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Original Title: Chapter+5-2+Well+Testing_II_Drawdown+and+Buildup+Analysis_II

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You are on page 1of 36

Weibo Sui

Ph.D, Associate Professor

College of Petroleum Engineering, CUPB

Skin Factor

improved or reduced permeability compared to the

bulk formation permeability.

Reason for Positive Skin

• Damaged perforations

• Gravel pack

• Unfiltered completion fluid

• Partial completion

• Fines migration after long term production

• Non-darcy flow (predominantly in gas wells)

• Condensate banking (acts like turbulence)

Reason for Negative Skin

• Acidizing

• Hydraulic fracturing

• Natural fractures

How to quantify the skin factor

Skin Quantification

141.2qB ra

pa pwf ln (1)

ka h rw

If the zone is not damaged,

141.2qB ra

pa pwf ln (2)

kh rw

Substracting (2) from (1) gives:

141.2qB k ra

pwf ps

pwf 1 ln (3)

kh ka rw

The skin factor is defined as

k ra 141.2qB

s 1 ln ps s (4)

ka rw kh

Example 1 – Skin Factor

Drawdown Well Tests

162.6qB k

pwf pi log t log 3.23

kh ct rw

2

Drawdown Well Test

of wellbore pressure in a well, then the transient solution is

modified to be:

162.6qB k

pwf pi log t log 3.23 ps

kh ct rw

2

162.6qB k

pi log t log 3.23 0.87s

kh ct rw

2

Calculate Permeability

162.6qB k

pwf pi log t log 3.23 0.87s

kh ct rw

2

is treated as a straight line equation “ y = b + mx”, where m is the

slope of the straight line, and “k” can be calculated.

y pwf

x lg t

162.6qB

m

kh

162.6qB k

b pi log 3.23 0.87 s

kh ct rw

2

Calculate Skin Factor

pi pwf kt

s 1.151 log 3.23

m ct rw

2

extrapolation of the straight line.

pi pwf k

s 1.151 1hr

log 3.23

m ct rw

2

Drawdown Test Time Regions

Example 2 – DD Test

Calculate permeability and skin from the constant single-rate drawdown test.

Example 2 – DD Test

Radius of Investigation

pi

Time increasing

pwf(t1)

pwf(t2)

pwf(t3)

rw re

Pressure transient development within reservoir

kt

ri

948 ct

Example 3 – Radius of Investigation

Wellbore Storage Effect

with the well that effect the behavior of the transient

response, especially in early time.

Modeling wellbore storage offers little value, but

quantifying and characterizing skin provides insight on

how to improve well productivity.

Wellbore Storage Effect

– unloading of wellbore fluids at start of production;

– ceases when wellhead rate is equal to the rate of fluid

entry from the reservoir.

• In buildup test (BU)

– continued flow of reservoir fluids into the wellbore after

the well has been shut in (called afterflow);

– ceases when hydrostatic pressure of wellbore fluid equals

reservoir pressure at sandface.

Wellbore Storage Effect

Wellbore Storage Effect

pressure

approximately hydrostatic: pth

pi = pa+rwgD = pa+ 0.433D. When the wellbore

is filled with hydrocarbons, the wellbore fluid

density, rhyd < rw. The pressure at the valve,

pth = pa+ 0.433D – rhydgD

= pa+ 0.433(1-rhyd/rwD > pa

When the valve is opened, fluid

pi

will flow from the wellbore.

Wellbore Storage Effect

Wellbore Storage Effect

pth

compressible. For a constant reservoir volume, if

some fluid is leaving the volume, the remaining

fluid expands to fill the volume, and the pressure

drops. Fluid leaves the reservoir via the well

whenever the sandface pressure, psf, is less than

the reservoir pressure, pR.

psf

pR

Wellbore Storage Effect

pth

wellbore, and the pressure in the wellbore drops,

first near the valve and gradually throughout the

wellbore. When the pressure at the sandface

drops, the reservoir fluid flows into the well. For

some time, the flow from the well is a

qsf

combination of flow from the wellbore

psf

and from the reservoir, and the rate of pR

the well flow rate at the surface, q.

Wellbore Storage Coefficient

of wellbore fluids per unit change in wellbore pressure.

V

C Vwbcwb

p

Superposition Principle

• Multiple wells

Superposition Principle

• Multiple rates

o1 o2 o1

+ p due to (Q Q ) p due to (Q

o3 o2 o 4 Qo 3 )

162.6 Q1 0 B kt4

Q1 0

p

lg 2

3.23 0.87 s

kh ct rw

162.6 Q2 Q1 B k t4 t1

p Q Q

lg 2

3.23 0.87 s

2 1

kh

ct w

r

162.6 Q3 Q2 B k t4 t2

p Q Q lg 3.23 0.87 s

ct rw

2

3 2

kh

162.6 Q4 Q3 B k t4 t3

p Q Q lg 2

3.23 0.87 s

kh ct rw

4 3

Multi-Rate Drawdown Tests

162.6 B n 162.6 B

pi pwf

q j q j 1 log tn t j 1

qn lg

k

3.23 0.87 s

ct rw

2

kh j 1 kh

pi pwf 162.6 B n q j q j 1 162.6 B

log n j 1

t t lg

k

2

3.23 0.87 s

qn kh j 1 q kh c r

n t w

Multi-Rate Drawdown Test

pi pwf

y

qn

q j q j 1

log tn t j 1

n

x

j 1 qn

162.6qB 162.6qB

m k

kh mh

162.6qB k b k

b log 3.23 0.87 s s 1.151 log 3.23

kh c r

t w

2

m c r

t w

2

Buildup Test Analysis

p t

pws shut-in bottomhole pressure (BHP) over t

Buildup Test

BU test:

162.6qB k t p t

pi pws lg 3.23 0.87 s

kh ct rw2

162.6qB k t

+ lg 3.23 0.87 s

ct rw

2

kh

162.6qB t p t

pi pws log

kh t

Buildup Test – Horner’s Plot

y pws

x lg

t p t

t

162.6qB

m

kh

b pi or p*

t p t

Horner time ratio

t

Horner Plot

Calculate Permeability & Skin

• Permeability

162.6qB

k

mh

• Skin

Use the transient test equation for BHP at one hour of shut-

in time is:

162.6qB k

pws @ t 1hr pwf @ t 0 hr log 3.23 0.87 s

ct rw

2

kh

p1hr pwf @ t 0 hr k

s 1.151 log 3.23

m c r

t w

2

Horner’s Time Approximation

constant over a reasonable time period. Most wells have variable

production rates over time.

• The production histories can be modeled accurately by application of

superposition principle, or approximated by Horner’s pseudo-producing

time, tpH

24 N p

t pH

qlast

162.6qlast B t pH t

pi pws log

kh t

Example 4 – BU Test

Example 4 – BU Test

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