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Electric Field

PowerPoint® Lectures for

University Physics, Thirteenth Edition

– Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman

Introduction

• Water makes life possible

as a solvent for biological

molecules. What electrical

properties allow it to do

this?

• We now begin our study

of electromagnetism, one

of the four fundamental

forces in Nature.

• We start with electric

charge and electric fields.

Goals for Chapter 21

• Study electric charge & charge conservation

Coulomb’s law

F = k|q1q2|/r2 = (1/4π0)|q1q2|/r2

electric field

Goals for Chapter 21

field due to many

charges

electric fields

• Calculate the

properties of electric

dipoles

Goals for Chapter 21

• Be able to solve this kind of problem: (page 715)

y Charge Q is distributed

uniformly around a semicircle

of radius a.

Charge Q

What is the magnitude and

a

direction of the resulting E field

x

at point P, at the center of

P curvature of the semicircle?

Physics from 4A you will need to know!

• Forces as vectors

• Establish coordinate frame

• Break into components Fx, Fy, Fz

• Add like components!

• Resolve net vector

• Answers must have three things!

1. Magnitude

2. Direction

3. UNITS

Physics from 4A you will need to know!

• Chapter 4: Forces

• “Links in a Chain” Bridging problem (122)

• Chapter 5: Applications

• “In a Rotating Cone” (162)

• Chapter 6: Energy

• “A Spring That Disobeys Hooke’s Law (193)

Math from 4A you will need to know!

Math from 4A you will need to know!

Electric charge

negative charges repel

each other.

negative charge attract

each other.

• Check out:

http://www.youtube.com/wat

ch?v=45AAIl9_lsc

Electric charge

negative charges repel

each other.

negative charge attract

each other.

Electric charge

negative charges repel

each other.

a negative charge

attract each other.

• Check out Balloons in

PhET simulations

Electric charge and the structure of matter

atom are the negative

electron, the positive

proton, and the

uncharged neutron.

You should know this already: Atoms and ions

• A positive ion is an atom with one or more electrons removed.

A negative ion has gained one or more electrons.

You should know this already: Atoms and ions

Conservation of charge

magnitude charge.

Conservation of charge

magnitude charge.

quantized in this unit.

“½ e”

Conservation of charge

magnitude charge.

conservation states algebraic

sum of all electric charges in

any closed system is constant.

Conductors and insulators

• A conductor permits the

easy movement of charge

through it. An insulator

does not.

conductors, while most

nonmetals are insulators.

Conductors and insulators

through it.

Conductors and insulators

• Semiconductors are

intermediate in their

properties between good

conductors and good

insulators.

Charging by induction

Charging by induction

Charging by induction

• The negative rod is able to charge the metal ball without losing

any of its own charge.

Electric forces on uncharged objects

• The charge within an insulator can shift slightly. As a result, an

electric force *can* be exerted upon a neutral object.

Charging by induction

• The negative rod is able to charge the metal ball without losing

any of its own charge.

Charging by induction

• Now connect the conductor to the ground (or neutral “sink”)

• What happens?

Charging by induction

• Now connect the conductor to the ground (or neutral “sink”)

• Conductor allows electrons to flow from ball to ground…

Charging by induction

• Connect the conductor to the ground (or neutral “sink”)

Charging by induction

• The negative rod is able to charge the metal ball without losing

any of its own charge.

Electrostatic painting

• Induced positive charge on the metal object attracts the

negatively charged paint droplets. Check out

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&v=zTwkJBtCcBA&NR=1

Q21.1

When you rub a plastic rod with fur, the plastic rod becomes

negatively charged and the fur becomes positively charged.

As a consequence of rubbing the rod with the fur,

A. the rod and fur both gain mass.

B. the rod and fur both lose mass.

C. the rod gains mass and the fur loses mass.

D. the rod loses mass and the fur gains mass.

E. none of the above

A21.1

When you rub a plastic rod with fur, the plastic rod becomes

negatively charged and the fur becomes positively charged.

As a consequence of rubbing the rod with the fur,

A. the rod and fur both gain mass.

B. the rod and fur both lose mass.

C. the rod gains mass and the fur loses mass.

D. the rod loses mass and the fur gains mass.

E. none of the above

Q21.2

on an electrically neutral piece of paper. This is because

B. the electric force between charged particles

decreases with increasing distance.

C. an atomic nucleus occupies only a small part of

the volume of an atom.

