You are on page 1of 51

Transformer Protection

Transformer -Basics

2 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 2


Transformer - Components

Laminated
iron core

Insulated
copper wire

3 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 3


Transformer – Basic Analysis
Flux

I I Load
Source E 1
1 N1 N2 E
2

Primary Secondary

X1 '
R1 I 2
R2 X2
N1 N2
Io
I1 I2

load
V1 E1 E2 V2
Ro Xo

4 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 4


Transformer Fault Categories

1. Winding and terminal faults


2. Sustained or uncleared external faults
3. Abnormal operating conditions such as
overload, overvoltage and overfluxing
4. Core faults

5 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 5


Overcurrent & Earthfault Protection

6 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 6


11kV Distribution Transformers
Typical Fuse Ratings

Transformer rating Fuse

Full load Rated Operating time at


kVA
current (A) current (A) 3 x rating(s)

100 5.25 16 3.0


200 10.5 25 3.0
300 15.8 36 10.0
500 26.2 50 20.0
1000 52.5 90 30.0

7 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 7


Transformer Overcurrent Protection

Requirements

 Fast operation for primary short circuits


 Discrimination with downstream protections
 Operation within transformer withstand
 Non-operation for short or long term overloads
 Non-operation for magnetising inrush

8 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 8


Use of Instantaneous Overcurrent Protection

HV
Source LV

50
51

50 set to 1.2 - 1.3 x through fault level

9 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 9


Overcurrent Relay Setting > IF.L.

If as multiple
of IF.L.
1.0
0.9 Star Side
0.8


IF 0.7
0.6
51 0.5
Overcurrent 0.4
Relay
Delta Side
0.3
0.2
0.1
 p.u..
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Overcurrent Relay Setting > IF.L.

10 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 10


Star Winding REF

Protected
Zone

REF

Relay only operates for earthfaults within protected zone.


Uses high impedance principle.
Stability level : usually maximum through fault level of
transformer

11 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 11


Restricted E/F Protection
Low Voltage Windings (1)

A B C N

LV restricted E/F
protection trips
both HV and LV breaker
Recommended setting : 10% rated

12 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 12


Restricted E/F Protection
Low Voltage Windings (2)

A B C N

LV restricted E/F protection trips both HV and LV


breaker
Recommended setting : 10% rated

13 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 13


Delta Winding Restricted Earth Fault

Source

Protected zone
REF

 Delta winding cannot supply zero sequence


current to system
 Stability : Consider max LV fault level
 Recommended setting : less than 30% minimum
earth fault level

14 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 14


Unrestricted Earthfault Protection (1)

51N 51 51 51

- Provides back-up protection for system


- Time delay required for co-ordination

15 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 15


Differential Protection

16 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 16


Differential Protection

Overall differential protection may be justified for larger


transformers (generally > 5MVA).
Provides fast operation on any winding
Measuring principle :
Based on the same circulating current principle as the
restricted earth fault protection
However, it employs the biasing technique, to
maintain stability for heavy thro’ fault current
Biasing allows mismatch between CT outputs.
It is essential for transformers with tap changing facility.
Another important requirement of transformer differential
protection is immunity to magnetising in rush current.

17 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 17


Biased Differential Scheme

Differential
Current

I1 - I2 OPERAT
I1 BIA BIA I2
S S E
I1 - I2
OPERAT RESTRAI
E N

I1 + I2 Mean Thro
2 Current

Bias = Differential (or Spill) Current


Mean Through Current

18 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 18


Differential Protection

PROTECTED ZONE
HV LV

Correct application of differential protection requires CT ratio


and winding connections to match those of transformer.
CT secondary circuit should be a “replica” of primary system.
Consider :
(1) Difference in current magnitude
(2) Phase shift
(3) Zero sequence currents

19 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 19


Earthfault on Transformer Winding


2
 
3

I For relay operation,   S


2
e.g. If S  20%, then  20% for operation
3
i.e.   59%
Differential Thus 59% of windi ng is not protected
Relay
Setting = IS

Differential Relay Setting % of Star Winding Protected

10% 58%
20% 41%
30% 28%
40% 17%
50% 7%
20 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 20
Differential Connections

P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1

A B C

21 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 21


ICT’s

22 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 22


Use of Interposing CT

P1 P2 A2 A1 a1 a2 P2 P1

S1 S2 S1 S2

S2 S1 P1 P2

R
R
R

Interposing CT provides :
 Vector correction
 Ratio correction
 Zero sequence compensation
23 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 23
Combined Differential and Restricted Earthfault
Protection

A2 A1 a1 a2 P1 P2
S1 S2

P1 S1 P2
REF
S2 P1
P2
S1

S2
To differential relay

24 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 24


Vector Group Correction

Dy1 (-30 )

KBCH

Yy0 Yd11
0 87 +30

HV VectorCor
Yy0, Yd1, Yd5, Yy6, Yd7, Yd11, Ydy0
LV1 VectorCor
LV2 VectorCor 0 , -30 , -150 , 180 , +150 , +30 , 0

25 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 25


In Zone Earthing Transformer
a1 a2
P1 P2
A1 A2 P2 P1

S2 S1

S2 S1 T2 T1 P1 P2

26 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 26


CT Ratio Mismatch Correction - Modern Approach

33kV : 11kV
200/1 IL = 175A 10 MVA I L = 525A 400/1

0.875A KBCH 1.31 Amps


1A 1A
1.14 0.76
87

HV Ratio Cor
LV1 Ratio Cor 0.05 to 2 in steps of 0.01
LV2 Ratio Cor

27 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 27


Integral Vectorial and Ratio Compensation

Power transformer

Ratio
correction
KBCH Relay

Vectorial
correction
Differential
Virtual interposing CT element Virtual interposing CT

