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CHE 410 Chemical Process Industries (1

Engr. Lina D. Dela Cruz


Chemical Engineering Department
Technological Institute of the Philippines
Course Description
 This course serves as an introduction to the
practice of chemical engineering.
 Specifically, it deals with the unit processes and
operations involved in selected chemical
industries which are either inorganic or organic in
character.
Reference Book: Shreve’s Chemical Process
Industries
Austin, George T, 5th Edition
Mc Graw Hill
Course Objective
 The course aims to provide knowledge on the
different roles of Chemical Engineers in various
chemical and manufacturing industries.
 It provides knowledge on the basic of designing
a process flowchart and enables the students to
gain knowledge on the various processes which
involve chemical reactions.
What is a Chemical engineer
 In the field of engineering, a chemical
engineer is the profession in which one works
principally in the chemical industry to convert
basic raw materials into a variety of products, and
deals with the design and operation of plants and
equipment to perform such work.
Chemical Engineer
 In general, a chemical engineer is one who
applies and uses principles of chemical
engineering in any of its various practical
applications; these often include:
1) design, manufacture, and operation of plants
and machinery in industrial chemical and
related processes ("chemical process
engineers");
Chemical Engineer
2 ) development of new or adapted substances
for products ranging from foods and beverages to
cosmetics to cleaners to pharmaceutical
ingredients, among many other products
("chemical product engineers");
Chemical Engineer
3) development of new technologies such as fuel
cells, hydrogen power and nanotechnology, as
well as working in fields wholly or partially derived
from Chemical Engineering such as materials
science, polymer engineering, and biomedical
engineering.
 Chemical engineers work in manufacturing,
pharmaceuticals, healthcare, design and
construction, pulp and paper, petrochemicals,
food processing, specialty chemicals,
microelectronics, electronic and advanced
materials, polymers, business services,
biotechnology, and environmental health and
safety industries, among others.
 Within these industries, chemical engineers rely
on their knowledge of mathematics and science—
particularly chemistry— to overcome technical
problems safely and economically.
 And, of course, they draw upon and apply their
engineering knowledge to solve any technical
challenges they encounter
 Specifically, chemical engineers improve food
processing techniques, and methods of producing
fertilizers, to increase the quantity and quality of
available food.
 They also construct the synthetic fibers that make
our clothes more comfortable and water resistant;
they develop methods to mass-produce drugs,
making them more affordable; and they create
safer, more efficient methods of refining
petroleum products, making energy and chemical
sources more productive and cost effective.
 Chemical engineers also develop solutions to
environmental problems, such as pollution control
and remediation.
 And yes, they process chemicals, which are used
to make or improve just about everything you see
around you.
 Chemical engineers face many of the same
challenges that other professionals face, and they
meet these challenges by applying their technical
knowledge, communication and teamwork skills;
the most up-to-date practices available; and hard
work.
Benefits include financial reward, recognition within
industry and society, and the gratification that
comes from working with the processes of nature
to meet the needs of society.
CHEMICALPROCESSES, UNIT PROCESSES AND
UNIT OPERATIONS IN CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES
Chemical processes usually have three interrelated
elementary processes
- Transfer of reactants to the reaction zone
- Chemical reactions involving various unit
processes
- Separation of the products from the reaction
zone using various unit operations
 Processes may involve homogeneous system or
heterogeneous systems.
 In homogeneous system, reactants are in same
phase-liquid, gases or solids while
heterogeneous system include two or more
phases; gas liquid, gas–solid, gas-gas, liquid–
liquid, liquid solid etc.
 The reaction may be carried out in batch, semi
batch or continuous.
 Reactors may be batch, plug flow, CSTR. It may
be isothermal or adiabatic.
 Catalytic reactors may be packed bed, moving
bed or fluidised bed
 Various type reactions involve maybe reversible
or irreversible, endothermic or exothermic,
catalytic or non-catalytic.
 Various variables affecting chemical reactions are
temperature pressure, composition, catalyst
activity, catalyst selectivity, catalyst stability,
catalyst life, the rate of heat and mass transfer
 The reaction may be carried out in batch, semi
batch or continuous. Reactors may be batch, plug
flow, CSTR. It may be isothermal or adiabatic.
