# Schedule of Lecture

April 23, 2008 (8:30AM-5PM) (8:30AM Load Flow Studies 
Load Flow Analysis System¶s Loss Analysis 

Short Circuit Studies 

April 24, 2008 (7:30AM-3PM) (7:30AM Transformer Load Management  Distribution Reliability Analysis  Workshop

Topic Outline
A.1 Introduction  A.2 System Representation  A.3 Bus Admittance Matrix  A.4 Mathematical Formulation of Load Flow Problem  A.5 Power Flow Software  A.6 Application: Radial Distribution Feeder  A.7 Workshop on Load Flow Studies 

1 Introduction: Typical Power System .A.

Introduction«  Requirement for a successful power system operation (Normal balanced 3-phase steady state conditions) ± Generation supplies demand plus losses ± Bus voltage magnitudes remain close to rated values ± Generators operate within its power limits ± Lines and Transformers are not overloaded .

economic scheduling and exchange of power between utilities ± System is represented by an appropriate model and a solution algorithm determine the voltage profile in the system . operation.Introduction«  LOAD FLOW ± Basic tool for investigating power system operation under balanced 3-phase steady state 3conditions ± Backbone of power system analysis and design ± Necessary for planning.

2 System Representation  One-Line One- Diagram ± Simplified diagram of an electric system which is indicated by single line and standard symbols how the lines and associated apparatus of the system are connected together ± Supply in concise form the significant information about the system .A.

One-Line Diagram Apparatus Symbols Impedance Diagram .

Distribution Substation .

XFORMERS DIST.Distribution Substation: NPC M M M DIST. XFORMERS LOADS LOADS LOADS LOADS Feeder 1 Feeder 2 Feeder 3 Feeder 4 . XFORMERS DIST. XFORMERS DIST.

Simple Distribution Feeder .

 Per Unit System ± Per unit value of any quantity is the ratio of the quantity to its base expressed as a decimal ± Base quantities (3-phase): (3 Power: MVA  Voltage: KV(L-L) KV(L Current: kA  Impedance: ohm .System Representation..

single phase and three-phase powers.System Representation.  Advantages of Per Unit System ± Yields more meaningful and easily correlated data ± Network calculations are done in a much handier fashion with less chance of mixmixup between phase and line voltages. threeand primary and secondary voltages ..

8 + j0. 500 MVA..6) p.25p. The base for calculations is 20 kV. based on generator¶s nameplate rating of 18 KV.  Changing the base of per-unit quantities perZnew = [Zgiv][(KVbgiv/KVbnew)^2][MVAbnew/MVAbgiv]  Example 2: The reactance of a generator(X) is given as 0.System Representation.  Example 1: Find the per unit value of the complex power (8+j6) MVA with a power base of 10 MVA Sol: Sb = actual/base = (8+j6)/10 Sb = (0. 100 MVA.u. Find X on the new base .u.

corresponds to the generator that is first to respond to any power mismatch in the system .phase angle serves as reference and is normally set to zero .  Buses Classification Type 1: Swing Bus/Slack Bus .voltage magnitude and phase angle are specified in the load flow study .System Representation..

power and reactive power are specified . Synchronous condensers likewise fall under this category .buses to which the remaining generators in the system are connected.buses having no active generation .power and voltage magnitude are usually specified .Type 2: Generator Bus .voltage magnitude will be held constant for as long as reactive power can support the voltage Type 3: Load Buses .

ang Unknown: P. ang . Q Type 3: Load Bus G Specify: V. Q G Specify: P. P Unknown: ang.Summary of Bus Types Type 1: Swing Bus Type 2: Generator Bus G Specify: V. Q Unknown: V.

Load Models  Loads are generally modeled by specifying the real and reactive power that they draw from the system under normal conditions where bus voltage is near the nominal value L O A D S L = PL+ jQ L .

three winding transformers are represented using a star equivalent network For tap-changing under load(TCUL) transformers. tapthe position of the tap changer and the percent voltage change per tap-setting must be specified tap- . Transformer¶s magnetizing reactance and core loss are usually neglected ThreeThree-phase . two-winding transformers are tworepresented using their equivalent impedance.Transformer Models     Three phase.

Line Models  Modeled as a nominal pi network Bus p zpq = rpq + j x pq Bus q y /2 c y /2 c Where: zpq= per phase impedance of the line y = shunt admittance which represents c capacitance to ground of line section .

z pq= r pq+ jx pq p q q TWO WINDING TRANSFORMER zq p z p z r r THREE WINDING TRANSFORMER .

Static Capacitors/Reactors Model    Capacitors and reactors are used to alleviate underunder-voltages and over-voltages. respectively overModeled as a constant impedance devices Shunt capacitors can be modeled by a constant reactive power .

A.3 Bus Admittance Matrix   Load flow studies are generally conducted using the busbusadmittance matrix. Ybus Ybus relates the currents injected into the system from the buses to the bus voltages I1 1 2 I2 System In + E1 + E2 + En n neutral bus An n-bus power system .