D. a typical atom has many electrons but only one

nucleus.

A21.2

on an electrically neutral piece of paper. This is because

nuclei.

B. the electric force between charged particles

decreases with increasing distance.

C. an atomic nucleus occupies only a small part

of the volume of an atom.

D. a typical atom has many electrons but only

one nucleus.

Coulomb’s law – Electric FORCE

force between two point

charges is directly

proportional to the

product of their charges

and

inversely proportional

to the square of the

distance between them.

Coulomb’s law

• Mathematically:

F = k|q1q2|/r2

= (1/4π0)|q1q2|/r2

• A VECTOR

• Magnitude

• Direction

• Units

Coulomb’s law

• Mathematically:

|F| = k|q1q2|/r2

meter2/Coulomb2

Coulomb’s law

• Mathematically:

|F| = k|q1q2|/r2

= (1/4π0)|q1q2|/r2

• 0 = 8.85 x 10 – 12 C2/Nm2

Measuring the electric force between point charges

electric and gravitational

forces.

and charge q = +2e = 3.2 x 10-19 C.

between two alpha particles and their

gravitational attraction

Measuring the electric force between point charges

and charge q = +2e = 3.2 x 10-19 C.

between two alpha particles and their

gravitational attraction

Measuring the electric force between point charges

m = 6.64 x 10-27 kg and

charge q = +2e =

3.2 x 10-19 C.

Fe/Fg = ?

where

Measuring the electric force between point charges

= 6.64 x 10-27 kg and charge

q = +2e = 3.2 x 10-19 C.

Force between charges along a line

• Example 21.2 for two charges:

separated by r = 3.0 cm.

What is the Force of q2 on q1?

Force between charges along a line

• Example 21.2 for two charges:

separated by r = 3.0 cm.

system FIRST!

x

Force between charges along a line

• Example 21.2 for two charges:

separated by r = 3.0 cm. What is the Force of q1 on

q2? What is the force of q2 on q1?

Force between charges along a line

• Example 21.2 for two charges:

separated by r = 3.0 cm. What is the Force of q1 on

q2? What is the force of q2 on q1?

Force between charges along a line

• Example 21.2 for two charges:

separated by r = 3.0 cm.

F12

x

Force between charges along a line (Example 21.3)

• Two point charges

– q1 = +1.0nC at x = +2.0 cm, &

q2 = -3.0 nC at x = +4.0 cm.

q3 = + 5.0 nC at x = 0?

Force between charges along a line (Example 21.3)

• Two point charges

– q1 = +1.0nC at x = +2.0 cm, &

q2 = -3.0 nC at x = +4.0 cm.

q3 = + 5.0 nC at x = 0?

Vector addition of electric forces- Example 21.4

Two equal positive charges, q1 = q2 = +2.0mC are

located at x=0, y = + 0.30 m

& x=0, y = -.30 m respectively.

at x = 0.40 m, y = 0?

into x & y COMPONENTS!!!

Vector addition of electric forces – Example 21.4

Vector addition of electric forces

• Example 21.4 shows that we must use vector addition when

adding electric forces.

Vector addition of electric forces

• Example 21.4 shows that we must use vector addition when

adding electric forces.

