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Four Stroke Engine

Operation
Four stroke cycle
Intake stroke

Piston moving down


Intake valve open
Exhaust valve closed

2
Four stroke cycle

Compression stroke

Piston moving up
Intake valve closed
Exhaust valve closed

3
Four stroke cycle
Power stroke

Piston moving down


Intake valve closed
Exhaust valve closed

4
Four stroke cycle
Exhaust stroke

Piston moving up
Intake valve closed
Exhaust valve open

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Four stroke cycle
(Petrol)
• Each stroke takes 180° of
crankshaft rotation to complete
• All cylinders fire in 720° of
crankshaft rotation
• 720 divided by number of
cylinders = firing interval
• Odd fire V-6 engine (90° block
with 120° rod journals)

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Four stroke cycle
(Diesel)

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Fuel Injection System

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Fuel Pump
(Diesel)

Rotary Type Pump Inline Type Pump

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Fuel Feed Pump

Draw fuel from tank and


feed to injection pump

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Engine Cooling System

Engine heat is transferred


through walls of the
combustion chambers and
through the walls of cylinders

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Piston Dwell Time
Piston travel is at a minimum
TDC and BDC
Crank moves horizontally
Piston velocity
Maximum when rod is 90° to crank
Acceleration
Maximum 30° earlier

Best VE is obtained by synchronizing valve


opening with piston speeds
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Other Valve Position
Overlap
• Both valves are open
• End of exhaust & start of intake
• Low pressure in exhaust port

Blow down
• Exhaust valve opens before BDC
• To help evacuate cylinder before piston
reverses
• Pumping losses at end of exhaust
stroke
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Valve Mechanism

• Intake valve opening


BTDC
Low pressure in cylinder Intake valve closing
• Intake valve closing
ABDC
Cylinder pressure is effected by timing
• Exhaust valve opening
BBDC
Residual pressure helps blow down
• Exhaust valve closing
ATDC
Low pressure in exhaust port draws air in
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Effects On Valve Timing
Intake valve opening
Late – Reduced VE
Early – Dilution of intake with exhaust
Intake valve closing
Late – Reduces cylinder pressure
Early – Increases cylinder pressure
Exhaust valve opening
Late – Pumping losses
Early – Power reduction
Exhaust valve closing
Late – Reduces vacuum
Early – Reduces VE
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COMBUSTION
Spark ignition
Maximum cylinder pressure 15° ATDC
Tumble and swirl
Motion reduces misfires
Excess motion inhibits flow
AFR 14.7:1 at part throttle, 12.5:1 under load
Compression ignition
18:1 direct injection
23:1 pre-chambers for better starting
Compression heats to 800-1200 °F
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Valve Mechanism

OHV (overhead valve)


Pushrod configuration
Many reciprocating parts
Higher valve spring pressure required
Compact engine size compared to OHC
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Valve Mechanism

OHC (overhead cam)


Fewer reciprocating parts
Reduced valve spring pressure required
Higher RPM capability
Cylinder head assemblies are taller
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Valve Mechanism

Cam-in-head
No pushrods
Use rocker arms

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Valve lash compensators
Solid lifters
No internal parts
Periodic adjustment

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Valve lash compensators

Hydraulic lifters
To maintain zero lash
Quieter No periodic
adjustment
Anti-scuff additives
are required in oils

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Hydraulic lifter operation

Valve closed
• Oil flows through lifter
bore & past check
valve
• Plunger return spring
maintains zero lash
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Hydraulic lifter operation

Valve open
• Check valve seats
and limits the slippage
• Now operates as a
solid lifter

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Hydraulic lifter operation

Return to valve closed


• New oil enters the lifter
body
• This oil replaces oil
that has leaked
between plunger and
body (predetermined
leakage)
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Metering Device

Metering valve meters the


oil flow to the pushrod
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Timing Gear Wheel sets

Gear sets
• Cam and crank rotate in opposite directions
• Noisy if not free of burrs
• Helical and spur cut gears 26
Timing Belt sets

Timing chains
• Single and double roller
• Tension Pulley
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Timing Chain Drive

Timing belts
• Require maintenance
• Silent operation
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Engine Lubricating System

Lubrication with oil through pressure


to every moving parts
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Lubricating System

Splash and spray

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Lubricating System
Oil pan baffles
• To keep oil in sump during braking,
accelerating, and cornering

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Lubricating System
Oil pan windage tray
• To prevent oil aeration in the sump

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Lubricating System
Oil pumps
• Driven by distributors, gear
on camshaft, or crankshaft

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Lubricating System
Oil pumps with pressure relief valves
• Gear type pump
• Rotor type pump

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Lubricating System

Full flow oil filtering system

• Oil pump output flows


through filter first
• Bypass circuit for restricted
filters will allow oil to
flow to engine

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Diesel Engine
Advantages Disadvantages

• Higher engine torque • Engine noise


• Better fuel economy • Exhaust smell
• Long engine life • Hard start

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