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Lte is an end to end enhancement to the

existing UMTS architecture.lte is implemented


using EPS(evolved packet system) architecture
.
The EPS comprises the EPC(evolved packet
core) & eutran(evolved UTRAN).
 Lte eUTRAN has enb(evolved node B) & a
new air interface is based on
OFDMA(Orthogonal frequency division
multiple Access)/SC-FDMA(single carrier
frequency division multiple Access).
 EPC is packet switch which supports inter-
working across different 3GPP & non3GPP
access technologies.
 High data rate
Lte support high data rate of 100 mbps in
downlink & 50 mbps in uplink.
 Spectrum flexibility
Lte support flexible carrier bandwidth from
1.4MHZ,3MHZ,5MHZ,10MHZ,15MHZ & 20MHZ.
It also support FDD & TDD.
 Radio network latency
Reduction of RAN latency.
 The target latency in lte are <= 5 ms for user
plane and 100 ms for control plane.
 Control plane latency is measured as the
time taken to transition from idle state to
active state.
 User plane latency is measured by the time
taken by packet of zero data length to be
send from IP layer of UE to the IP layer in
the base station, or vice versa.
 Spectrum Efficiency
The spectrum efficiency in the downlink will
be 3 to 4 times that of HSDPA & 2 to 4 times
that of HSUPA.
 Interworking
LTE support interworking with both 3GPP & non
3GPP technologies.
 Enhanced QOS
 Seamless mobility
 ALL IP
Interface are based on IP protocol. This
means that all services will be delivered
through packet connections, including
voice.Thus , EPS
provides savings for operators by using a
single-packet network for all services.lte
support both IPV4 & IPV6 Connectivity.
 Minimize the system & UE complexities,
allow flexible spectrum deployment in
existing or new frequency spectrum and to
enable co-existence with other 3gpp RAT.
 LTE is define to support flexible carrier BW
from 1.4MHZ to 20MHZ for both FDD & TDD
deployment. This means an operator can
introduce lte in both new & existing bands.
BANDS UPLINK (MHZ) DOWNLINK(MHZ)
1 1920-1980 2110-2170
2 1850-1910 1930-1990
3 1710-1785 1805-1880
4 1710-1755 2110-2155
5 824-849 869-894
6 830-840 875-885
7 2500-2570 2620-2690
BANDS UPLINK(MHZ) DOWNLINK(MHZ)
8 880-915 925-960
9 1750-1785 1845-1880
10 1710-1770 2110-2170
11 1428-1453 1476-1501
12 698-716 728-746
13 777-787 746-756
14 788-798 758-768
15 704-716 734-746
BANDS UL/DL(MHZ)
33 1900-1920
34 2010-2025
35 1850-1910
36 1930-1990
37 1910-1930
38 2570-2620
39 1880-1920
40 2300-2400
 MME(Mobility management entity).
 S-GW(Serving gateway).
 P-GW( packet data network gateway).
 HSS(Home subscriber server ).
 PCRF(policy & charging resource or rules
function).
 The evolved UTRAN (eUTRAN) architecture
consist of eNBs(evolved Node Bs).
 The eNBs are interconnected by the X2
interface. which can be used for inter eNB
handover.
 Radio Resource Management(RRM) is the
main functionality of eNB. It includes radio
bearer control, radio admission control,
scheduling & radio resource allocation in
both uplink & downlink
 eNB is also responsible for transfer of paging
messages,CCH information over the air.
 The enodeB perform ciphering/deciphering
of the UP data & also IP header
compression/decompression which means
avoiding repeatedly sending the same or
sequential data in IP header.
 Measurement reporting, configuration for
mobility and scheduling.
 The eNB are interconnected to the MME by
S1-MME interface & S-GW by the S1-U
interface.S1-MME is responsible for transfer
of signaling message between eNB &
MME,S1-U is responsible for transfer of user
data between eNB and S-GW & inter-eNB
path switching during handover.
 The eNBS & the EPC have a many-to-many
relationship to support load sharing &
redundancy among MMEs & S-GWs. eNB
selects a MME from group of MMEs & load can
be shared by multiple MMEs to avoid
congestions
 It handles signalling functionality, it manages
mobility.
 MME tracks & maintains the current location
of UEs.This allows MME to page a mobile.
 It is also involved in MME selection for inter
MME handovers,S10 interface between MME’S
provides MME relocation & MME to MME
information transfer.
 MME selects SGSN & Performs inter CN nodes
signalling for inter 3GPP handovers
 MME manages UE identities & security
related parameters
 It also plays a vital role in user
authentication & for that it consults HSS on
S6a interface which enables transfer of
subscription & authentication data to MME
 Based on subscription data MME selects PDN
GW & then SGW & finally establishes a
bearer between UE & PDN-GW.