Q21.3

Three point charges lie at the Charge #2

vertices of an equilateral triangle as +q

shown. All three charges have the

same magnitude, but charges #1 Charge #1

and #2 are positive (+q) and charge +q

#3 is negative (–q). y

The net electric force that charges

–q

#2 and #3 exert on charge #1 is in

x Charge #3

A. the +x-direction. B. the –x-direction.

C. the +y-direction. D. the –y-direction.

E. none of the above

A21.3

Three point charges lie at the Charge #2

vertices of an equilateral triangle as +q

shown. All three charges have the

same magnitude, but charges #1 Charge #1

and #2 are positive (+q) and charge +q

#3 is negative (–q). y

The net electric force that charges

–q

#2 and #3 exert on charge #1 is in

x Charge #3

A. the +x-direction. B. the –x-direction.

C. the +y-direction. D. the –y-direction.

E. none of the above

Q21.4

Three point charges lie at the Charge #2

vertices of an equilateral triangle as

–q

shown. All three charges have the

same magnitude, but charge #1 is Charge #1

positive (+q) and charges #2 and #3 +q

are negative (–q). y

The net electric force that charges

–q

#2 and #3 exert on charge #1 is in

x Charge #3

A. the +x-direction. B. the –x-direction.

C. the +y-direction. D. the –y-direction.

E. none of the above

A21.4

Three point charges lie at the Charge #2

vertices of an equilateral triangle as

–q

shown. All three charges have the

same magnitude, but charge #1 is Charge #1

positive (+q) and charges #2 and #3 +q

are negative (–q). y

The net electric force that charges

–q

#2 and #3 exert on charge #1 is in

x Charge #3

A. the +x-direction. B. the –x-direction.

C. the +y-direction. D. the –y-direction.

E. none of the above

Electric field

• A charged body produces an electric field in the space around it

Electric field

• We use a small test charge q0 to find out if an electric field is

present.

Electric field

• We use a small test charge q0 to find out if an electric field is

present.

Definition of the electric field

• E fields are VECTOR fields – and solutions to

problems require magnitude, direction, and units.

Definition of the electric field

• E fields are VECTOR fields – and solutions to

problems require magnitude, direction, and units.

Definition of the electric field

• E fields are VECTOR fields – and solutions to

problems require magnitude, direction, and units.

– Need Coordinate System for direction!

– Need Units Force/Charge = Newtons/Coulomb = N/C

– E = (kq0q/r2)/q0 = (kq/r2) (-r direction!) N/C

Electric field of a point charge

• E fields from positive charges point AWAY from the charge

Electric field of a point charge

• E fields point TOWARDS a negative charge:

Electric-field vector of a point charge

• Example 21.6 - the vector

nature of the electric field.

• Charge of -8.0 nC at

origin.

What is E field at P =

(Px,Py) = (1.2, -1.6)?

Electric-field vector of a point charge

• Example 21.6 - the vector

nature of the electric field.

• Charge of -8.0 nC at

origin.

What is E field at P =

(Px,Py) = (1.2, -1.6)?

Magnitude, Units, & Direction

Required!

Electric-field vector of a point charge

• What is E field at P =

(Px,Py) = (1.2, -1.6)?

• E = -11N/C x + 14 N/C y

(2 sig figs)

• |E| = 18 N/C

in direction

q = arctan Ey/Ex

= 127 degrees from +x

or 53˚ from –x axis

Electric-field vector of a point charge

• What is E field at P =

(Px,Py) = (1.2, -1.6)?

• E = -11N/C x + 14 N/C y

• |E| = 18 N/C

in direction

q = arctan Ey/Ex

= -53 degrees

Q21.5

A positive point charge +Q is released from rest in an electric

field. At any later time, the velocity of the point charge

of the point charge.

B. is directly opposite the direction of the electric field at

the position of the point charge.

C. is perpendicular to the direction of the electric field at

the position of the point charge.

D. is zero.

E. not enough information given to decide

A21.5

A positive point charge +Q is released from rest in an electric

field. At any later time, the velocity of the point charge

of the point charge.

B. is directly opposite the direction of the electric field at

the position of the point charge.

C. is perpendicular to the direction of the electric field at

the position of the point charge.

D. is zero.

E. none of the above are true.

Electron in a uniform field

• Example 21.7: Determine force on a charge in a known

uniform electric field.

Electron in a uniform field

• Plates 1.0 cm apart, connected to 100 V battery creating

a uniform E field of 100V/0.01 m = 10,000 N/C

• What’s a VOLT?

Electron in a uniform field

• Plates 1.0 cm apart, connected to

100 V battery creating a uniform

E field of 100V/0.01 m = 10,000

N/C

• What’s a VOLT?

– A unit of potential

energy/charge (Joules/Coulomb)

– Like “electrical water

pressure”

– 1 Volt/meter =

1 Newton/Coulomb (E field)

Electron in a uniform field

• Plates 1.0 cm apart, connected to 100 V battery creating

a uniform E field of 100V/0.01 m = 10,000 N/C

• Electron released from rest; what is acceleration?

Final velocity? Total KE? Time to travel 1.0 cm?

Superposition of electric fields

• The total electric field at a point is the vector sum of the fields due

to all the charges present.

• Electric DIPOLE fields are important!!