28 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 28


Transformer Magnetising Characteristic

Twice
Normal
Flux

Normal
Flux

Normal
No Load
Current
No Load Current
at Twice Normal
Flux

29 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 29


Typical Magnetising Inrush Waveforms

A
B
C

30 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 30


Typical Magnetising Inrush Waveforms

31 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 31


Transformer Differential Protection

Effect of magnetising current

 Appears on one side of transformer only

 Seen as fault by differential relay

 Normal steady state magnetising current is less than


relay setting

 Transient magnetising inrush could cause relay to


operate

32 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 32


Transformer Differential Protection (2)

Solution 1 : 2nd (and 5th) harmonic restraint

 Makes relay immune to magnetising inrush

 Slow operation may result for genuine transformer


faults if CT saturation occurs

33 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 33


Transformer Differential Protection (3)

Effect of magnetising inrush

Solution 2 : Gap measurement technique

 Inhibits relay operation during magnetising inrush

 Operate speed for genuine transformer faults


unaffected by significant CT saturation

34 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 34


Protection of Auto-Transformer by High
Impedance Differential Relays (1)

(a) Earth Fault Scheme

87 High impedance
relay

35 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 35


Protection of Auto-Transformer by High
Impedance Differential Relays (2)

(b) Phase and Earth Fault Scheme

A
B
C
a
b
c

87 87 87

n
36 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 36
Additional Protection

37 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 37


Inter-Turn Fault

CT
E
Load
Shorted
turn

Nominal turns ratio - 11,000 / 240


Fault turns ratio - 11,000 / 1
Current ratio - 1 / 11,000

Requires Buchholz relay

38 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 38


Buchholz Relay Installation

3 x internal pipe
Conservator
diameter (minimum)
5 x internal pipe
diameter (minimum)

Oil conservator
3 minimum

Transformer

39 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 39


Overfluxing

- Generator transformers
- Grid transformers

Usually only a problem during run-up or shut down, but can be


caused by loss of load / load shedding etc.

Flux O  V
f

Effects of overfluxing :
- Increase in mag. Current
- increase in winding temperature
- increase in noise and vibration
- overheating of laminations and metal parts (caused by stray flux)

Protective relay responds to V/f ratio


Stage 1 - lower A.V.R.
Stage 2 - Trip field
40 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 40
Effect of Overload on Transformer Insulation Life

100
With ambient of 20 C.
Hot spot rise of 78 is
design normal.
A further rise of 6 C
Relative 10 doubles rate of
rate using life.
of using
life
1.0

98
0.1
80 90 100 110 120 130 140
Hot spot temp C
41 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 41
Typical Schemes

42 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 42


Up to 1MVA

3.3kV

51 50 P121
200/5 51 50 N N

1MVA
1500/5
3.3/0.44kV

51
P120 N

64 1500/5
MCAG14

43 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 43


1 - 5MVA

11kV

51 50 P121

64 MCAG14

5MVA
1000/5
11/3.3kV

51
P120 N

64 1000/5
MCAG14
3.3kV
44 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 44
Above 5MVA

33KV

51 50 P141
200/5

P120
10MVA
51
33/11KV N
87
600/5
P631

64 MCAG14

600/5
5/5A

45 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 45


Worked Examples

46 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 46


REF Calculations

47 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 47


Restricted Earth Fault Protection

1600/1
1MVA RCT = 4.9
(5%)
11000V 415V Vk =330V
Calculate :
1) Setting voltage (VS)
80MVA
2) Value of stabilising
resistor required
3) Peak voltage
1600/1 RS developed by CT’s
RCT = 4.8 MCAG14
IS = 0.1 Amp for internal
fault
2 Core 7/0.67mm (7.41/km)
100m Long

48 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 48


Solution :

Earth fault calculation :-


Using 80MVA base
Source impedance = 1 p.u.
Transformer impedance = 0.05 x 80 = 4 p.u.
1
1 P.U. Total impedance = 14 p.u.
1 4
I1
 I1 = 1 = 0.0714 p.u.
14
4 Base current = 80 x 106
I2 3 x 415
= 111296 Amps
4
 IF = 3 x 0.0714 x 111296
I0
= 23840 Amps (primary)
= 14.9 Amps (secondary)
Sequence Diagram
49 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 49
Solution :
(1) Setting voltage
VS = IF (RCT + 2RL)
Assuming “earth” CT saturates,
RCT = 4.8 ohms
2RL = 2 x 100 x 7.41 x 10-3 = 1.482 ohms
 Setting voltage = 1.49 (4.8 + 1.482)
= 93.6 Volts
(2) Stabilising Resistor (RS)
RS = VS - 1
IS IS2 Where IS = relay current setting
 RS = 93.6 - 1 = 836 ohms
0.1 0.22
50 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 50
Solution :

3) Peak voltage = 22 VK (VF - VK)


VF = 14.9 x VS = 14.9 x 936 = 13946 Volts
IS
For ‘Earth’ CT, VK = 330V
 VPEAK = 22 330 (13946 - 330)
= 6kV
Thus, metrosil voltage limiter will be required.

51 > Transformer Protection - January 2004 51