 Itis basically define to handle user data
functionality & is involved in routing &
forwarding of data packet to P-GW via S5.
 S5 interface can be GTP based or PMIP based
& is also used for S-GW relocation due to UE
mobility.
 S-GW is connected to eNB via S1-U interface
which provides user plane tunneling & inter-
eNB handovers.
 S-GW performs mobility anchoring for Inter-
3GPP mobility on S4 interface which
connects S-GW & 2.5/3G SGSN.
 S-GW is also responsible for Lawful
Interception,accouting on user.
 A many-to-many S1 interface provided
between the eNBs & MME/S-GW supports
redundancy/load sharing of network nodes.
 Load sharing of MMEs enables mobility of aUE
with in a geographical area without changing
the MME.
 Redundancy provided on the S1 interface
improves the reliability of the network. A
many to many S1 interface in LTE helps to
support the radio network sharing by
multiple operators.
 The PDN Gateway is the node that connects
the UE to external PDN’S & as the UE’s default
router.
 A UE may be connected to multiple PDNs
through one or more PDN Gateway.
 A PDN-GW is responsible for anchoring the user
plane mobility within the LTE/EPC network as
well as for inter-RAT handovers.
 A PDN-GW function as a mobile IP Home
Agent(HA)when interworking between LTE &
non-3GPP access network such as EVDO &
WIMAX.
 The PDN Gateway may be responsible for the
allocation of an IP address to the UE during
default EPS bearer setup. Packet filtering of
user traffic may be implemented at P-GW in
support of QOS differentiation between
multiple IP flows.
 The S7 interface provides transfer
of(QOS)policy & charging rules from the
policy(PCRF) to P-GW.The policy rules
indicate whether the P-GW Should grant
resource reservation request & if it is
allowed to process packets for given IP flow
 HSS is a user data base that stores
subscription related information to support
other call control & session management
entities.
 It is storehouse for user identification,
numbering & service profile. It is mainly
involved in user authentication &
authorization.
 During registration MME talks to HSS via S6a
interface for user authentication &
ciphering. The HSS generates security
information for mutual authentication,
integrity check& ciphering & can also provide
information about the user physical location.
 The PCRF functionalities include policy control
decision & flow based charging control.PCRF is
the main QOS control entity in the network.
 It is responsible for building the policy rules that
will apply to user services & passing the rules to
the PDN-GW via S7 interface.
 The PCRF may use the subscription information
as basic for the policy & charging control
decision.
The NAS PROTOCOL are
 EMM
 ESM
EMM(EPS MOBILITY MANAGEMENT)
 The EMM protocol is responsible for handling
the UE mobility within the system. It
includes functions for attaching to and
detaching from the network.
 performing location updating in between.
This is called Tracking Area Updating(TAU),
and it happens in idle mode. Note that the
handovers in connected mode are handled by
the lower layer protocols.
 Authentication and protecting the UE identity,
i.e. allocating the temporary identity GUTI to
the UE are also part of the EMM layer, as well as
the control of NAS layer security functions,
encryption and integrity protection.
ESM(EPS session management)
 This protocol may be used to handle the bearer
management between the UE and MME, and it is
used in addition for E-UTRAN bearer
management procedures.
 Radio Resource Control (RRC): This protocol is in
control of the radio resource usage. It manages
UE’s signalling and data connections, and
includes functions for handover.
 Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP): The
main functions of PDCP are IP header
compression (UP), encryption and integrity
protection (CP only).
 Radio Link Control (RLC): The RLC protocol is
responsible for segmenting and concatenation of
the PDCP-PDUs for radio interface transmission.
It also performs error correction with the
Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) method.
 Medium Access Control (MAC): The MAC layer is
responsible for scheduling the data according to
priorities, and multiplexing data to Layer 1
transport blocks. The MAC layer also provides
error correction with Hybrid ARQ.
 Physical Layer (PHY): This is the Layer 1 of LTE-
Uu radio interface that takes care of DS-CDMA
Layer functions.
 The S1 interface connects the E-UTRAN to
the EPC, and involves the following
protocols:
 S1 Application Protocol (S1AP): S1AP handles
the UE’s CP and UP connections between the
E-UTRAN and EPC, including participating in
the handover when EPC is involved.
 SCTP/IP signalling transport: The Stream
Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) and
Internet Protocol (IP) represent standard IP
transport suitable for signalling messages.
SCTP provides the reliable transport and
sequenced delivery functions.
 In the EPC, there are two alternative protocols
for the S5/S8 interface. The following protocols
are involved, when GTP is used in S5/S8:
 • GPRS Tunneling Protocol, Control Plane (GTP-
C): It manages the UP connections in the EPC.
