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absorber

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PACKED TOWER DIAMETER

• The main parameter affecting the size of a

packed column is the gas velocity at which liquid

droplets become entrained in the exiting gas

stream.

specified gas and liquid flow rates.

gas flow rate (m/s or ft/sec) through the column

will increase.

PACKED TOWER DIAMETER

• If the gas flow rate through the column is gradually

increased (by using smaller and smaller diameter

columns), a point will be reached where the liquid

flowing down over the packing begins to be held in

the void spaces between the packing.

and the degree of mixing between the phases

decreases.

to completely fill the void spaces in the packing.

PACKED TOWER DIAMETER

• The liquid forms a layer over the top of the packing and no

more liquid can flow down through the tower.

between the phases is minimal.

velocity at which it occurs is the flooding velocity.

this problem.

• However, as the diameter increases, the cost of the tower

increases.

Common Practice

• Size a packed column diameter to operate below

flooding velocity, i.e., at a certain percent of the

flooding velocity.

through the columns is 50 to 75% of the flooding

velocity.

gas velocity will also be below the loading point.

Common Practice

• A common and relatively simple procedure for

estimating flooding velocity (thus, setting a

minimum column diameter) is to use a

generalized flooding and pressure drop

correlation.

relationship for a packed tower is in the

Sherwood correlation, shown in Figure 3

Figure 3: Generalized flooding and

pressure drop correlation

How to use Figure 3

• The “X” axis (or abscissa) is a function of the

physical properties of the gas and liquid streams,

expressed as:

• Where:

• L and G = mass flow rates (any consistent set of

units may be used as long as the term is

dimensionless); =density of the gas stream;

density of the absorbing liquid

How to use Figure 3

• Knowing the value of the abscissa, the value of

ordinate is read from the graph based on flooding

conditions.

determined from the Equation below:

How to use figure 3

• G' = mass flow rate of gas per unit cross-sectional

area of column, kg/m2 s

• ρg = density of the gas stream (kg/m3);

• ρl = density of the absorbing liquid, (kg/m3)

• gc = gravitational constant, 9.82 m/s2

• F = packing factor

• φ = ratio of specific gravity of the scrubbing liquid

to that of water

• • μl = viscosity of liquid.

How to use figure 3

• The value of G' at operating conditions is

determined by using the equation:

usually 50 to 75%.

• The cross-sectional area and the diameter of the

tower can then be determined

How to use figure 3

• Cross sectional area is given as

Packed Tower Height

• The height of a packed column refers to the depth

of packing material needed to accomplish the

required removal efficiency.

packing height required.

be required to remove SO2 than to remove

chlorine from exhaust stream using water as the

absorbent because chlorine is more soluble in

water than SO2.

Packed Tower Height

• Determining the proper height of packing is

important since it affects both the rate and

efficiency of absorption.

required packing height are based on

diffusion principles

Design equation for a gas-phase

controlled resistance

• Where:

• Z = height of packing (m);

• G' = mass flow rate of gas per unit cross-sectional area of

• column (g/m2s);

• KOG = overall mass-transfer coefficient based on the gas

phase (g-mol/h.m2.Pa);

• a = interfacial contact area (m2);

• P = pressure of the system (kPa)

• Y* = solute concentration in gas at equilibrium.

Design equation for a gas-phase

controlled resistance

• The term (G'/KOG.a.P) has the dimension of

meters and is defined as the height of a

transfer unit.

and represents the number of transfer units

needed to make up the total packing height.

Packed Tower Height

DETERMINATION OF NUMBER OF IDEAL STAGES

diagram can also be used to determine number

of ideal stages

It is practically used when there are only two

components in each phase

Figure 17.6 shows the operating line and

equilibrium curve for a typical gas absorber

The end of operating line are point a having

coordinates and point b, having coordinates

DETERMINING NUMBER OF IDEAL STAGES

DETERMINING NUMBER OF IDEAL STAGES

• If the stage is ideal, the liquid leaving is in equilibrium with the vapor

leaving, so the point must lie on the equilibrium curve

• This fact fixes point m, found by moving horizontally from point a to the

equilibrium curve

• The abscissa of point m is

• The operating line is now used

• It passes through all points having coordinates of the type

the operating line at point n.

• The step or triangle, defined by points a, m, and n represents one ideal

stage , the first one in this column.

the same construction

DETERMINING NUMBER OF IDEAL STAGES

DETERMINING NUMBER OF IDEAL

STAGES

• From the figure shown above; number of ideal

stages is 4 and fraction

• The fraction is calculated based on the

required change in x relative to the change

that would be made in a full step

• The fraction is given as

• Similar construction can be made based on

change in y

Worked example

Equilibrium data

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