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Google Activity

 Group 1 conservative #, Group 2 highest # possible

1. What is the average miles/gallon for a car?


2. What is the average miles driven/car each year?
3. What is the average consumption of gasoline per/car each year (per
gallon)?
4. How many pounds of CO2 does 1 gallon of burned gasoline produce?
5. How many tons of CO2 does each car in the US produce each year?
6. How many cars are in the US today?
7. How many cars are in the world today?
8. How much C02 does the US produce each year from cars?
9. How much C02 does the world produce each year from cars?
10.Is our most conservative estimate conservative?
11.What other factors contribute to CO2 production?

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


Google Activity
 Group 1 conservative #, Group 2 highest # possible

1. What is the average miles/gallon for a car?


2. What is the average miles driven/car each year?
3. What is the average consumption of gasoline per/car each year (per
gallon)?
4. How many pounds of CO2 does 1 gallon of burned gasoline produce?
5. How many tons of CO2 does each car in the US produce each year?
6. How many cars are in the US today?
7. How many cars are in the world today?
8. How much C02 does the US produce each year from cars?
9. How much C02 does the world produce each year from cars?
10.Is our most conservative estimate conservative?
11.What other factors contribute to CO2 production?

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


Google Activity
1. What is the average miles/gallon for a car?
24.7
2. What is the average miles driven/car each year?
13500
3. What is the average consumption of gasoline per/car each year (per gallon)?
546.5 gallons a year
4. How many pounds of CO2 does 1 gallon of burned gasoline produce?
19.8 lbs
5. How many tons of CO2 does each car in the US produce each year?
5.410 tons
6. How many cars are in the US today?
254,212,610
7. How many cars are in the world today?
500,000,000
8. How much C02 does the US produce each year from cars?
1,318,600,808 tons/year
9. How much C02 does the world produce each year from cars alone?
2,593,500,000 tons/year
10. Is our most conservative estimate conservative?
11. What other factors contribute to CO2 production?
How long do we live? What about energy plants? What about concrete production? What about….?
2.8 trillion miles of driving in 1995…(sun and back 13440 times)

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
4.0 Global Warming or Global Weirding
 Does it exist?
 What is responsible?
 Do I care?
 Do I want to help?
 How can I help?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=Xsm9p3nW6b4

 But if the planet is warming why is it so cold?


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yDTUuckNHgc

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.1


W. R. L. Anderegg, “Expert Credibility in Climate Change,” Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences Vol. 107 No. 27, 12107-12109 (21 June 2010); DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1003187107.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Volcanoes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OWXoRSIxyIU

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Volcanoes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OWXoRSIxyIU

 NASA and NOAA


 2016: hottest year on record (2014, 2015 before that)
 2017 is likely to be as hot but maybe a bit less.
 2015 was 20% hotter than 2014
 10/12 months were the warmest months on record (back 136 years)
 December 2015 is first month to reach “>2 C degree threshold”

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Life in the Greenhouse

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Life in the Greenhouse

 Effects of global warming:


 Rise in sea levels
 1.5 m by 2050
 Global melting of glaciers
 Most gone by 2050
 More severe storms

 >97% of scientists agree that global warming is


occurring
 human activities are at least part of the reason.

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4.1 The Greenhouse Effect
Less heat escapes.
Sun rays

Heat is trapped.

Earth

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3JX-ioSmNW8
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nlu21CNd34Q
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.1
4.1 The Greenhouse Effect

 Sunlight warms the


surface of the Earth. Sun rays
Less heat escapes.

Heat is trapped.

Earth

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3JX-
ioSmNW8

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.1


4.1 The Greenhouse Effect

 Sunlight warms the


surface of the Earth. Sun rays
Less heat escapes.

 Most of the warmth


radiates into space.

Heat is trapped.

Earth

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3JX-
ioSmNW8

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.1


4.1 The Greenhouse Effect

 Sunlight warms the


surface of the Earth. Sun rays
Less heat escapes.

 Most of the warmth


radiates into space.
 Some is absorbed by
gases in the Heat is trapped.
atmosphere, making
the Earth warmer.
Earth

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3JX-
ioSmNW8

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.1


4.1 The Greenhouse Effect

 Sunlight warms the


surface of the Earth. Sun rays
Less heat escapes.

 Most of the warmth


radiates into space.
 Some is absorbed by
gases in the Heat is trapped.
atmosphere, making
the Earth warmer.
 Increased amounts of Earth
“greenhouse gases”
result in more
absorption leading to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3JX-
ioSmNW8
higher temperatures.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.1


4.1 The Greenhouse Effect

 Heat is the total amount of energy in a


substance.
 Temperature measures the intensity of heat –
how rapidly molecules are moving.
 Earth’s water plays a major role in moderating
temperatures.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


4.1 The Greenhouse Effect
Sun

 Water has a high capacity to


Heat

(a) Water molecules


absorb and release heat, due to
hydrogen bonding between Hydrogen
bonds

molecules.
 Also serves a sink for CO2 (b) Heat absorbed

 As oceans warm, “sink” less CO2


 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nlu21CNd34Q Hydrogen
bonds
break

(c) Heat released; water cools

Hydrogen
bonds
reform

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.2


4.2 The Flow of Carbon
 Carbon cycles between living organisms,
the atmosphere, bodies of water, and the
soil.

Carbon
dioxide
(CO2)
Oxygen (O2)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1o4ODWMZq5U

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.3


4.2 The Flow of Carbon

 Measurements of CO2 from Antarctic ice cores


shows an increase over past 50 years.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S9ob9WdbXx0
CO2 concentration (parts per million)

Average concentration of CO2


is steadily increasing.

CO2 fluctuates yearly


because photosynthesis is
suppressed in the winter.

Year

Figure 4.5

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.


4.2 The Flow of Carbon
 In 2008, ice cores show current CO2 levels are the highest in
the last 650,000 years
 Temperature & CO2 levels are correlated
 Not just temperature is a problem…
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgdlAt4CR-4
Ice core temperature (degrees C)

CO2 concentration (parts per million)


CO2 concentration
Temperature

Years before present

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 4.7


Causes of Global Warming

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Causes of Global Warming

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4.2 The Flow of Carbon

 Predictions are based on computer models


 Negative feedbacks negate change
 Higher temperatures produce more clouds,
reduces warming and thus energy input
 Positive feedbacks enhance change
 Melting ice reduces reflectiveness of the
Earth and thus temperatures rise

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4.5 Predictions: Effects of Global Warming

Predictions
 Effects on Earth’s biomes
 If average temperature
increases 3.5oC

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Causes of Global Warming

 Fossil fuels
 Deforestation
 Industrialization
 …

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4.2 Indicators of Climate Change

 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L72G8TLtTCk

 Carbon footprint:
 http://www.earthday.org/footprint-calculator
 http://www.nature.org/greenliving/carboncalculator/index.htm
 Earthday.net
 http://www.myfootprint.org/

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.