This includes signalling the QoS and other
parameters. If GTP is used in the S5/S8
interface it also manages the GTP-U tunnels.
GTP-C also performs the mobility management
functions within the EPC, e.g. when the GTP-U
tunnels of a UE need to be switched from one
node to the other.
 UDP/IP transport. The Unit Data Protocol (UDP)
and IP are used as the standard and basic IP
transport. UDP is used instead of Transmission
Control Protocol (TCP) because the higher layers
already provide reliable transport with error
recovery and re-transmission. IP packets in EPC
may be transported on top of a variety of L2 and
L1 technologies. Ethernet and ATM are some
examples.
 The following protocols are used, when S5/S8 is
based on PMIP:
 Proxy Mobile IP (PMIP): PMIP is the alternative
protocol for the S5/S8 interface. It takes care of
mobility management, but does not include
bearer management functions as such. All traffic
belonging to a UE’s connection to a particular
PDN is handled together.
 • IP: PMIP runs directly on top of IP, and it is
used as the standard IP transport.
 Logical channels =characterized by information
that is transferred.
 Transport channels= characterized by how the
data is transferred over radio interface.
 Physical channels=Time slot is physical channels
 Logical channels is classified into control &
traffic
 Control logical channels(carry control plane
information)
 BCCH=DL channel for broadcasting system
control information.
 CCCH=UL channel for transmitting control
information & used by UE without RRC
connection
 PCCH= DL Channel for transferring paging
information.
 MCCH(multicast control channel)=DL point to
multipoint for transmitting MBMS control
information.
 DCCH= DL point to point bi-directional channel
for exchanging control information & used by
UEs with RRC connection.
 Traffic logical channel(carry user plane
information)
 DTCH= Bi-directional channel dedicated to single
UE.
 MTCH(Multicast traffic channel)=DL point to
multipoint channel for transmission of MBMS
data
 TRANSPORT CHANNEL
 Downlink channel
 Uplink channel
 Downlink Transport channel
 BCH= It is a downlink broadcast channel that is
used to broadcast the necessary system
parameters to enable devices accessing the
system ,Such parameters include, for example,
random access related parameters that inform
the device about which resource elements are
reserved for random access operation.
 Paging Channel (PCH)=It is used for carrying the
paging information for the device in the
downlink direction to move the device from a
RRC_IDLE state to a RRC_CONNECTED state.
 Multicast Channel (MCH)=It is used to transfer
multicast service content to the UE in the
downlink direction. 3GPP has decided to
postpone the full support beyond Release 8.
 Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH)= It carries
the user data for point-to-point connections in
the downlink direction. All the information
(either user data or higher layer control
information) intended for only one user or UE is
transmitted on the DL-SCH, assuming the UE is
already in the RRC_CONNECTED state.
As in LTE, however, the role of BCH is mainly for
informing the device of the scheduling of the
system information; control information
intended for multiple devices is carried on DL-
SCH as well. In case data on DL-SCH are
intended for a single UE only, then dynamic link
adaptation and physical layer retransmissions
can be used.
 Uplink Transport channel
 Random Access Channel (RACH) is used in the
uplink to respond to the paging message or to
initiate the move from/to the RRC_CONNECTED
state according to UE data transmission needs.
There is no higher layer data or user data
transmitted on RACH (such as can be done with
WCDMA) but it is used just to enable uplink-SCH
transmission where, for example, actual
connection set-up with authentication, etc. will
take place.
 Uplink Shared Channel (uplink-SCH) It carries
the user data as well as device originated
control information in the uplink direction in
the RRC_CONNECTED state. Similar to the DL-
SCH, dynamic link adaptation and
retransmissions are available.
 Physical channel
PBCH=Physical broadcast channel.BCH is mapped
to PBCH.
PDSCH=Physical downlink shared channel.PCH &
DL-SCH is mapped to PDSCH.
PRACH=Physical random access channel. RACH is
mapped to PRACH.
 PUSCH= Physical uplink shared channel. UL-SCH
is mapped to PUSCH.
 PMCH=Physical multicast channel.MCH is
mapped to PMCH.
 MMEC:The MME code is a code identifying the
MME in its group.This identifier is only unique
within the MME Group.
 MME Group Identity(MMEGI):The MMEs in a PLMN
may be divided into groups in a geographic
region. This identifier is only unique within the
PLMN.
 MMEI: Is constructed from an MMEGI & an MME
Code(MMEC).This identifier is only unique within
the PLMN.
 GUMMEI:The Globally unique MME Identifier is
constructed from MCC,MNC & MMEI