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MICROWAVE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS:- MIC’s are designed for operation

at frequencies of approximately 1GHz or more. An MIC can contain an
entire electronic device on a single semiconductor.

Types of MIC:- -Hybrid Microwave Integrated Circuits. (hybrid MIC)

-Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits. (MMIC)

In the microwave industry the term MIC has been used to refer to
planar microwave integrated circuits using one or more different forms
of Transmission lines, active and passive discrete components such as
transistors, chip capacitors and registers are then attached. This
technology is known as a hybrid MIC.

MMICs are most recent development, where all active and passive
circuits are grown or implemented in the substrate. MMIC’s can be
made at lower cost because manual labour required for HMIC is
eliminated. A single wafer contain can contain a large number of
circuits, which can be processed and fabricated simultaneously.
These devices can perform functions such as:-
-microwave mixing
-power amplification
-low noise amplification
-high frequency switching

Inputs and Outputs on MMIC devices are frequently matched to

a characteristic impedance of 50 ohms. This makes them easier to
use, as cascading of MMIC’s does not require external matching

MMIC’s are dimensionally small (from around 1mm² to 10mm²)

and can be mass produced.

MMIC’s originally were fabricated using III-V group compound

semiconductors(for substrate only) such as GaAs.

GaN is an option because GaN transistors can operate at higher

temperature and voltages than GaAs.

Si MMIC technology is used in the design of low-frequency

GaAs vs Si
GaAs has some advantages over Si, the traditional material for IC
realization: device speed and a semi insulating substrate.

The compound has 5 times greater electron mobility than silicon. It

gives a faster operation and lower power consumption.

Its semi-insulating properties allow natural isolation of individual

devices (crosstalk is reduced).

GaAs MMIC devices also are 100 to 1000 times more resistant to
radiation than Si devices.
GaAs vs Si

*MMIC- R. Goyal
Hybrid MIC
First a layout is printed in the substrate/dielectric and then lumped
components/ transistors or other elements are embedded.

The components that can be fabricated as part of the microstrip

transmission line are:
 Matching stubs and transformers
 Directional couplers
 Combiners and dividers
 Resonators, Filters, Inductors and capacitors
 Thin film resistor, etc.
Hybrid MIC

Components Added After Micro strip Fabrication

The MIC Components that are fabricated separately and added
to the micro strip circuits are:
 Bond wire
 Chip resistor
 Chip capacitors
 Dielectric resonators
 Circulators
 Diodes and transistors……….
Hybrid vs MMIC
Resistive Attenuator

where k is the voltage attenuation factor and Z0 the reference impedance, e.g., 50 Ω.
Microstrip line design equations
Microstrip line design equations

The attenuation due to dielectric loss is

The attenuation due to conductor loss is

Microstrip line design equations
Multiple section transformers