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KINGDOM

PROTISTS
PROTISTS
• Protista is Greek for “the very first”. These
organisms were traditionally considered the first
eukaryotic forms of life, predecessors to the organisms
in the plant, animal, and fungus kingdoms.
• Includes mostly unicellular organisms that do not fit
into the other kingdoms.
• Protists are eukaryotic organisms that cannot be
classified as a plant, animal, or fungus. They are mostly
unicellular, but some, like algae, are multicellular.
PROTISTS
• Protists differ in size, movement and method of obtaining energy. Though most of
protists are microscopic, some can grow to as high as several meters.
• A protists is any organism that is NOT a plant, animal or fungus.
• Most of the protists live in water, some in moist soil or even the body of human
and plants.
3 GROUPS (IN TERMS OF METHOD OF
OBTAINING ENERGY)
1. Phototrophs (Autotrophs) (Plantlike Protists)
-includes algae, dinoflagellates and euglenoids
2. Heterotrophs (Fungus-like Protists)
-includes radiolarians, foraminiferans and amoeba
3. Sporozoan (Animal-like Protists)
PHOTOTROPHS
• They produce their own food.
• They are like plants in that have chlorophyll.
• This group includes the algae, dinoflagellates and euglenoids.
ALGAE
• Algae may be green, golden, brown or red.
• Are a diverse group of aquatic organisms that have the ability to conduct
photosynthesis.
• They are classified according to their pigment.
GREEN ALGAE
• “Phylum Chlorophyta”
• It contains chlorophyll pigment that is not masked in contrast to the other
members of the group.
• The carbohydrate that green algae produce is stored as starch.
• They grow on wet, humid rocks or bark of trees, in non-flowing canals, in seas,
freshwater bodies and even in polluted waterways.
• Green algae differ in size and shape. Some are unicellular, others form colonies,
sheets, filaments, tubes and ribbons.
• Some green algae are edible like Chlorella, Draparnaldia, Pediastrum, Spirogyra.
• The marine green alga Caulerpa lentilllifera is eaten fresh as salad.
EXAMPLES:

Chlorella -is a genus of single- Draparnaldia -is a genus of Pediastrum -is a genus of
cell green algae belonging to the freshwater green algae, in the green algae, in the family
phylum Chlorophyta. family Chaetophoraceae. Hydrodictyaceae.

Spirogyra -is a genus of


filamentous charophyte green
algae of the order Zygnematales.

Caulerpa lentillifera -is a


species of bryopsidale green
algae from coastal regions in the
Indo-Pacific.
GOLDEN ALGAE
• “Phylum Chrysophyta” -- 'Chryso' means 'color of gold‘
• Large group of algae, found mostly in freshwater
• Cells also contain cholorophyll but is masked by yellow
pigments.
• Members of this group are mostly microscopic.
• They stored food in the form of leucosin oil or
chrysolaminarin.

EXAMPLE:
Diatoms -are a major group of algae, and are among the
most common types of phytoplankton.
BROWN ALGAE
• “Phylum Phaeophyta”
• Brown algae are the largest of the algae
• It can change color
species. depending on whether they
• They grow on rocks in shallow water of the sea. are exposed or hidden form
light.
• They contain brown pigment called • Large brown algae are
fucoxanthin. called kelps.
Giant Kelps –can grow to
• They store food in the form of laminarin.
more than 30 meters in length.
• Some members contain alginic acid, used as an
ingredient in making ice cream, toothpaste,
candy and cosmetics.
EXAMPLES:
Dictyota -is a large
Turbinaria is a genus of order in the brown algae
brown algae found (class Phaeophyceae).
Laminaria is a genus of Sargassum is a genus of primarily in tropical Members of this order
brown macroalgae in marine waters. It generally prefer warmer
31 species of brown algae
the order Fucales. generally grows on waters than other brown
commonly called "kelp". rocky substrates. algae.
Numerous species are
Some species are also distributed throughout
referred to as tangle. the temperate and
tropical oceans of the
world
RED ALGAE
• “Phylum Rhodophyta”
• The group differs from the rest of the algae by
storing food in the form of floridean starch.
If they grow without much light,
• Red pigments (phycoerythrin) masked their they are colored red.
chlorophyll.
• Red algae can change color depending on When they are exposed to light,
they are bright green.
whether they are exposed or hidden from
light.
• Members of the group consists of both
microscopic and large multicellular
organisms.
• Most of them are found in marine waters.
EXAMPLES:
There are species in the group that help
form coral reefs because of their ability to
produce calcium carbonate.