Q21.6

Two point charges and a point P lie Charge #1

at the vertices of an equilateral –q

triangle as shown. Both point

charges have the same magnitude q

but opposite signs. There is nothing P

at point P. y

The net electric field that charges

+q

#1 and #2 produce at point P is in

x Charge #2

A. the +x-direction. B. the –x-direction.

C. the +y-direction. D. the –y-direction.

E. none of the above

A21.6

Two point charges and a point P lie Charge #1

at the vertices of an equilateral –q

triangle as shown. Both point

charges have the same magnitude q

but opposite signs. There is nothing P

at point P. y

The net electric field that charges

+q

#1 and #2 produce at point P is in

x Charge #2

A. the +x-direction. B. the –x-direction.

C. the +y-direction. D. the –y-direction.

E. none of the above

Dipole E fields

Dipole E fields

Dipole E fields

Dipole E fields

Q21.7

Two point charges and a point P lie Charge #1

at the vertices of an equilateral –q

triangle as shown. Both point

charges have the same negative

charge (–q). There is nothing at P

point P. y

The net electric field that charges

–q

#1 and #2 produce at point P is in

x Charge #2

A. the +x-direction. B. the –x-direction.

C. the +y-direction. D. the –y-direction.

E. none of the above

A21.7

Two point charges and a point P lie Charge #1

at the vertices of an equilateral –q

triangle as shown. Both point

charges have the same negative

charge (–q). There is nothing at P

point P. y

The net electric field that charges

–q

#1 and #2 produce at point P is in

x Charge #2

A. the +x-direction. B. the –x-direction.

C. the +y-direction. D. the –y-direction.

E. none of the above

Field of a charged line segment Example 21.10

• Line of charge => use l as Charge/Meter = Q/2a

• Set up dQ = l dy; find field dEx and dEy at P (in x and y

separately) from kdQ/r2

• Integrate from y = -a to +a (Check out Youtube)

Field of a charged line segment Example 21.10

• Find E = Ex only = kQ/x(x2+a2)½ (+x direction)

• For a >>x, E = k(Q/a)/x[(x/a)2+1)]½ ~ k(Q/a)/x ~ 2k l/ x

• So for LONG wire, field nearby goes as 1/r…

Q21.9

distributed around a semicircle.

The electric field that this

charge produces at the center

of curvature P is in

A. the +x-direction.

B. the –x-direction.

C. the +y-direction.

D. the –y-direction.

E. none of the above

A21.9

distributed around a semicircle.

The electric field that this

charge produces at the center

of curvature P is in

A. the +x-direction.

B. the –x-direction.

C. the +y-direction.

D. the –y-direction.

E. none of the above

Field of a ring of charge

• Example 21.9 - a uniform ring of charge.

• Any continuous charge distribution – INTEGRALS!

• Always start with a small “dQ”, and calculate dF or dE

created from that dQ.

• Remember dF & dE are still VECTORS!

Field of a ring of charge

• Example 21.9 - a uniform ring of charge.

• Use l as Charge/Meter for “charge density” [C/m]

• dQ = l (charge density) x ds (length of segment)

• dQ = l (Coulombs/meter) x ds (meters) = Coulombs

Field of a uniformly charged disk

• Example 21.11 – Superposition of multiple rings!

• Surface of charge – use s = Charge/Area = Q/pR2

• Find dQ = s dA where dA = (2pr)dr

Field of a uniformly charged disk

• Find dQ = s dA where dA = (2pr)dr

• dEx = [kdQ/(x2 + r2)]cos(q)

q

q

Field of a uniformly charged disk

• Ex = k2sp[ 1 - 1 ] (+x direction)

[(R2/x2) +1]

Field of two oppositely charged infinite sheets

• Example 21.12- Superposition of two sheets

Electric field lines

whose tangent at any point is the direction of the electric

field vector at that point.

Electric field lines of point charges

• Figure 21.28 below shows the electric field lines of a single point

charge and for two charges of opposite sign and of equal sign.

Q21.8

The illustration shows the electric field lines due to three

point charges. The electric field is strongest

together.

B. where the field lines are

farthest apart.

C. where adjacent field lines are

parallel.

D. none of the above

A21.8

The illustration shows the electric field lines due to three

point charges. The electric field is strongest

together.

B. where the field lines are farthest

apart.

C. where adjacent field lines are

parallel.

D. none of the above

Dipole Moments (Torques!)

but opposite sign and separated by a distance.

Electric field of a dipole creates a dipole moment

• What is the field ABOVE the positive charge??

Force and torque on a dipole

• Figure below left shows the force on a dipole in an electric field.

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