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• Every created work is result of fortitude and perseverance. On 
the one hand family is the biggest source of courage.  
Determination on the other hand comes from cognitive 
• The term IP refers to creations of human intellect and 
intellectual property right protects the interest of creators by 
providing them property rights over their creations. 

• IPR are bundle of rights which allow the right holders to 
exclude unauthorised people from exploiting the creation 
commercially for a given period of time.

• By doing so they act as a fillip for investment of labour and 
capital in ongoing and future research ventures.
• IPR laws serve many functions – 

 They introduce a system of giving incentive to creators. This 
incentive stimulates further research and development.

 They provide a balance between public and private interest so 
that the fruits of the creation can be used for the benefit of 
• The laws in force for the protection of intellectual work in 
India are namely –
 Copyright Act 1957
 Patent Act 1970
 Trade marks Act 1999
 Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and 
protection) Act 1999
 Designs Act 2000
 Semiconductor Integrated Circuits Layout­Design Act 2000
 Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Right Act 2001.
• The international conventions for the protection of intellectual 
property are – 
 Berne Convention for the protection of Literary and Artistic 
work 1886
 Rome convention for the Protection of Performers, Producers 
of Phonograms and Broadcasting Organisations 1961
 Trade­related Aspects of IPR Agreement 1994
 WIPO Copyright treaty 1996
 WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty 1996
 Beijing Treaty on Audiovisual Performances 2012.
 Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial property 1883
 Trade related Aspects of IPR Agreements 1994
 Patent Cooperation Treaty 1970
 Budapaste Treaty 1977
 Paris convention for the protection of Industrial Property 1883
 Madrid Agreement 1891
 Nice Agreement Concerning the International Classification of
Goods and Services for the Purpose of Registration of Marks 1957
 Vienna Agreement Establishing an International Classification of
the Figurative Elements of Marks 1973
 Madrid Protocol 1989
 Trade Mark Law Treaty 1994
 Trade Related Aspects of IPR Agreement 1994
 Singapore law Treaty on the Law of Trademarks 2006

• IPR are meaningless if their grant is not coupled with

commercial exploitation of rights.

• IPR management deals with exploitation of intellectual

property for generation of wealth.

• IP management framework involves creation protection

transaction and enforcement.

• Patent is a statutory right granted to an inventor by State for a

novel, non-obvious invention having utility for a limited period
of time.

• The invention could be a product or process

• The seminal purpose of grant of patent is disclosure of the


• Patent also prevents researchers from reinventing the wheel.

• Apart from its commercial use to the patentee, a patent
embodies rich technological information and could be used
for identifying inter alia legal information bibliographical
information and technological information.

• The patent system in India is governed by Patent Act 1970.

Patentability and patent-eligibility

• Invention means – a new product or process involving an

inventive step and capable of industrial application.

• To be protected under the Act – invention has to be new,

should involve an inventive steps and should be capable of
industrial application.

• These three norms are referred to as a criterion of

• The concept of novelty is incorporated in patent law to avoid
reinventing the wheel.
• Novelty is decided based on prior publication, prior claiming
and prior use.

• As per the Act to qualify the criteria of inventive step –

• The invention should not be obvious to the person skilled in

the art.
• The third criterion of patentability is that the invention should
be capable of industrial application – the invention seeking
protection under the Act should have some utility.

• Detailed description of the invention with the best method of

performing the same and claims defining the scope of the
invention for which protection is sought.
• An application for a patent for an invention may be made by
true and first inventor of the invention; and or assignee of the
true and first inventor; and /or legal representative of any
deceased person who immediately before his death was
entitled to make such invention.
• Application – filed at patent office.

• Unauthorised use of patented invention leads to patent

infringement. The Act provides only for civil remedy in case of
infringement of patent rights.

• The traders use trademarks to manifest ownership and to

distinguish the goods of one trader from those of another.

• Trademarks or brand names indicates the source or origin of

goods and services and includes inter alia word marks, logos,
symbols, specific colour combination and smell. This practice
of indicating and distinguishing ownership and goods dates
back even before the industrial revolution.
• As the mark gained uniqueness and position in relation to
specific products or services, it became the inevitable part of
trader’s goodwill.

• If such trademark were violated by anyone the doctrine of

passing off based on the tort of deceit was initiated, and thus
protected the trader’s good will.
• Modern legislation related to protection of trademark
imitated the framework of passing off. Although rights are
conferred immediately after registration; protection is still
product and country specific, and basically, based on the
notion of preventing confusion.

• The registration of trademark is for a period of 10 years which

can be renewed time and again.
• Trade mark over internet

• Copyright represents a bundle of rights which can be grouped

into 2 categories – economic rights and moral rights.
• The economic rights are majorly clubbed as right to reproduce
right to publish right to perform right to store right to make
translation etc

• The moral rights – right to paternity right to integrity.

• In India copyright is statutory rights
• For a work to qualify for protection under the copyright Act it
should be original.

• Skill, labour and judgment test to adjudge originality denotes

the middle criteria between the two extremes of sweat of
brow test and modicum of creativity.

• Registration of copyright is not condition precedent for grant

of protection to the right holder under the Act.
• A person is deemed to have infringed the copyright in a work
when he without the consent of copyright owner does
anything the sole right to do which is conferred on copyright
• Copyright Act enunciates criminal as well as civil laiblity.