Y1n » « E1 » ¼¬E ¼ .« I1 » «Y11 Y12 ¬ I ¼ ¬Y Y22 2¼ 21 ¬ ¬ ¬. Y2 n ¼ ¬ 2 ¼ . . ¬. . . ¼!¬ . ¼¬ . . . . . Ynn ¼ ¬ En ¼ ½­ ½ [I] = [Ybus][E] = phasor current injected into bus p = phasor voltage-to-ground of bus p Ypq = element of Ybus . ¬ ¼ ¬ . . ¼ ¼¬ ¼ . ¬ I n ¼ ¬Yn1 Yn 2 ­ ½ ­ Where: Ip Ep . ¼¬ . ¼ .¼ ¬ .

Formulation of Ybus  If mutual inductance between lines are neglected: ± Main diagonal element Ypp is equal to the sum of all admittances connected to bus p ± Off-diagonal element Ypq is equal to the Offnegative of the sum of all admittances connecting buses p and q  Formation of Ybus is the first step in the load flow study .

.4 Mathematical Formulation of Load Flow Problem  Current Equation: n I p ! Y p1 E1  Yp 2 E2  .  Ypn En ! § Ypq Eq q !1  Complex Power Injected into bus p: n * * Pp  jQ p ! E p I * ! E p § Ypq Eq p q !1 Can be solved by numerical method (NewtonRaphson) ..A.

load. 0. and total mismatches dP and dQ after convergence . real and reactive power of each generator and load.A. line. the final values of each run are used as starting values for next run Bus output data include voltage magnitude and angle.001) or when number of iterations exceeds a maximum (say. line. and identification of buses with voltage magnitude more than 5% above or below that of swing bus.5 Power Flow Software           Computes voltage magnitude and angle at each bus in a power system under balanced three-phase steady state operation threeBus voltages are then used to compute generator. and transformer data which are given in per-unit on a common MVA base perBus admittance matrix is calculated from the input data The program uses the newton-raphson iterative method for which the newtontermination is set when magnitudes of all power mismatches are less than a tolerance level (say. 10) For single runs. and line loss totals. number of iterations to converge. and transformer loadings Input data for the program include bus. starting values of bus voltages are set equal to those of swing bus except for voltage-controlled bus voltageFor series of runs with input data changes. Line data include real and reactive power flows entering in the line terminals and identification of lines with MVA flows above their maximum ratings Other useful output include generation.

Power Flow Bus Data Power Flow Line Data Power Flow Transformer Data .

Power Flow Analysis Results .

A.6 Application: Radial Distribution Feeder .

.

One Line Diagram .

8 kV)2 / (10 MVA) = 19.8 kV SBase = 10 MVA ZBase = (13.5 ohms Region 2 VBase = 13.Per Unit Quantities Region 1 VBase = 345 kV SBase = 10MVA ZBase = (345 kV)2 / (10 MVA) = 11902.03991 Conductance = 0 Susceptance = 0.044 ohms Line 1 to Line 5 (Each Line is 2 km) Resistance = 0.2 Conductance = 0 Susceptance = 0 Maximum Power Rating = 0.5 Transformer Resistance = 0 Reactance = 0.5 Tap Setting = 1 .000076 Maximum Power Rating = 0.01995 Reactance = 0.

038 .08 Load Reactive Power = 0.Per Unit Quantities Bus 1 (Swing Bus) Voltage Magnitude = 1 Phase Angle = 0 Generator Real Power = unknown Generator Reactive Power = unknown Load Real Power = 0 Load Reactive Power = 0 Bus 2 to Bus 7 (Load Buses) Voltage Magnitude = 1 Phase Angle = 0 Generator Real Power = 0 Generator Reactive Power = 0 Load Real Power = 0.

Input Data .

0107 p.4907-0.u.48 = 0.Bus Output Data System¶s Loss = 0. = 107 kW .

Line Output Data .

Transformer Output Data .

Output Results Note: Voltage Limits and Maximum Ratings Exceeded!! Power System Needs Correction! Solution: Increase Transformer Tap Setting from 1.03 .0 to 1.

Input Data .

01 =100 kW .48 =0.Bus Output Data System¶s Loss = 0.49-0.

Line Output Data .

Transformer Output Data .

Output Results Before Tap Changing After Tap Changing Note: Voltage Limits And Maximum Ratings Are Still Exceeded!! System Still Needs Correction! Solution: Install a 1980 kVAR Shunt Capacitor at Bus 2 .

038 pu ± 0.198 pu 0.16 pu .Input Data Computation: 1980 kVAR / 10 MVA = 0.198 pu = -0.

Bus Output Data System¶s Loss = 0.48 =0. = 91 kW .4891-0.u.0091 p.

Line Output Data .

Transformer Output Data .

Tap Changing Transformers and Shunt Capacitors .

