects of pathologic conditions”
 “Person’s knowledge of potential health problems is needed for promoting self
care behaviors.”

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NURSING
Theory of Self-Care Deficit

“According to Orem, nursing is required when an adult is incapable or


limited in the provision of continuous, effective self-care.

There are five methods:


 acting for and doing for others
 guiding others
 supporting another
 providing an environment promoting personal development in relation
to meet future demands
 teaching another”
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NURSING
Theory of Nursing Systems

the patient's self-care needs will be met by the nurse, the patient, or
by both.

There are three classifications of the nursing system to improve self


care:
 wholly compensatory system

 partly compensatory system

 supportive-educative system.
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RESOURCES
Dorothea Orem - nursing theorist. (2016). Retrieved from
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_th
eory.html
Dorothea Orem’s self-care theory. (February 2012). Retrieved from
http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/self_care_deficit_th
eory.html
Horan, P., Doran, A., & Timmins, F. (2004, May). Exploring Orem's self-
care deficit nursing theory in learning disability nursing:
philosophical parity paper: part 1. Learning Disability Practice,
7(4), 28+. Retrieved from http://0-
link.galegroup.com.library.acaweb.org/apps/doc/A117109
280/PPNU?u=tel_a_twc&sid=PPNU&xid=23397452
Self care deficit theory. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.nursing
-theory.org/theories-and-models/orem-self-care-deficit-
theory.php