Catalytic reactors may be packed bed, moving
bed or fluidised bed.
 Along with knowledge of various unit processes
and unit operation the following information are
very important for the development of a process
and its commercialization:
Basic Chemical data: Yield conversion, kinetics
1. Material and energy balance, raw material and
energy consumption per tone of product, energy
changes
2. Batch vs Continuous, process flow diagram
3. Chemical process selection: design and
operation, pilot plant data, Equipment required,
material of construction
4. Chemical Process Control and Instrumentation
5. Chemical Process Economics: Competing
processes, Material and, Energy cost, Labour,
Overall Cost of production
6. Market evaluation: Purity of product and
uniformity of product for further processing
7. Plant Location
8. Environment, Health, Safety and Hazard
9. Construction, Erection and Commissioning
10. Management for Productivity and creativity:
Training of plant personals and motivation at all
levels
11. Research, Development and patent
12. Process Intensification
 Inorder to improve productivity and make the
process cost effective and for improving overall
economy, compact , safe, energy efficient and
environmentally sustainable plant, process
intensification has become very important and
industry is looking beyond the traditional chemical
engineering.
UNIT PROCESSES AND UNIT OPERATIONS
IN CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES
 Chemical process is combination of unit
processes and Unit operation.
 Unit process involves principle chemical
conversions leading to synthesis of various useful
product and provide basic information regarding
the reaction temperature and pressure, extent of
chemical conversions and yield of product of
reaction nature of reaction whether endothermic
or exothermic, type of catalyst used.
 Unit operations involve the physical separation of
the products obtained during various unit
processes.
Basic Chemica Data
 Chemistry is the basic science on which the
chemical inndustries rest. The function of a
chemical engineer is to apply the chemistry of a
particular process through the use of coordinated
scientific and engineering principles.
 To do this effectively, the engineer must develop
the research laboratoty results of the chemist into
an economical process.
 The most important factor in cost is usually the
yield, whiich must be carefully fifferentiated from
conversion.
 Yield is that fraction of the raw material rocovered
as the main or desired product.
 Conversion is that fraction changed to something
else-by products as well as products.
 Conversion is also loosely used to indicate the
amount changed by a single pass through an
apparatus when multiple passes are used.
 For example in the synthesis of ammonia, the
yield is frequently above 98 percent, whereas; the
conversion is limited by equilibrium to above 14
percent (per pass) which means that 86 percent
of the charge does not react and must be
recirculated.
 The goal of the chemical engineer, always
concerned with cost is to have the conversion
equal to the yield.because of low conversion,
mmethanol and ammonia synthesis plants are 4
to 5 times large as would be expected if
conversion equaled yield.
 By changing the operation conditions, the
equilibrium can be shifted and the conversion
enhanced.
 Raising operating pressure improve ammonia and
methanol yields, but operating and operating
costs are increased.
 Increased reaction time allows closer approach to
equilibrium, but requires larger, more expensive
equipment; improved catalysts can shorten
reaction time, but equilirium remains unaffected.
 Kinetics - much experimental time has been
devoted in kinetics, the study of reaction speeds.
Such information is esssential for plant design,
since reaction speed determines equipment size.
Catalysts are materials that increase speed.
Material Balances, Energy Changes, and Energy
Balances
 Since costs are most strongly affected by material
use and distribution, the material balance –a
study showing the origin and ultimate disposition
of all materials used – is an essential first step in
ay procesing study.
 Energy use and distribution is less imporatnt,
even with today’s high energy cost, but chemical
procesing is an energy-intensive industry and
much effort is spent in reducing energy use.
Batch versus Continous Processing
 Early chemical processing chemical processing
was usually done in batches, and much continues
to be done that way. Batches can be measured
most consisely, but temperature control can be
troublesome.
 Continous process require smaller, less
expensive equipment, have much less material in
process – hence have less chance to ruin large
quantities – have more uniform operating
conditions and products, than batch process.
Continous processes require moeore concise
control of flows and conditions and would be
impossible without quality instrumentations.
Small quantities of chemicals are usually made by
batch operations, but when market enlarge, a
change must be made to continous processing.