Eucheuma muricatum or
kanot-kanot (gozo) –is
useful being a source of Gracilaria Salicornia –an
agar and carrageenan. agar source and edible Agar -is a jelly-like
too. substance, obtained Carrageen –similar to
from algae. It is the alginic acid. They are
source of widely used in the food
gulaman/gelatin. industry, for their gelling,
thickening, and
stabilizing properties.
DINOFLAGELLATES
• The dinoflagellates (are a large group of
flagellate protists that constitute the
phylum Dinoflagellata.
• Most members of dinoflagellates live in
oceans and seas.
• Their populations are distributed
depending on temperature, salinity, or
depth.
• They are mostly unicellular.
• Some occur as single organisms, while
others from colonies.
DINOFLAGELLATES
An important dinoflagellate to know is
Pyrodinium bahamense var
compressum.

During red tide, people should not eat clams


and mussels in the affected areas. This is
because these organisms might have fed on the
They are the ones that cause “red dinoflagellates which produce toxins and cause
tide” when present in large paralysis of the diaphragm that can lead to
numbers. death.
EUGLENOIDS
• Euglenoids (Euglenids) are one of the best-known
groups of flagellates, which are Excavate
Eukaryotes of the phylum Euglenophyta and their
cell structure is typical of that group.
• They are commonly found in freshwater, especially
when it is rich in organic materials, with a few
marine, and endosymbiotic members.
• The euglenoids are microscopic and unicellular.
EUGLENOIDS
Euglena belongs to this group. It lives in freshwater bodies. Organisms of this
group have a whip-like flagellum or flagella for movement. Some euglenoids
have chlorophyll.
Euglena is a genus of Euglena has an interesting
single-celled flagellate characteristic of getting
Eukaryotes. It is the best food. When light is
known and most widely available to, it makes food
studied member of the utilizing chlorophyll. In the
class Euglenoidea, a absence of light, it absorbs
diverse group containing nutrients from dead
some 54 genera and at least organic matter.
800 species. Species of They are often abundant in quiet
Euglena are found in fresh inland waters where they may bloom
and salt waters. in numbers sufficient to color the
surface of ponds and ditches green or
red.
HETEROTROPHS Radiolarians-are
protozoa of
diameter 0.1–
0.2 mm that
• Is an organism that cannot fix carbon from produce
inorganic sources (such as carbon dioxide) intricate mineral
skeletons.
but uses organic carbon for growth.
• Heterotrophs with no permanent structure for Foraminifera-are members
of a phylum or class of
movement include the radiolarians, amoeboid protists
characterized by streaming
foraminiferans and amoeba.
granular ectoplasm that
among other things is used
• They move by means of the pseudopods or for catching food,
pseudopia.
Amoeba-often called amoeboid, is
a type of cell or organism which has
the ability to alter its shape,
primarily by extending and
retracting pseudopods.
EXAMPLES: Proper sanitation must be practiced to ensure
clean and safe drinking water.

1) Entamoeba histolyca- is a harmful species of amoeba living in freshwater


bodies. If present in underground water, it can contaminate drinking water.
• Amoebiasis- also known as amebiasis or entamoebiasis
• Amoebic dysentery- (amoebiasis) is an infection of the intestine (gut) caused
by an amoeba called Entamoeba histolytica
Didinium is a
2) Paramecium- a Vorticella is a
genus of
genus of
slipper-like ciliate protozoa, with
unicellular
ciliate
which moves using over 16 known
protists with
the hair-like species. They
at least ten
are stalked,
structure cilia. It is inverted bell-
accepted
species. All
present in both shaped ciliates,
are free-
fresh and salt placed among
living
the peritrichs.
water. carnivores.
EXAMPLES:
3) Slime and water molds- are motile in a certain stage in their life cycles. They are
considered to be heterotrophs with limited movements.
• Slime molds are colored yellow, orange or whitish growths that you may see on
damp rotting logs. They feed on bacteria and decaying plant material in the same
manner as an amoeba does.
• Water molds are white cottony growths on dead fish or plant parts that you might
see floating in water. Certain species of water molds are parasitic on corn,
grapes, cabbage and many other important crops. Officially named Oomycota.
EXAMPLES:
SPOROZOANS
• Sporozoans (non-motile)- Plasmodium malariae are harmful for they cause
members of this group malaria, a serious disease in humans. This
malaria- causing sporozoan is still transmitted to
cannot move on their own.
humans by Anopheles mosquito. In the
• They may be free-living Philippines malaria is still constantly present in
and parasitic. certain areas.

• They reproduce asexually


by spores.
SPOROZOANS
Flagellates- they are unicellular and they use one or many of their
threadlike flagella to move. Some of the exist as single organisms
though others from colonies. They are parasitic and free living.
Two important species to study are Giardia lamblia and
Trypanosoma gambiense.

Giardia lambia- also known as Giardia intestinalis. It cause severe


diarrhea

Trypanosama gambiense- is responsible for Gambian sleeping sickness.

Trichonympa is beneficial to other organisms. It lives in the intestine


of termites. Since termites cannot digest the wood that they eat.
Trichonympha do it for them. Termites in turn give them a home and
food to eat.
That’s all for
today. I hope you
learn something!
Goodbye!