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Bryan Mangampo

Nicole Olavario
Chaby Ros Fatigue
Fatigue is distinguished by three
main features.

i)Loss of strength
ii)Loss of ductility
iii) Increased uncertainty in
strength and service life
The S-N Curve
- A very useful way to visual the failure for a specific
material is with the S-N curve.
- The “S-N” means stress verse cycles to failure, which
when plotted using the stress amplitude on the vertical
axis and the number of cycle to failure on the horizontal
axis.
- An important characteristic to this plot as seen is the
“fatigue limit”.
Factors affecting fatigue properties

- Residual stresses:
Residual stresses are produced by fabrication and finishing
processes.
Residual stresses on the surface of the material will improve the
fatigue properties.
- Heat treatment:
Hardening and heat treatments reduce the surface compressive stresses; as
a result the fatigue properties of the materials are getting affected.
Stress concentrations:
These are caused by sudden changes in cross section holes or sharp
corners can more easily lead to fatigue failure. Even a small hole lowers
fatigue-limit by 30%.
Stress Cycles
-There are different arrangements of
fatigue loading.

-The simplest type of load is the alternating


stress where the stress amplitude is equal
to the maximum stress and the mean or
average stress is zero. The bending stress in
a shaft varies in this way.
Fatigue Failure

- Fatigue fracture results from the presence of


fatigue cracks, usually initiated by cyclic stresses,
at surface imperfections such as machine
marking and slip steps.

- The initial stress concentration associated with


these cracks are too low to cause brittle fracture
they may be sufficient to cause slow growth of
the cracks into the interior.

- Eventually the cracks may become sufficiently


deep so that the stress concentration exceeds
the fracture strength and sudden failure occurs.

- The extent of the crack propagation process


depends upon the brittleness of the material
under test.

- In brittle materials the crack grows to a critical


size from which it propagates right through the
structures in a fast manner, whereas with ductile
materials the crack keeps growing until the
remaining area cannot support the load and an
almost ductile fracture suddenly occurs.
Fatigue Failure
- Failure can be recognized by the
appearance of fracture.

- For a typical fracture ,Two distinct


zones can be distinguished – a
smooth zone near the fatigue crack
itself which, has been smoothened by
the continual rubbing together of the
cracked surfaces, and a rough
crystalline-looking zone which is the
final fracture.

- Occasionally fatigue cracks show


rough concentric rings which
correspond to successive positions of
the crack.
Design for Fatigue

To secure satisfactory fatigue life

- Modification of the design to avoid stress concentration eliminating sharp recesses and severe
stress raisers.

- Precise control of the surface finish by avoiding damage to surface by rough machining, punching,
stamping, shearing etc.

- Control of corrosion and erosion or chemical attack in service and to prevent of surface
decarburization during processing of heat treatment.

- Surface treatment of the metal.