 A tap point having a longer winding has a higher voltage.Tap Changing Transformers  Different tap points are at different voltages. .

.  Addition of a shunt capacitor decreases the reactive power drawn by the load effectively decreasing the current flowing between the source and the load.Shunt Capacitors  Reactive Power increases the current flowing between the source and the load.

.

038 pu) ± (1560 kVAR / 10 MVA) = -0.To Increase the Voltage Magnitude at Bus 4 by 5%.  Install a 1560 kVAR shunt capacitor at Bus 4 Computation: At Bus 4.118 pu . Load Reactive Power = (0.

Input Data .

Bus Output Data Percent Increase of Voltage Magnitude at Bus 4: ((1.696% § 5% .9859) / 0.0322 ± 0.9859) * 100 = 4.

Line Output Data .

Transformer Output Data .

A.7 Load Flow Workshop  Draw the appropriate one line diagram of your distribution system  Input relevant data on POWER FLOW software  Run POWER FLOW for the 5 years forecasted load obtained in the previous workshop  Analyze the results of each run and give recommendations .

SHORT CIRCUIT STUDIES .B.

1 Introduction  B.4 POWER WORLD Software  B.Topic Outline  B.2 Short Circuit Study Procedure  B.5 Workshop on Short Circuit Studies .3 Short Circuit Study Example  B.

B. just before circuit breakers are called upon to open the line on both sides of the fault  Short circuit studies are important on selection of CB¶s.1 Introduction Current flowing in different parts of a system immediately after a fault differs from that flowing a few cycles later. switchgear and settings of relays which control the CB¶s  Digital computer¶s are used effectively in the calculation of 3-phase short circuit at 3various points in the system  .

the internal voltages of all machines are equal to the prefault voltage Vf.B.2 Short Circuit Study Procedure  Knowledge of the One-Line and OneImpedance Diagram ± Power system operates under balanced steadysteadystate conditions before fault occurs ± Prefault load current is neglected. Because of this. Usually. Vf is set to 1 ± Transformer winding resistances and shunt admittances are neglected ± Line series resistances and shunt admittances are neglected ± All non-rotating impedance loads are neglected non- .

in series with the equivalent impedance of the network viewed from the same two terminals with all sources in the network in activated (that is. can be represented by a single voltage source equal to the open circuit voltage across any two terminal of interest. however complex. Thevenin¶s Equivalent ± Powerful circuit analysis tool based on the fact that any active linear network. voltage sources shorted and current sources opened) 20 ohm 5 ohm 6 ohm 4 = ohm 6 ohm 50V + - 25V + - 30V + - .



Types of Shunt Faults: 
3-Phase Faults 

Single-Line to Ground SingleFault 

Double-Line to Ground DoubleFault 

Line-Line Fault Line-

 Three-Phase Three-

Short Circuit Study 

For 3-phase faults, the fault currents 3are balanced and have only a positivepositivesequence network when calculating three phase fault current
If Zf

If = Vf/Zf
Vf

+ -

B.3 Short Circuit Study Example
Utility: Available fault current1000MVA@34.5KV

Sb = 10 MVA
51

52
3750 kVA, 34.5/4.18 kV, z=6%

Y
52
400 mm2: 5 KV Cu conductor (Amp=665A)

51

50/51

38 mm2: Cu conductor (Amp=190 A)

M

Ifl= 150A Ilr = 250A

CTR = 50  CT Ratios to be used    .u.448 A 34.36 A  4.16 kV: 1000:5.16 p.06*(10/3.01 p.u.16 kV: 520.5 kV: 150:5 . CTR = 30 4.8894 A  CT Selection  Full load amperes   34.75) = 0.Solution:  Per unit reactances:  Utility = 10/1000 = 0. CTR = 200 Motor: 250:5.16 kV: 8.163.5 kV: 16.  Available 3-phase currents: 3 34.  X¶mer = 0.755 A 4.734.5 kV: 62.

 Transformer Protection  Inrush Point:  Inrush (0.Solution.16 kV (feeder)«190 A 4.533 A  PEC Rule = 6Ifl   Cable Protection  Ampacity   4.75 sec  SC Withstand   Note: (I)^2/cmil = 0.064 A I(PEC) = 376..16 kV (feeder)«8200 A @ 48.5 sec 4.5 A  Starting Current: Ilr = 850 A . T1 = 75C  Motor Protection  Overload: 1.15Ifl = 172.1 S) = 12Ifl = 753.16 kV (feeder)«665 A 4.16 kV (feeder)«665 A @ 0.0297* log[(234+T2)/(234+T1)] T2 = 250C .

Short Circuit Study WorkShop .

Calculate the actual fault current for a 3-phase to ground fault at all buses  B.Problem: A. Open the POWER World Software and input the bus. Solve and animate the Load Flow  D. line and transformer data  C. Calculate the fault current for a 33phase to ground fault at all buses using POWER WORLD  Compare results in A and D by computing its MAPE  .

B.3 POWER WORLD SOFTWARE .